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Why do we need the second “Gender for dummies”?
The idea of the first book was born several years ago in a group of scientists engaged in research in the field of gender sociology, but it was prompted by a talented social project manager Lyudmila Kabanova. As a person closely connected with solving practical problems, she knew that if the scientific literature on gender studies is still being published, then there are books for dummies (in the best sense of the word), that is, people who are interested in gender relations, but are not by sociologists, practically none. Their place is occupied by endless publications of various kinds of supposed psychological literature, providing readers (and even more often readers) with valuable “scientific” information that men and women are, in fact, residents of different planets, that the only way to build your desired relationship with a partner - it is a manipulation that men are “slaves of hormones” and cannot, in principle, be responsible for their behavior, etc. etc. (We reviewed this literature in our first book.)
It is difficult to name the area of human relations, which would be shrouded in such a mass of myths and prejudices, as the relationship of a man and a woman. Meanwhile, very few people would like to know more about this: after all, our whole life is saturated with gender relations not only in the family, but also at work, in friendly companies - in general, everywhere, on all social platforms, where people interact with each other.
Here, probably, we still need to say a few words about what “gender” is. Although this word is becoming more and more common not only in scientific circles, but also in the media, it seems that not all people know its meaning exactly. For those who have not come across this term before and have not read our first book, we will give some explanations.
So, where did this word come from in Russian and what does it mean? The term “gender” is a transliteration of an English word denoting the gender, masculine or feminine. For the first time in a non-linguistic context, this term was used by psychologist Robert Stoller, who in 1968 published a work entitled Sex and Gender. The meaning of such a division of terms was to separate the social meanings of "masculinity" and "femininity" from biological sex differences. After all, we have not only biologically different bodies and reproductive functions, we are brought up in different ways, we dress and behave differently. Moreover, we often claim different jobs and types of careers (in any case, our employers often know for sure if they want to see a man or a woman at every given workplace, although it may be far from just dragging heavy boxes or feeding them little children). All these differences in our social behavior, if you think about it, are not so strongly associated with biology. Thus, the very idea of this term is to deny the full biological predetermination of relations between the sexes: there is a biological gender associated with the structure of the body, male or female, and there is gender, that is, “social gender”. Thus, gender was initially understood as cultural and social meanings of femininity and masculinity, while gender was related to the biological differences between men and women.
In modern theories, however, such a division into gender and gender is increasingly questioned, but this happens not because the social gender is underestimated, but because the biological one is largely rethought. A number of arguments were made in favor of the fact that both the biological definition of gender and the human body itself are perceived not only from everyday experience, but also through a system of certain social ideas offered to us by someone's knowledge, that is, through interaction with culture. In modern biology, it is customary to consider sex differences not as two separate worlds, rigidly separated from each other, but rather as a kind of continuum on which female and male sex characteristics are located. Different uncertainties and intermediate cases on this continuum are not so rare (at least enough to cause serious concern to the International Olympic Committee, which has recently demanded that female athletes take the test for the absence of the male chromosome, although this test does not always help). Gender and gender are increasingly seen as interacting, rather than opposed categories. After all, the rigid division of the properties of the world around us into natural and cultural, biological and social, innate and acquired is not the essence of the universe, but only a feature of our thinking, sometimes severely limiting our understanding of the essence of things.
Is a term needed in this case? Is not it easier to get along with the single concept of "sex"? Well, some authors adhere to this point of view, trying to avoid the newly invented foreign word. But we do not share their position, if only because this word has already entered the Russian language. Thus, in the practice of such an important state institution as Goskomstat, there is a rubric “gender statistics”, scientific institutions engaged in research in the field of relations between the sexes are called gender research centers, and in the popular science literature the term “gender” is more and more common. and more often.
The term “gender” has another important semantic tint that is not included in the concept of “gender”: it is a product of a scientific theory that deals with understanding gender inequality, therefore, its very use suggests that we recognize the existence of this inequality and power relations between the sexes. The fact is that men and women are not only different, but also unequal people, and this inequality concerning their opportunities, personal destinies and even how they are spoken and thought about them literally permeates all walks of life.
Thus, gender is something more than just a property of the individual, it is primarily a part of social relations, one of the important elements of the social structure.
This is what we wrote our previous book - just “Gender for Dummies”, without a number. It talked about the things that seemed most important to us to get acquainted with this topic - the relationship between biological and social, stereotypes, social rules that govern men and women at home and at work, and specific problems that cause gender inequality not only among women, but also among men (and often men have to pay even greater price for this inequality), about how feminism arose and whether one should be afraid of it, and about many other things. Our book was published in 2006 and, as befits the book, has healed with its life ...
Since then, we have received a lot of feedback, very different. Someone thanked for the release of this book, someone caused irritation, but most often these were questions. It turned out that we did not write about many things that are important and interesting to our readers. This became especially noticeable when our book formed the basis of a distance education course prepared by the Agency of Social Information. During the online discussion, which I had to lead at the end of this course, it became especially clear that the book is in demand and needed - both to specialists, and students, and just interested readers. And at the same time we understood that, firstly, it is naturally imperfect, and secondly, this book alone is not enough. Moreover, over the past years, new research has been conducted, new laws have been passed, affecting both men and women, a lot of new books and films have been published - all about it ... And then we decided: the work must continue.
It must be said that there were people who had a book of protest, and the most interesting thing was that not all of them read it. I recall in this connection the characteristic discussion held in the Central House of Scientists with the participation of several authors of the previous book (a note about this discussion is published on the website polit.ru - http: // www.polit.ru/science/2008/04/09/gender. html). Some participants in the discussion reacted with suspicion to the very fact of the book’s publication, reasoningly assuming that the term “gender” is associated with the idea of sexual inequality and injustice, as well as a critical assessment of the current situation with the rights and opportunities of women in Russia. And indeed, in the very formulation of the topic, the threat to “foundations” and traditions is often seen, and with a certain degree of imagination even political stability. So, one of the speakers, who introduced himself as an adviser to the State Duma’s safety committee, kept trying to find out if this book says what the ideal family model should be, and when he found out, he was genuinely surprised: “Why then write such books? So it was not possible to convince him that the ideal family model, suitable for all Russians, cannot exist in principle, no matter how much politicians would like. But how it would be convenient: he invited scientists, they drew a model, and it became clear to all men and women how they should live, how many have children, and what else they can claim in life! It would then be necessary only to introduce it as a legislative initiative and introduce it in the subjects of the Federation ...
It was also said that our book reflects an exclusively feminine point of view, since there are no men among its authors (this, by the way, is not quite so: the previous book, like this one, was illustrated by artist Adgur Dzidzaria). To be honest, we didn’t really think about it when we wrote - there are many more women than men working in the social sciences, and this in itself is a characteristic gender feature of the scientific world. But the remark was made: an already “gender-mixed” team took part in the work on the second book!
The tension that always arises when gender issues become the subject of public debate is, of course, far from coincidental. No matter how much you talk about loyalty or treason to traditions, biological purpose or even divine will (as if someone has documents in place where all these beautiful things are clearly and unequivocally fixed), in fact, talking about gender is always talking about power . And not only about the power of men over women: gender hierarchies also exist between men. And the issue of gender asymmetry is associated not only with the fact that women have more difficulty in making a career or have to wash dishes more: it lies at the basis of such different social problems as, for example, prostitution, hazing in the army, domestic violence and psychological deprivation. Manifestations of gender inequality are many-sided and are not always visible even to the victims of traumatic situations - but they do not become happier.
In general, the issue of gender balance of power is not so simple and linear. The dominance of men does not extend evenly throughout all spheres of life: somewhere it is obvious, somewhere it is disputed, somewhere it is gradually being supplanted. Their characteristic power resources and power strategies are also among women. An article written by Elena Zdravomyslova and Anna Temkina is devoted to this topic. After all, from the monuments of world culture, from popular proverbs, and from everyday conversations, one can learn so much about women's perfidy and duplicity, or, if we look from a more benevolent point of view, about women's cunning and diplomacy, about that “neck” that turns “ head of the family "and is able to observe their interests, never going to the fore. If we speak in modern and scientific language, then all these deft maneuvers can be denoted by the word "manipulation." Women are able to manipulate men, "pull them by the strings," like marionettes ... Why does this happen? The authors of the article answer this question, explaining that manipulation is a typical manifestation of the “power of the weak.” After all, although women in Russia - as in the vast majority of countries around the world - the Constitution guarantees full equality of rights and opportunities with men, in fact, our country - like almost everyone else (except, perhaps, the Scandinavian states) - remains a country of patriarchy. This means that most of the resources expressed in material wealth, political influence, access to the best jobs and the most prestigious social positions are mainly at the disposal of men, and there are very few exceptions.
Does this mean that women under patriarchy are completely ousted from all positions and destitute? Of course not. But they have to go to a certain “agreement” with men, which A.Temkin and E.Zdravomyslova, following the sociologist Deniz Candiotti, are called “patriarchal bargains”. Such a deal assumes that men and women follow the social distribution of “dominant” and “subordinate” social roles and receive benefits using the resources available to them. But for the weaker part of society, paying for guarantees of protection and security implies a disproportionate restriction of opportunities, unconditional adherence to prescribed roles and the maintenance of strong ones. In this situation, manipulation for those in the position of subordination is the only way to protect their interests. This strategy does not bring anything good in the relationship between people: one part always feels dependent, and the other - deceived ...
Where did the patriarchy come from? The most common answer to this question, which can be heard from a more or less well-read interlocutor, is: “How from? Why, he replaced matriarchy in ancient historical times, in the course of social development ”. So “hello” comes to us from the middle of the XIX century - from Engels, who represented the course of history in that way (although he was very negative about patriarchy, considering it the first manifestation of inequality and oppression). However, in fact, matriarchy was "invented" by Swiss literary critic Jacob Bachofen, who, it is true, used to describe it with another term. The myth of matriarchy, like other historical myths about the nature of gender relations, is analyzed in detail in our book by the historian Natalya Pushkareva. It shows how far the commonplace ideas about the place of a man and a woman in history are from actual archaeological and documentary evidence. The habitual image of a man who hunts on a mammoth to feed a family is not very similar to the prehistoric reality: after all, the mammoths died out long before the beginning of the formation of human society!
In general, the story that we used to present it is in many respects the story of men, written by them based on their social experience and reflecting their assessments of the events that have occurred. It is impossible, for example, to say that women had a Renaissance: this era, in any case, did not bring any glory to them. Yes, and the Athenian civilization, which is usually talked about with the epithet “democratic”, presupposed the maintenance of women in ginekees (female half of houses) and complete exclusion from participation in politics ... Thus, the “second half of history”, namely the history of the feminine in many ways yet to write. And maybe, then, those historical lessons that have not yet been learned, will become more understandable, forcing politicians from different countries to regularly step on the same rake ...
In “Gender for Dummies-2” a lot of attention is also paid to the issues of demography. It so happened that in modern Russia, the topic of gender relations was suddenly very politicized, and precisely from a demographic point of view. Any public statement of the issue of overcoming gender discrimination and the rights of women is inevitably considered, considering whether all this contributes to an increase in the birth rate. Moreover, many politicians, ideologists, cultural figures, not to mention the representatives of religious organizations, clearly believe that it does not help: as soon as women have enough rights and opportunities, they stop giving birth to children in sufficient quantities (of course, it’s not enough their point of view, and in the context of geopolitical interests), and the nation, thus dying out ... This is one of the most important "moral panic" of today, a favorite topic of conservative political rhetoric.
In this situation, it is especially important to understand what is actually happening with the movement of the population in Russia and what led to such sad indicators (indeed, since the beginning of the twentieth century the birth rate in Russia has fallen 5.4 times). Alexey Belyanin and Olga Isupova consider the problem of low fertility not only in the demographic, but also in historical and sociological terms. And this makes it possible to see many curious facts: few people know, for example, that, despite the much lower level of development of medicine, in the first quarter of the 20th century, about 18% of all births were accounted for mothers aged 40 to 50 years. Thus, at the beginning of the last century, almost every woman of this age gave birth to one child on average (that is, if someone did not give birth after 40, then some other woman gave birth to two or more). Nowadays, this figure has dropped to 1 child per 100 women! The chapter also presents interesting comparative data: in terms of the birth rate, Russia, it turns out, is in 177th place in the world, that is, alas, closer to the end of the list. Впрочем, в начале этого списка находятся почти исключительно страны третьего мира, начиная с Нигера...
Другой очень важный момент в этой главе связан с анализом причин депопуляции. На основании статистических данных авторы показывают, что по уровню рождаемости Россия все же несущественно отличается от других европейских стран: снижение числа детей в семье характерно для всех развитых индустриальных обществ. Более того, многие демографы считают, что снижение рождаемости рано или поздно наступит и в тех странах, где сейчас рожают помногу. Таким образом, нравится это нам или нет, мы находимся в рамках общей тенденции. Но вот что серьезно отличает Россию от других стран, так это уровень смертности. По средней продолжительности жизни наша страна очень сильно отстает от десятки наиболее развитых стран мира (США, Бельгия, Канада, Норвегия и др.) — на 15—19 лет для мужчин и на 7—12 лет для женщин. И пока средняя продолжительность жизни россиян составляет всего 66,7 лет, а средний мужчина и вовсе не доживает до пенсионного возраста, депопуляция не может быть остановлена даже путем повышения рождаемости. Тем более ничто не предвещает резкого увеличения рождаемости! И хотя меры, направленные на поддержку материнства (в частности, закон о «материнском капитале»), дают свои результаты, пока можно говорить не о демографическом росте, а всего лишь о замедлении темпов спада.
The “normal” for today's Russia is still a family with two children, and it’s unlikely that something will change in the near future: the majority of modern Russians simply have no reason to start a large family. A. Belyanin and O. Isupova analyze in some detail why this is happening ...
Olga Isupova and Igor Kon continue and develop the topic in an article that explores motherhood and fatherhood directly. It begins with a historical review of O.Isupova and a change in ideas about the “right” motherhood and its role in the life of a woman. It is considered that motherhood has always been and remains the main destination of a woman, the meaning of her life. Especially the conservatives are pushing for this, believing that gender-related is the task of returning to our ancient “roots”, and then everything will surely fall into place and women will find their “lost essence”. In fact, the ideology of a comprehensive and responsible motherhood, when the main business of a woman’s life is to take care of children, took shape only in the 16th — 18th centuries. In feudal Europe, for example, women were expected, first of all, loyalty and obedience to a man - including to the detriment of children, even if this led to their death. In addition, women in agrarian societies simply had to work very hard and physically could not properly focus on children. And only by the middle of the XIX century, the ideology of motherhood was finally formed in the form in which we know it ... but after a hundred years, to many women, it began to seem very "overloaded". Starting from the mid-twentieth century, women gradually discover other aspects of life for themselves and understand the need to find some kind of balance between motherhood and work, motherhood and relationships with a spouse, and finally, motherhood and leisure, life pleasures. Of course, this affected the decline in fertility. But even more, individualization of lifestyles affected: women began to strive to have children not because they were “put”, and not as much as they should be, but only to the extent that they felt the need for it. The article discusses the motives that influence the decision of a woman to have a baby or not to have a child, analyzes the modern meanings of motherhood.
The part of the article devoted to fatherhood was written, perhaps, by the most famous gender researcher in Russia, Igor Kon. And again we saw that there is nothing eternal and unshakable in this concept: the ideas about fatherhood, the duties of fathers, their real behavior changed greatly over time, even the very recent one. The author dwells on the problems facing modern fathers in Europe and in Russia - from preserving their rights to communicate with children during a divorce to a problem, how not to lose credibility in the conditions of economic instability. It must be said that the role of fathers in raising children for a very long time was underestimated, and both children and fathers suffered from this, whose functions were actually reduced to material support for the family and to the role of a certain symbolic figure, which should show signs of respect. Now, many fathers in every way seek to overcome this emotional deprivation, trying to be much closer to their children. But this is badly correlated with socio-economic realities: after all, nobody took off the tasks of making money from them, moreover, the idea of what costs are needed in order to adequately raise your child and educate him is steadily increasing. And this is exactly the case when gender inequality beats quite strongly on men ...
The theme of the family, of course, does not boil down exclusively to the theme of motherhood and fatherhood - the relationship between spouses is becoming increasingly important in modern families. An article written by Elena Zidkova with the participation of Elena Zdravomyslova is devoted to this problem. Here we can find out what changes are taking place with this most important “cell of society” at the beginning of the new millennium, what challenges it faces, how it responds to them. The authors show that, despite the high number of divorces, family and marriage are still very important for most people; both men and women tend to live not alone, but in families. Another thing is that families have become very diverse in their composition and way of life. If the traditional family was comparable to the organization in which the positions were originally set, the subordination is clear, the powers are distributed, now all the families are not only unhappy, but also happy in different ways. General patterns, true for all types of families, are rather difficult to trace, but on the whole, research allows us to cautiously say that the birth and upbringing of children replaced the child-centric model of the family, where the the most important are the relations between the spouses. Therefore, such a role is acquired by the emotional and sexual side of family life, the requirements of the spouses to each other grow. Modern gender realities most often assume that both husband and wife work, while living separately from their grandparents' grandparents. This is a relatively new situation for Russia, since in Soviet times spouses often lived with the older generation, who took care of the children, while mother worked. Now for those who can afford it, the new “family member” often becomes a nanny. This is also a new and insufficiently studied phenomenon - the transfer of part of the traditional duties of a wife and housewife into the hands of special employees. The article also touches upon the “shadow” aspects of family life, in particular, domestic violence, the level of which in Russia, unfortunately, is still very high. Every year, thousands of women (as well as children and the elderly of both sexes) become victims of domestic violence.
Sexuality, which for a long time, no matter how you feel about it, has ceased to be part of only family relationships, an article written by Igor Kon with the participation of Anna Temkina is dedicated. This is also a very “hot” topic that causes a storm of emotions in modern Russian society. The separation of sexual behavior from the reproductive, associated with the birth of children, which occurred in large numbers in the 60s of the last century, created a completely new gender situation, at one time defined by the term “sexual revolution”. Igor Kohn describes the most characteristic trends in the change of "post-revolutionary" sexual behavior of men and women. Its effects are ambiguous. On the one hand, people became freer, and this allowed them to live in greater harmony with themselves and their bodies. This is especially true of women who are not allowed to show their sexuality even for a long time in their family. On the other hand, of course, risks, both medical (primarily AIDS) and psychological, have grown. Setting the fact that sexual relations can be temporary and will last only until the partners are interested in each other sexually creates a situation of insecurity and uncertainty.
The problem of youth sexual education is very acute. Recent political trends in this regard boil down to the fact that there should be no such education at all, because it corrupts, and young people should return to traditional values and premarital abstention from sex. Last year, for example, numerous posters appeared in the metro, convincing young people that “there is no safe sex,” condoms do not protect against any diseases, and the only way to maintain health is to maintain conjugal loyalty. Obviously, it was supposed that the AIDS epidemic would finally be stopped, which is developing, by the way, in Russia at a frightening pace (which is not customary to talk about somehow), and at the same time the birth rate will increase, since young people will be engaged in sex only in strong, healthy families .
How far these beautiful-hearted wishes are from reality is understood by any person who has at least some idea of the realities of contemporary youth life. Released genie can not be pushed back into the bottle, and young people, frightened posters about dangerous sex, are unlikely to cease to engage them, but use condoms may actually become less. With all the possible consequences ...
However, Anna Temkina’s study on the sexual practices of the modern generation suggests that, at least, among the urban educated stratum of the population, a fairly rational, conscious attitude towards sex life is traced. This is especially true for young women who seek control over their lives, including sexual life. Taking care of their health, including reproductive health, is combined with high motivation to achieve sexual satisfaction, and they impose relevant requirements on partners. Young men, as well as women, strive to take into account individual and mutual needs for sexual relations, take care of safe sex and protection from pregnancy, plan a family and raise children, etc. This allows the researcher to conclude that a gender stage of sexual revolution, implying a high degree of equality and responsibility of both partners.
In addition to family and personal aspects, gender relations also have a political aspect. The influence of political processes on gender equality is analyzed in the article “Mission - Impossible?”, Written by Lyudmila Popkova with the participation of Alexei Kozlov. Probably, not all Russians understand that the fight against gender discrimination is not a private initiative of unbalanced feminists, but an area of public relations governed by international law, also ratified by Russia. Thus, in particular, it is a crime to refuse employment, referring to the “inappropriate age and gender”, since in the Russian Federation all types of discrimination, including on the basis of sex, are criminal offenses and are subject to article 136 of the Criminal Code. How serious is this problem? According to the Federal Employment Service, in 2007, when hiring, every second person faced direct discrimination, most often on the basis of age and gender. Women often find themselves in a vulnerable work situation at once in two ways: then she is too young and can become pregnant and become the mother of a small child, then at the age of 45 she is in the “pre-retirement age” and, according to personnel services, is not able to master innovations give yourself to the cause.
Although women's rights to equal work and equal pay are guaranteed by the Constitution of Russia, there is practically no real legal mechanism by which women can protect their rights. Much more attention is now paid to ensuring that women properly perform their reproductive function and thus solve the state demographic problem. The majority of educated Russian women want to have children, and in this sense their interests coincide with the state ones, but they also need professional self-actualization, and just to earn money (including to raise these children under normal conditions — rarely enough only the salary of her husband). From our research, one can also find out how this mother / professional dilemma is being solved in different European countries.
Speaking of Russian politics, it is impossible not to notice the sad circumstances that nationalists, including radical ones, are becoming more and more noticeable in the spectrum of political trends. They also show a keen interest in gender issues. Alexey Kozlov identifies different groups of nationalist organizations, depending on their vision of the “right” forms of gender relations. It is curious at the same time that the Nazi skinheads and related organizations are characterized by a peculiar recognition of the possibility of women's equality. This is the so-called "Aryan feminism", due to the fact that women and girls play quite a significant role in the skinhead movement of the National Socialists. It is worth noting that among the participants of racial and national attacks, which are most often practiced by the Nazis, about a third are women. However, on the whole, such a position is not characteristic of nationalists, since the idea of male domination is one of the pivots of a radical nationalist ideology. Within this ideology, many “valuable ideas” are put forward, like those that women (or, for example, childless spouses) should be deprived of the right to vote, that inter-ethnic marriages must be resolutely fought and that it would be good to return to the bright ideals of Domostroi .
You can learn more about Domostroi from the article by Nikolay Mitrokhin on an interesting topic such as the gender ideology of the Russian Orthodox Church. This chapter seemed necessary to us because the ROC is now claiming spiritual guidance not only for its Orthodox parishioners, but also for Russia as a whole, seeks to influence, in this way, the destinies of all people — believers, non-believers, and professors of other religions. Clergymen are addressed as experts in bioethics, reproductive rights, acceptable forms of sexual behavior. Sometimes there are voices that some religious and ethical norms must acquire the status of laws binding on all citizens (for example, strict prohibition of abortion, even in the case of rape or a threat to the life of a pregnant woman). This has not happened yet, but the church is trying to make its position generally accepted on various issues, in particular through the introduction of compulsory religious education for all children.
Considering the position of the church on different aspects of gender relations, it is important to keep in mind, Mitrokhin writes, that they are far from homogeneous for all its members: there is an official concept (rather reserved in tone and content), there are opinions of individual clergy, sometimes more rigid and radical , there is a position of church assets, depending on the composition of a particular parish. Naturally, they are all kept in a conservative spirit, but the degree of this conservatism can vary significantly - from condemning only “abortive” contraception to banning all contraception for believers in general, from recommending to wear a scarf and skirt when you go to church, to ban women from wearing pants at all . Although the Russian Orthodox Church has a sharply negative attitude to the fact that a woman can become a priest, some women - old women, nuns, priests wives, church activists - have their own resource of influence on church life, but only at the local parish level. An interesting phenomenon, Mitrokhin points out, is “Orthodox glamor” —a relatively new idea that an Orthodox mother of a family may well develop intellectually, maintain physical beauty (including using shaping and spas), and sometimes even engage in independent business. Thus, it is obvious: the Orthodox Church does not remain unchanged and reacts to today's "trends." It seems that in many respects this happens under the pressure of women, of whom there is a large majority among the members of the Russian Orthodox Church, and not all of them are willing to put up with the role of humble female listeners. No wonder one of the priests complained in the Omsk Diocesan Gazette newspaper: “I get whole bundles of letters from evil women Christians who want to teach us priests, and even threaten: if you don’t do it the way I want, then I will go complain above.”
The last article of our collection, written by a philologist Irina Samorukova, is devoted to gender representations, that is, how men, women and the relationship between them are portrayed in literature, cinema, on television, in advertising, etc. It would seem that these are just media images, the fantasy of the authors ... But in fact, from these fantasies, the actual reality that surrounds us grows to a large extent. At the same time, they reflect this reality and form it, making certain ideas about masculinity and femininity fashionable, attractive or, on the contrary, ridiculous or even repulsive. “Reading out” gender meanings from TV series, fashion novels, and even news programs is quite an exciting game. Irina Samorukova shows that the world of female melodrama and the world of brutal militants practically do not overlap: the brutal characters of the militants do not appear where the wives who want to keep their husband and dreamed of combining life with their partners live are single women. But, of course, the entire wealth of representations is by no means reduced to these polar cases. The cunning women-detectives roam the screens and pages of mass literature (as it happened from the time of Agatha Christie that maybe many other literary heroines are not capable of, but the crimes are wonderful), stern men are top managers and simply glamorous красавцы и красавицы, чья сфера деятельности с трудом поддается идентификации. Зато гораздо более ясно проговаривается гендерный «месседж»: «гламурной стервозе соответствует успешный и ухоженный мужчина; папуля-лох сочетается с мамулей-клушей, чуваку в пирсинге сопутствует экстравагантная чувиха»... Но можно найти и более сложные, интересные и реалистичные образы: в хорошей литературе и кино встречаются не только герои, бойцы, менеджеры и их обольстительные подруги, а, например, незадачливые учителя, предприимчивые работники учреждений внешкольного досуга, короче говоря, «альтернативные» по отношению к сложившимся гендерным стереотипам персонажи.
Вот такие сюжеты предлагает к осмыслению «Гендер для чайников-2». Мы выбрали их потому, что именно они показались нам наиболее актуальными на исходе первого десятилетия 2000-х, когда гендерные отношения в России, с одной стороны, достаточно быстро меняются, становясь более гибкими, пластичными, рефлексивными, а с другой — подвергаются ощутимому идеологическому давлению. Государство хотело бы видеть в женщинах лояльных гражданок, выполняющих поставленные перед ними демографические задачи, церковь — целомудренных, но женственных прихожанок, медиа — гламурных потребительниц. Перед мужчинами тоже ставится масса задач, главным образом экономического и политического плана. Как сочетаются все эти влияния, насколько они значимы для судеб конкретных людей? К размышлениям на эту тему мы и приглашаем наших читателей.
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Зачем нужен второй «Гендер для «чайников»?
- P o S le S l o V i Why do dummies need gender?
This book is not a textbook or a political manifesto, but it is written based on certain beliefs shared by all authors. These beliefs are that biological, psychological, social, religious, and any other differences between people should not lead to their inequality - including gender inequality. We are also convinced that every man
- The team of authors. Gender FOR "KETAIKOV", 2006
- The team of authors. Gender for dummies -2, 2009
- Why do you need a brain?
At one time, the brain was not exactly compared with a telephone switchboard; in fact, it establishes the connection between thoughts, as well as between events and our reactions to these events. Even in this respect, the brain is much more complex than all our technical facilities. The number of possible connections in our brain is larger than it would be on the world wide web, even if each person had
- WHAT IS FAT AND WHY HE NEEDS IT.
Obesity is a disease, a disease that is characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat. And this excess accumulation is dangerous to health. Like any other metabolic disease, obesity sneaks up on a person unnoticed, because there is no sharp line between health and ill health. In most cases, the human body makes a smooth imperceptible transition from one state to another. Growth
- What is the lure for?
Timely introduction of complementary foods contributes to health, improved nutritional status and physical development of infants and young children. The optimal time to start the introduction of complementary foods is 6 months. In some cases, babies feeding lure is introduced earlier, but not earlier than 4 months of age! The introduction of complementary foods should be a process of introducing food, all
- What is the mechanism of "self-digestion"
The wisdom of nature lies in the fact that it has embedded a mechanism of "self-digestion" in every living organism. If, say, a potato tuber contains almost pure starch, then under a thin top layer of the tuber's rind contains starch-converting substances. The same applies to grains of wheat, rye, other cereals, in the shell of which there are also substances that convert starch and
- What is the wipe method for?
For the past twenty-five years, I have been helping business leaders from around the world develop diverse ideas. During this time, I myself have learned three things: There is no more powerful way to discover something new than to draw a simple picture. There is no faster way to develop and test your ideas than a simple picture. There is no more effective way to share ideas with other people than a simple drawing
- Barlas T. Psychological workshop for dummies. Introduction to professional psychology, 2001
This book is about writing skills that a professional psychologist needs and must remain invisible to the public, including employers and clients. It is boring for her: where are the tricks, the illusion of power over another person, the spectacular result? That's why she and the public. There is no art and no science without school - etudes for fluency of fingers, educational still lifes or laboratory works, anew
- Need a shock!
Almost three hundred years ago, the French theorist Charles Boileau explained to the writing brotherhood of his own and all subsequent centuries how to build a literary work. He spoke of plays, but this is not decisive: the laws of Boileau are almost universal, they can be applied to prose, to poetry, and to journalism. In any genre, you can not do without exposure, strings, development of action, climax and
- The concept of "gender"
Recently, in the social and human sciences it is customary to distinguish between the concepts of “gender” and “gender”, which indicate, respectively, the constitutional or sociocultural aspects of the differences between male and female. The term "gender" describes the biological differences between people, determined by genetic characteristics, anatomical and physiological characteristics and childbearing functions. Term
- Why do we lose weight?
On the hidden and obvious motives for losing weight Usually a person accepts something only when he realizes or feels that he needs it for some reason. This “why?” In psychology is called motive. Speaking about the practice of losing weight, we could formulate our question as follows: why does a person want to lose weight, what is his motive? And the second question is how you want to lose weight, so that this desire
- Socio-psychological approach to the study of gender
Chapter 1, “A Socio-Psychological Approach to the Study of Gender,” devoted to the analysis of literature on the problems of the study of gender and gender in psychology, contains three sections. The first paragraph discusses the main approaches to the definition and separation of the concepts of "gender" and "gender". It is emphasized that not only psychology, but also biology recognizes the complex, complex nature of human sex.
- False position 4: Genders are divided, but equal
In Chapters 3 and 6, it was highlighted that in which the genders are divided, but not equal. Gender diversity results from: sex-related segregation of duties; perceptions that gender differences contribute to better adaptation of women and men to different activities; different lifestyles of men and women due to gender roles. Gender inequality manifests itself in more
- Lesson 1. What is gender?
Objectives: the formation of ideas about the socio-psychological content of the concept of "gender". Equipment: colored markers. Stage 1. Acquaintance Participants and the leader sit down in subgroups on a circle. The facilitator invites everyone to introduce themselves in an arbitrary manner: call the name (that is, how the participant wants to be addressed), one adjective that most succinctly describes the participant with his
- THE GENERATION OF A GENDER: K T O I CH T O P O M O G A E N N O M S T A T I S O B O U N A A T A C I E N E S S R I N S M I S M W H N N MI
Children and adolescents grow up and are raised not only in parent families. Year after year they are included in an increasing number of social spheres, each of which is characterized by its own norms and rules for educating boys and girls, the "normal" formation of the masculine and feminine in them. From the moment of birth of a person, the question of gender is central: “Mother, you hear, you have a son / daughter!” -
- game of gender
Criticism of consumer models of masculinity and femininity is noticeable in modern pop music played by women (Zemfira, Mara, Butch, D. Arbenina, S. Surganov). Recently, publications began to appear in which the work of these authors is viewed as an expression of the lesbian subculture (New Literary Review. 2007. No. 88), although most of the performers in their interviews
- Gender: Definition
The division of people into men and women determines the perception of differences characteristic of the human psyche and behavior (Bern, 2001). Many believe that these differences are associated with the genetic, anatomical and physiological characteristics of the male and female body. The idea of the opposite of masculine and feminine is found in the myths and traditions of all known societies. It is enshrined in a variety of
- What is gender?
- Why go to the specialty "Psychology"?
The competition for the psychological faculties of universities at a consistently high level for about a decade. This specialty became popular at the end of the 90s, when a lot of popular psychology literature appeared in our country, at first, mainly transferable. Why go to psychologists? Consider options for motivation. What attracts people in this specialty, I think, is understandable. Psychology, in