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Why do we need a second "Gender for" dummies "?
The idea of the first book was born several years ago in a group of scientists engaged in research in the field of gender sociology, but it was suggested by a talented social project manager Lyudmila Kabanova. As a person closely associated with solving practical problems, she knew that if scientific literature on gender studies is still being published, then there are books for “dummies” (in the best sense of the word), that is, people who are interested in gender relations, but are not sociologists, almost none. Their place is occupied by endless editions of various kinds of supposedly psychological literature, supplying readers (and even more often readers) with valuable “scientific” information that men and women, in fact, are inhabitants of different planets, which is the only way to build your relationship with a partner - this is a manipulation that men are “slaves of hormones” and cannot answer for their behavior in principle, etc. etc. (We did a detailed review of this literature in our first book.)
It is difficult to name the area of human relations, which would be shrouded in such a mass of myths and prejudices as the relationship of man and woman. Meanwhile, few people would not like to know more about this: after all, our lives are saturated with gender relations not only in the family, but also at work, in friendly companies - in general, everywhere, on all social platforms where people interact with each other.
Here, probably, you still need to say a few words about what gender is. Although this word is becoming more and more common not only in the scientific community, but also in the media, it is thought that not all people know its meaning for sure. For those who have not come across this term before and have not read our first book, we will give some explanations.
So, where did this word come from in Russian and what does it mean? The term “gender” is a transliteration of an English word denoting a grammatical gender, male or female. For the first time in a non-linguistic context, this term was used by the psychologist Robert Stoller, who published a work entitled “Sex and Gender” in 1968. The meaning of this separation of terms was to separate the social meanings of “masculinity” and “femininity” from biological gender differences. After all, we have not only biologically different bodies and reproductive functions - we are raised differently, we dress and behave differently. Moreover, we often apply for different jobs and career types (in any case, our employers often know for sure whether they want to see a man or a woman at each given workplace, although this can go far beyond just dragging heavy boxes or feeding little children). All these differences in our social behavior, if you think about it, are not so much connected with biology. Thus, the very idea of this term is to deny the complete biological determinability of relations between the sexes: there is a biological gender associated with the structure of the body, male or female, and there is gender, that is, “social gender”. Thus, initially, gender was understood as the cultural and social meanings of femininity and masculinity, while gender was biologically related to the differences between men and women.
In modern theories, however, such a division into sex and gender is increasingly being called into question, but this is not because the social gender is underestimated, but because the biological is rethought in many ways. A number of arguments were made in favor of the fact that both the biological definition of sex and the human body itself are perceived not only from everyday experience, but also through a system of certain social representations that someone has offered us knowledge, that is, through interaction with culture. In modern biology, it is customary to consider gender differences not as two separate worlds that are rigidly divided among themselves, but rather as a kind of continuum on which female and male sexual characteristics are located. Different uncertainties and intermediate cases on this continuum are not so rare (in any case, enough to cause serious concern of the International Olympic Committee, which recently began to demand that women athletes pass the test for the absence of the male chromosome, although this test does not always help). Gender and gender are increasingly seen as interacting rather than opposed categories. Indeed, a strict separation of the properties of the world around us into natural and cultural, biological and social, innate and acquired, is not the essence of the universe, but just a feature of our thinking, sometimes severely limiting our understanding of the essence of things.
Is a term necessary in this case? Isn’t it easier to get along with the single concept of “gender”? Well, some authors adhere to this point of view, trying to avoid the newly invented foreign word. But we do not share their position, if only because this word has already entered the Russian language. So, in the practice of the work of such an important state institution as the Goskomstat, there is a heading “gender statistics”, research institutions engaged in research in the field of relations between the sexes are called centers for gender studies, and the term “gender” is increasingly used in popular science literature and more often.
The term “gender” has another important semantic connotation that is not included in the concept of “gender”: it is a product of a scientific theory that comprehends gender inequality, therefore, its use itself suggests that we recognize the existence of this inequality and power relations between the sexes. The fact is that men and women are not only different, but also unequal people, and this inequality regarding their capabilities, personal destinies and even how they are spoken and thought of permeates all spheres of life.
Thus, gender is something more than just an individual’s property, it is primarily a part of social relations, one of the important elements of social structure.
We wrote about this in our previous book - simply “Gender for Dummies”, without a number. It talked about those things that seemed to us the most important for getting to know this topic - about the relationship between biological and social, about stereotypes, about social rules that govern the relations of men and women at home and at work, about specific problems that cause gender inequality not only for women, but also for men (and often men have to pay even a higher price for this inequality), about how feminism arose and whether one should be afraid of it, and much more. Our book was published in 2006 and, as befits a book, healed his life ...
Since then we have received a lot of feedback, the most diverse. Someone thanked for the release of this book, someone irritated it, but most often these were questions. It turned out that we did not write about many things important and interesting for our readers. This became especially noticeable when our book formed the basis of the distance education course prepared by the Social Information Agency. During the online discussion that I had to lead at the end of this course, it became especially clear that the book was in demand and needed by specialists, students, and simply interested readers. And at the same time, we realized that, firstly, it is naturally imperfect, and secondly, this book alone is not enough. Moreover, over the past years, new studies have been carried out, new laws have been adopted that affect both men and women, a bunch of new books and films have been published - all about this ... And then we decided: the work should be continued.
It is impossible not to say that there were people whose book provoked a protest, and the most interesting is that not all of them read it. I recall in this connection the characteristic discussion that took place at the Central House of Scientists with the participation of several authors of the previous book (a note about this discussion was published on polit.ru - http://www.polit.ru/science/2008/04/09/gender. html). Some participants in the discussion were suspicious of the very fact of the book’s publication, reasonably suggesting that the term “gender” is associated with the idea of gender inequality and injustice, as well as a critical assessment of the current state of women's rights and opportunities in Russia. Indeed, the very formulation of the theme often sees a threat to the “foundations”, traditions, and, with a certain degree of imagination, even political stability. So, one of the speakers, who introduced himself as an adviser to the State Duma Committee on Security, kept asking whether this book was written about what an ideal family model should be, and, finding that it wasn’t, he was genuinely surprised: “Why write such books? ! " It was not possible to convince him that an ideal family model suitable for all Russians could not exist in principle, no matter how politicians would like it to be. And then it would be convenient: he invited scientists, they drew a model, and it became clear to all men and women how they needed to live, how many children they had, and what else they could lay claim to in life! It only remained then to introduce it as a legislative initiative and introduce it in the subjects of the Federation ...
It was also said that our book reflects an exclusively female point of view, since there are no men among its authors (this, by the way, is not entirely true: the previous book, like this one, was illustrated by the artist Adgur Dzidzaria). To be honest, we didn’t really think about this when we wrote - there are much more women than men in social sciences in general, and this in itself is a characteristic gender feature of the scientific world. But the remark was accepted: already the “gender-mixed” collective took part in the work on the second book!
The tension that always arises when gender issues become the subject of public discussion is, of course, far from accidental. No matter how much you talk about fidelity or betrayal of traditions, biological purpose or even divine will (as if someone has documents at their disposal where all these wonderful things are clearly and unequivocally recorded), in fact, talking about gender is always talking about power . And not only about the power of men over women: gender hierarchies also exist between men. And the question of gender asymmetry is associated not only with the fact that it is more difficult for women to make a career or have to wash the dishes more: it lies at the base of such various social problems as, for example, prostitution, bullying in the army, domestic violence and psychological deprivation. Manifestations of gender inequality are many-sided and not always noticeable even to the victims of traumatic situations themselves - but they do not become happier from this.
In general, the issue of gender balance of power is not so simple and linear. The dominance of men does not extend evenly across all spheres of life: somewhere it is obvious, somewhere it is disputed, somewhere it is gradually supplanted. Women have their own characteristic resources, power resources and power strategies. An article written by Elena Zdravomyslova and Anna Temkina is devoted to this topic. Indeed, from the monuments of world culture, and from folk proverbs, and from everyday conversations, one can learn so much about female cunning and duplicity, or, if you look from a more favorable angle, about female cunning and diplomacy, about the very “neck” that twists “ the head of the family ”and knows how to comply with his interests, never coming to the fore. Speaking in a modern and scientific language, all these clever maneuvers can be described with the word “manipulation”. Women know how to manipulate men, “pull them by the strings”, like puppets ... Why is this so? The authors of the article answer this question, explaining that manipulation is a typical manifestation of the "power of the weak." Indeed, although women in Russia - as in the vast majority of countries of the world - the Constitution guarantees full equality of rights and opportunities with men, in fact, our country - like almost all others (except, perhaps, the Scandinavian states) - remains a country of patriarchy. This means that most of the resources expressed in material wealth, political influence, access to the best jobs and the most prestigious social positions are mainly at the disposal of men, and there are very few exceptions.
Does this mean that women under the patriarchy are completely ousted from all positions and destitute? Of course not. But they have to make a certain “agreement” with men, which A. Temkina and E. Zdravomyslova, after the sociologist Denise Candiotti, call the “patriarchal deal”. Such a deal implies that men and women follow the distribution that has developed in society into “dominant” and “subordinate” social roles and receive benefits using their available resources. But for the weaker part of society, payment for guarantees of protection and security implies a disproportionate restriction of opportunities, unconditional adherence to the prescribed roles and maintenance of the strong. In this situation, manipulation for those in a subordinate position is the only way to protect their interests. This strategy does not bring anything good to the relationship between people: one part always feels dependent, and the other always deceived ...
Where did the patriarchy come from? The most common answer to this question, which can be heard from a more or less well-read interlocutor, is: “How where? Why, he replaced matriarchy in ancient times, in the course of social development. ” That is how greetings come to us from the middle of the 19th century - from Engels, who represented the course of history in this way (although he was very negative about the patriarchy, considering it the first manifestation of inequality and oppression). However, in fact, the matriarchy was “invented” by the Swiss literary critic Jacob Bachofen, who, however, used a different term to describe it. The myth of matriarchy, like other historical myths about the nature of gender relations, is analyzed in detail in our book by historian Natalya Pushkareva. It shows how far the conventional wisdom about the place of man and woman in history is far from real archaeological and documentary evidence. The familiar image of a man hunting for a mammoth to feed his family is little similar to prehistoric reality: after all, mammoths became extinct long before the start of the formation of human society!
In general, the story that we are used to presenting is largely the story of men, written by them on the basis of their social experience and reflecting their assessments of events. One cannot say, for example, that women had a renaissance: to them this era, in any case, did not bring any glory. Yes, and the Athenian civilization, which is usually spoken of as “democratic”, implied the maintenance of women in gyneques (the female half of the houses) and the complete exclusion from politics ... Thus, the “second half of history”, namely, the history of the female , much remains to be written. And maybe then those historical lessons that are still unlearned, making politicians from different countries regularly step on the same rake, will become more understandable ...
In the "Gender for Dummies-2" quite a lot of attention is also paid to issues of demography. It so happened that in modern Russia, the topic of gender relations was suddenly very politicized, moreover, from a demographic point of view. Any public presentation of the issue of overcoming gender discrimination and the rights of women is inevitably considered taking into account whether all this contributes to an increase in the birth rate. Moreover, many politicians, ideologists, and cultural figures, not to mention representatives of religious organizations, unequivocally believe that it just does not help: as soon as women get enough rights and opportunities, they stop giving birth to children in sufficient numbers (sufficient, of course, not with their points of view, and in the context of geopolitical interests), and the nation, therefore, is dying out ... This is one of the most important “moral panic” of today, a favorite topic of conservative political rhetoric.
In this situation, it is especially important to understand what is really happening with the population movement in Russia and what led to such sad indicators (indeed, the birth rate in Russia has fallen by 5.4 times since the beginning of the 20th century). Alexey Belyanin and Olga Isupova consider the problem of low fertility not only in demographic, but also in historical, and sociological terms. And this allows you to see many interesting facts: few people know, for example, that, despite the much lower level of development of medicine, in the first quarter of the 20th century, about 18% of all births were accounted for by mothers aged 40 to 50 years. Thus, at the beginning of the last century, almost every woman of this age gave birth to one child on average (that is, if someone after 40 did not give birth at all, then some other woman gave birth to two or more). Today, this figure has fallen to 1 child per 100 women! The chapter also provides interesting comparative data: in terms of the birth rate, Russia appears to be in 177th place in the world, that is, alas, closer to the end of the list. Впрочем, в начале этого списка находятся почти исключительно страны третьего мира, начиная с Нигера...
Другой очень важный момент в этой главе связан с анализом причин депопуляции. На основании статистических данных авторы показывают, что по уровню рождаемости Россия все же несущественно отличается от других европейских стран: снижение числа детей в семье характерно для всех развитых индустриальных обществ. Более того, многие демографы считают, что снижение рождаемости рано или поздно наступит и в тех странах, где сейчас рожают помногу. Таким образом, нравится это нам или нет, мы находимся в рамках общей тенденции. Но вот что серьезно отличает Россию от других стран, так это уровень смертности. По средней продолжительности жизни наша страна очень сильно отстает от десятки наиболее развитых стран мира (США, Бельгия, Канада, Норвегия и др.) — на 15—19 лет для мужчин и на 7—12 лет для женщин. И пока средняя продолжительность жизни россиян составляет всего 66,7 лет, а средний мужчина и вовсе не доживает до пенсионного возраста, депопуляция не может быть остановлена даже путем повышения рождаемости. Тем более ничто не предвещает резкого увеличения рождаемости! И хотя меры, направленные на поддержку материнства (в частности, закон о «материнском капитале»), дают свои результаты, пока можно говорить не о демографическом росте, а всего лишь о замедлении темпов спада.
A family with two children remains “normal” for today's Russia, and it is unlikely that anything will change soon: most modern Russians simply do not have motives to start large families. A. Belyanin and O. Isupova analyze in sufficient detail why this happens ...
The theme is continued and developed by Olga Isupova and Igor Kon in an article exploring directly motherhood and fatherhood. She begins with a historical review by O. Isupova of a change in ideas about “right” motherhood and its role in the life of a woman. It is generally accepted that motherhood has always been and remains the main purpose of a woman, the meaning of her life. Conservatives, who believe that the gender goal is to return to our ancient "roots", are particularly pressing on this, and then it is certain that everything will fall into place and women will find their "lost essence". In fact, the ideology of comprehensive and responsible motherhood, when the main business of a woman’s life is caring for children, developed only in the XVI-XVIII centuries. In feudal Europe, for example, women were expected, above all, loyalty and obedience to men - including to the detriment of children, even if this led to their death. Moreover, women in agricultural societies simply had to work very hard and physically could not properly concentrate on children. And only by the middle of the XIX century the ideology of motherhood was finally formed in the form in which we know it ... but after another hundred years, it began to seem to many women as “overloaded”. Since the middle of the twentieth century, women have gradually discovered other aspects of life for themselves and understand the need to find some balance between motherhood and work, motherhood and relations with the spouse, and finally motherhood and leisure, life pleasures. Of course, this has affected the decline in fertility. But individualization of lifestyles was even more affected here: women began to strive to give birth to children not because it was so “supposed”, and not so much as “laid”, but only as they felt the need for it. The article discusses the motives that influence a woman’s decision to have or not have a child, analyzes the modern meanings of motherhood.
The part of the article devoted to fatherhood was written by perhaps the most famous gender research specialist in Russia, Igor Kon. And again we saw that there was nothing eternal and unshakable in this concept: the idea of fatherhood, the responsibilities of fathers, their real behavior changed very much over time, even very recently. The author dwells in detail on the problems facing modern fathers in Europe and in Russia, from the preservation of their rights to communicate with children during divorce to the problem of how not to lose credibility in conditions of economic instability. I must say that the role of fathers in raising children has been underestimated for a very long time, and both the children and the fathers themselves, whose functions actually came down to material support for the family and the role of a certain symbolic figure, which should be respected, suffered from this. Now many fathers are trying in every possible way to overcome this emotional deprivation, trying to be much closer to their children. But this does not correlate well with socio-economic realities: after all, nobody has removed the tasks of making money from them, moreover, the idea of what costs are needed to adequately raise your child and give him an education is steadily increasing. And this is exactly the case when gender inequality hits men too hard ...
The theme of the family, of course, does not boil down solely to the theme of motherhood and fatherhood - relations between spouses are becoming increasingly important in modern families. An article written by Elena Zhidkova with the participation of Elena Zdravomyslova is devoted to these problems. Here we can find out what changes are taking place with this most important “unit of society” at the beginning of the new millennium, what challenges it faces, how it responds to them. The authors show that, despite the high number of divorces, family and marriage are still very important for most people; both men and women strive to live not in families, but in families. Another thing is that families have become very diverse in their composition and way of life. If a traditional family was comparable to an organization in which positions were initially set, subordination is clear, powers are distributed, now all families are not only unhappy, but also happy in different ways. The general laws that are true for all types of families are rather difficult to trace, but on the whole, studies make it possible to cautiously say that the child-centric family model is replaced when the main goal and meaning of family life was the birth and upbringing of children, a matrimonial model in which relations between spouses become the most important. Therefore, the emotional and sexual aspects of family life take on such a role; the demands of spouses to each other are growing. Modern gender realities most often suggest that both husband and wife work, while living separately from their parents' grandparents. This is a relatively new situation for Russia, because in Soviet times, the couple often lived with the older generation, who took care of the children, while the mother worked. Now for those who can afford it, the nanny often becomes the new “member of the family”. This is also a new and insufficiently studied phenomenon - the transfer of part of the traditional duties of a wife and mistress of the house into the hands of special employees. The article also touches on the “shadow” aspects of family life, in particular domestic violence, the level of which in Russia, unfortunately, is still very high. Every year, thousands of women (as well as children and elderly people of both sexes) become victims of domestic violence.
Sexuality, which has long ceased to be part of only family relations, no matter what this attitude is, is devoted to an article written by Igor Kon with the participation of Anna Temkina. This is also a very “hot” topic, causing a storm of emotions in modern Russian society. The separation of sexual behavior from reproductive, related to the birth of children, which occurred on a massive scale in the 60s of the last century, created a completely new gender situation, defined in due time by the term “sexual revolution”. Igor Kon describes the most characteristic trends in the change in the “post-revolutionary” sexual behavior of men and women. Its effects are ambiguous. On the one hand, people became freer, and this allowed them to live in greater harmony with themselves and their bodies. This is especially true for women who, for a long time, were not allowed decency to show their sexuality even in the family. On the other hand, of course, the risks also increased - both of a medical nature (primarily AIDS), and psychological. The belief that sexual relations can be temporary and will last only until the partners are interested in each other sexually creates a situation of insecurity and uncertainty.
The problem of sexual education of youth is very acute. Recent political trends in this regard boil down to the fact that such education should not exist at all, since it corrupts, and young people should return to traditional values and premarital abstinence from sex. Last year, for example, numerous posters appeared on the subway, convincing young people that “safe sex doesn’t happen”, condoms do not protect against any diseases, and the only way to maintain health is to keep marital fidelity. Obviously, it was supposed that in this way the AIDS epidemic would finally be stopped, developing, by the way, in Russia at an alarming rate (something that is not customary to talk about), and at the same time the birth rate will increase, since young people will have sex only in strong, healthy families .
How far these beautiful-hearted wishes are from reality, any person who has at least some idea of the realities of modern youth life understands. It is impossible to get the released genie back into the bottle, and young people, frightened by posters about dangerous sex, are unlikely to stop doing it, but they will probably become less likely to use condoms. With all conceivable consequences ...
However, a study by Anna Temkina on sexual practices of the modern generation suggests that at least a fairly rational, conscious attitude towards sexual life can be traced in the educated urban population. This is especially true for young women who seek control over their lives, including sexual ones. Caring for their health, including reproductive, they combine with a high motivation to achieve sexual satisfaction, and they present partners with the appropriate requirements. Young men, like women, seek to take into account individual and mutual needs in sexual relations, care about safe sex and pregnancy protection, plan a family and raise children, etc. This allows the researcher to conclude that the gender stage of sexual revolution, implying a high degree of equality and responsibility of both partners.
In addition to the family and personal aspects, gender relations, however, also have a political aspect. The influence of political processes on gender equality is analyzed in the article “Mission - Impossible?”, Written by Lyudmila Popkova with the participation of Alexei Kozlov. Probably, not all Russians understand that the fight against gender discrimination is not a private initiative of unbalanced feminists, but an area of public relations regulated by international law, which Russia has also ratified. So, in particular, refusing to accept a job on the grounds of “improper age and gender” is a crime, since in the Russian Federation all forms of discrimination, including on the basis of sex, are criminally punishable and fall under article 136 of the Criminal Code. How serious is this problem? According to the Federal Employment Service, in 2007, every second person faced direct discrimination in hiring, most often based on age and gender. But women often find themselves in a vulnerable labor situation in two ways at once: either she is too young and can become pregnant and become the mother of a small child, then she is already in “pre-retirement age” at the age of 45 and, according to personnel services, is not able to master innovations, completely give yourself to the cause.
Although women's rights to equal work and equal pay are guaranteed by the Russian Constitution, there is practically no real legal mechanism by which women can defend their rights. Much more attention is now being paid to ensuring that women regularly fulfill their reproductive function and thus solve the state demographic problem. Most educated Russian women want to have children, and in this sense their interests coincide with state ones, but they need professional self-realization, and just earning money (including in order to raise these children under normal conditions - rarely only the husband’s salary is enough). From our research, you can also learn how this dilemma “mother / professional” is solved in different countries of Europe.
Speaking about Russian politics, one cannot but notice the sad circumstance that nationalists, including radical ones, are becoming increasingly visible in the spectrum of political movements. They also have a keen interest in gender issues. Alexei Kozlov identifies different groups of nationalist organizations, depending on their vision of the “right” forms of gender relations. It is curious at the same time that Nazi-skinheads and related organizations are characterized by a peculiar recognition of the possibility of women's equal rights. This is the so-called "Aryan feminism", associated with the fact that women and girls play a significant role in the movement of skinheads of the National Socialists. It is worth noting that among the participants in racial and national attacks, which are most often practiced by Nazis, about a third are women. However, in general, this position is not typical for nationalists, since the idea of male domination is one of the pillars of radical nationalist ideology. Within the framework of this ideology, many “valuable ideas” are put forward, such as those that women (or, for example, childless spouses) must be deprived of their right to vote, that interethnic marriages must be resolutely fought, and that it would be good to return to the bright ideals of Domostroy in general if possible .
You can learn more about Domostroy from an article by Nikolai Mitrokhin on such an interesting topic as the gender ideology of the Russian Orthodox Church. This chapter seemed necessary to us because the Russian Orthodox Church now claims to be the spiritual leader not only of its Orthodox parishioners, but also of Russia as a whole, and seeks to influence, in this way, the fate of all people - believers, non-believers, and professing other religions. Clergymen are addressed as experts in bioethics, reproductive rights, and permissible forms of sexual behavior. Sometimes voices are heard that some religious and ethical standards must acquire the status of laws binding on all citizens (for example, a strict prohibition of abortion, even in the case of rape or a threat to the life of a pregnant woman). This has not happened yet, but the church is trying to make its position on various issues generally accepted, in particular through the introduction of religious education, which is compulsory for all children.
When considering the position of the church on various aspects of gender relations, it is important to keep in mind, writes Mitrokhin, that they are far from homogeneous for all its members: there is an official concept (quite restrained in tone and content), there are opinions of individual clergy, sometimes much more rigid and radical , there is a position of a church asset, depending on the composition of a particular parish. Naturally, they are all kept in a conservative spirit, but the degree of this conservatism can vary significantly - from the condemnation of only “abortive” contraception to the prohibition of all contraception for believers in general, from the recommendation to wear a scarf and skirt when you go to church, to forbid women to wear trousers in general . Although the Russian Orthodox Church has a sharp negative attitude towards the fact that a woman can become a priest, some women - elders, nuns, priestly wives, church activists - have their own resource of influence on church life, however, only at the local, parish level. An interesting phenomenon, Mitrokhin points out, is “Orthodox glamor” - a relatively new idea that the Orthodox mother of the family can develop intellectually, maintain physical beauty (including with the help of shaping and spas) and sometimes even engage in independent business. Thus, it is obvious: the Orthodox Church does not remain unchanged and responds to today's “trends”. It seems that in many respects this happens under the pressure of women, who are a significant majority among parishioners of the Russian Orthodox Church, and not all of them are ready to put up with the role of humble listeners assigned to them. Not without reason did one of the priests complain in the newspaper Omsk Diocesan Vedomosti: “I get whole bundles of letters from evil Christian women who want to teach us priests and even threaten me: if you don’t do as I want, then I’ll go to complain above.”
The last article of our collection, written by philologist Irina Samorukova, is devoted to gender representations, that is, how men, women and the relationships between them are portrayed in literature, cinema, television, advertising, etc. It would seem that these are just media images, a fantasy of the authors ... But in fact, the actual reality that surrounds us grows to a large extent from these fantasies. They simultaneously reflect this reality and shape it, making certain ideas about masculinity and femininity fashionable, attractive, or, conversely, funny, or even repulsive. “Reading” gender meanings from television series, fashion novels, and even news programs is a pretty fun game. Irina Samorukova shows that the world of female melodrama and the world of brutal militants practically do not intersect: the brutal characters of the militants do not appear where lonely ladies who seek to keep their husband’s husband and dream of connecting life with their partners live. But, of course, all the wealth of representations does not come down to these polar cases. Cunning women detectives roam the screens and pages of mass literature (it so happened from the time of Agatha Christie that maybe literary heroines aren’t capable of much more, but the crimes are revealed very well), severe men are top managers and simply glamorous красавцы и красавицы, чья сфера деятельности с трудом поддается идентификации. Зато гораздо более ясно проговаривается гендерный «месседж»: «гламурной стервозе соответствует успешный и ухоженный мужчина; папуля-лох сочетается с мамулей-клушей, чуваку в пирсинге сопутствует экстравагантная чувиха»... Но можно найти и более сложные, интересные и реалистичные образы: в хорошей литературе и кино встречаются не только герои, бойцы, менеджеры и их обольстительные подруги, а, например, незадачливые учителя, предприимчивые работники учреждений внешкольного досуга, короче говоря, «альтернативные» по отношению к сложившимся гендерным стереотипам персонажи.
Вот такие сюжеты предлагает к осмыслению «Гендер для чайников-2». Мы выбрали их потому, что именно они показались нам наиболее актуальными на исходе первого десятилетия 2000-х, когда гендерные отношения в России, с одной стороны, достаточно быстро меняются, становясь более гибкими, пластичными, рефлексивными, а с другой — подвергаются ощутимому идеологическому давлению. Государство хотело бы видеть в женщинах лояльных гражданок, выполняющих поставленные перед ними демографические задачи, церковь — целомудренных, но женственных прихожанок, медиа — гламурных потребительниц. Перед мужчинами тоже ставится масса задач, главным образом экономического и политического плана. Как сочетаются все эти влияния, насколько они значимы для судеб конкретных людей? К размышлениям на эту тему мы и приглашаем наших читателей.
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Зачем нужен второй «Гендер для «чайников»?
- П о С ле С л о В ие Зачем гендер нужен «чайникам»?
Эта книга — не учебник и не политический манифест, но она написана, исходя из определенных убеждений, разделяемых всеми авторами. Убеждения эти состоят в том, что биологические, психологические, социальные, религиозные и какие угодно другие различия между людьми не должны приводить к их неравенству — в том числе и к неравенству по гендерному признаку. Мы убеждены также в том, что каждый мужчина
- Team of authors. Гендер ДЛЯ «ЧАЙНИКОВ», 2006
- Team of authors. Гендер для «чайников»-2, 2009
- Зачем нужен мозг?
Когда-то мозг сравнивали не совсем точно с телефонным коммутатором; в самом деле, он устанавливает связи между мыслями, а также между происходящими событиями и нашими реакциями на эти события. Даже в этом отношении мозг устроен гораздо сложнее, чем все наши технические сооружения. Число возможных связей в нашем мозгу больше, чем было бы во всемирной сети, даже если бы у каждого человека был
- WHAT IS FAT AND WHY HE NEEDS US.
Obesity is a disease, a disease that is characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the body. And this excess accumulation is dangerous to health. Like any other metabolic disease, obesity creeps up to a person unnoticed, because there is no sharp line between health and unhealth. In most cases, the human body makes a smooth, imperceptible transition from one state to another. Height
- Для чего нужен прикорм?
Своевременное введение прикорма способствует укреплению здоровья, улучшению пищевого статуса и физическому развитию грудных детей и детей раннего возраста. Оптимальным сроком начала введения прикорма считается 6 месяцев. В некоторых случаях грудным детям прикорм вводится и раньше, но не ранее 4-месячного возраста! Введение прикорма должно представлять собой процесс введения продуктов питания, все
- Для чего нужен механизм «самопереваривания»
Мудрость природы заключается в том, что она встроила механизм «самопереваривания» в каждый живой организм. Если, скажем, клубень картофеля содержит почти чистый крахмал, то под тонким верхним слоем кожуры клубня содержится крахмал-преобразующие вещества. То же самое относится к зернам пшеницы, ржи, других злаковых, в оболочке которых также имеются вещества, преобразующие крахмал и
- Для чего нужен метод салфетки?
Вот уже двадцать пять лет я помогаю лидерам бизнеса со всего мира развивать разнообразные идеи. За это время сам я научился трем вещам: Нет более мощного способа открыть нечто новое, чем нарисовать простую картинку. Нет более быстрого способа развивать и проверять свои идеи, чем простая картинка. Нет более эффективного способа делиться идеями с другими людьми, чем простая нарисованная
- Барлас Т.. Психологический практикум для «чайников» Введение в профессиональную психологию, 2001
This book is about the writing skills that a professional psychologist needs and must remain invisible to the public, including employers and clients. She is bored: where are the tricks, the illusion of power over another person, a spectacular result? That's why she is the public. Никакого искусства и никакой науки нет без школы — этюдов для беглости пальцев, учебных натюрмортов или лабораторных работ, заново
- Нужен шок!
Почти триста лет назад французский теоретик Шарль Буало объяснил пишущей братии своего и всех последующих веков, как надо строить литературное произведение. Он говорил о пьесах, но это не имеет решающего значения: законы Буало практически универсальны, их можно приложить и к прозе, и к поэзии, и к журналистике. В любом жанре не обойтись без экспозиции, завязки, развития действия, кульминации и
- Понятие «гендер»
В последнее время в социальных и гуманитарных науках принято разграничивать понятия «пол» и «гендер», которые указывают, соответственно, на конституциональные или социо- культурные аспекты отличий мужского от женского. Термин «пол» описывает биологические различия между людьми, определяемые генетическими особенностями, анатомо-физиологическими характеристиками и детородными функциями. Term
- Зачем мы худеем?
О скрытых и явных мотивах похудания Обычно человек принимается что-либо делать, только когда осознает или почувствует, что это ему зачем-то надо. Это «зачем?» в психологии носит название мотива. Говоря о практике похудания, мы могли бы сформулировать наш вопрос следующим образом – зачем человек хочет похудеть, каков его мотив? И второй вопрос, как следует хотеть похудеть, что бы это желание
- Социально-психологический подход к изучению гендера
Глава 1 - «Социально-психологический подход к изучению гендера», - посвященная анализу литературы по проблемам исследования пола и гендера в психологии, содержит три параграфа. В первом параграфе рассматриваются основные подходы к определению и разделению понятий «пол» и «гендер». Подчеркивается, что не только психология, но и биология признает сложный, комплексный характер пола человека
- Ложное положение 4: гендеры разделены, но равны между собой
В главах 3 и 6 было высвечено то, в чем гендеры разделены, но не равны между собой. Раздельность гендеров проистекает из: связанного с полом разделения обязанностей; представлений, что гендерные различия способствуют лучшему приспособлению женщин и мужчин к различной деятельности; различного образа жизни мужчин и женщин, обусловленного гендерными ролями. Гендерное неравенство проявляется в более
- Занятие 1. Что такое гендер
Цели: формирование представления о социально-психологическом содержании понятия «гендер». Оснащение: цветные маркеры. Этап 1. Знакомство Участники и ведущий рассаживаются в подгруппы по кругу. Ведущий предлагает всем представиться в произвольной манере: назвать имя (то есть как участник хочет, чтобы к нему обращались), одно прилагательное, наиболее емко характеризующее участника с его
- GENDER'S FORMATION: K T O I CH T O P O M O G A E T N A M S T A T S O B O Y W F I N A M I
Дети и подростки взрослеют и воспитываются не только в родительских семьях. Год за годом они включаются во все большее количество социальных сфер, для каждой из которых характерны свои нормы и правила воспитания мальчиков и девочек, «нормального» формирования в них мужского и женского начала. С момента рождения человека вопрос пола – центральный: «Мамаша, вы слышите, – у вас сын/дочь!», –
- game of gender
Criticism of consumer models of masculinity and femininity is noticeable in contemporary pop music performed by women (Zemfira, Mara, Butch, D. Arbenin, S. Surganova). Recently, publications began to appear in which the work of these authors is seen as an expression of a lesbian subculture (New Literary Review. 2007. No. 88), although most of the performers in their interviews
- Гендер: определение понятия
Разделение людей на мужчин и женщин определяет восприятие различий, характерных для психики и поведения человека (Берн, 2001). Многие считают, что эти различия связаны с генетическими, анатомическими и физиологическими особенностями мужского и женского организма. Идея противоположности мужского и женского начал встречается в мифах и традициях всех известных обществ. Она закреплена в разнообразных
- Что такое гендер
- Why do they enter the specialty "Psychology"?
The competition for the psychological faculties of universities at a consistently high level for about a dozen years. This specialty became popular in the late 90s, when a lot of popular literature on psychology appeared in our country, at first, mainly translated. Why go to psychologists? Consider motivation options. What attracts people in this specialty, I think, is understandable. Psychology in