home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

DISEASES ARISING FROM INCOMPATIBILITY OF MOTHER AND FRUIT ON BLOOD ANTIGENS

This is an independent group of hereditary diseases caused by incompatibility of the mother and fetus by blood antigens. Schematically, the incompatibility process can be represented as follows. Suppose a woman has Rh-negative blood. The fetus has Rh-positive blood. He inherited from his father one of the allelic genes that determines the presence of the Rh factor. During fetal development, fetal blood enters a small amount into the bloodstream of the mother. The pregnant woman’s immune system responds to the Rh factor of the fetus by producing antibodies. They are directed against antigens of the Rh fetus system. Maternal antibodies cross the placenta, enter the fetal bloodstream and are fixed on the surface of red blood cells. An immune conflict arises, the consequence of which is the destruction (hemolysis) of the fetal red blood cells. The most studied disease of this group is the hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.



Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn



Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn develops most often with Rhesus incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus. This form of the disease is characterized by a severe course. Less commonly, hemolytic disease is due to incompatibility with blood group antigens (AB0). It proceeds in a lighter form.

The formation of anti-Rhesus antibodies in the body of a woman with Rh-negative blood can occur both during pregnancy and before it occurs. In the latter case, the reasons are interruptions of previous pregnancies (artificial abortion, spontaneous miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy), transfusion of a woman with Rh-positive blood. The formation of antibodies in the mother’s body against antigens of the Rh fetus system also results from a previous pregnancy, which ended in the birth of a child with Rh-positive blood. Therefore, with each subsequent pregnancy in a woman with Rh-negative blood, the risk of developing hemolytic disease of the fetus increases. The formation of antibodies in the woman’s body and the development of hemolytic disease of the fetus are possible even during the first pregnancy, if it proceeds with complications (threat of miscarriage, woman’s disease, etc.). The resulting antibodies come from the mother's body through the placenta into the fetal bloodstream and are fixed on its red blood cells. An immune conflict arises between the antigens of the Rh fetus system and the antibodies of the mother, which leads to the destruction of the fetal red blood cells.

Manifestations.
The severity of the hemolytic disease depends on the number of antibodies that have passed through the placenta into the fetus. The higher the level of antibodies in the blood of the fetus and newborn, the more severe the disease. As a result of the destruction of red blood cells, anemia (anemia) of the fetus develops. He experiences oxygen starvation. Red blood cell hemolysis is accompanied by the accumulation of indirect bilirubin in the blood of the fetus and newborn. This causes the development of jaundice in the first day after birth. Bilirubin levels increase rapidly, reaching concentrations toxic to the brain (nuclear jaundice). As a result of brain damage in a newborn, convulsions develop. Enhanced destruction of red blood cells causes the appearance of foci of hematopoiesis in the liver, spleen, kidneys of the fetus, placenta. These organs increase in size, their function is disrupted, metabolic processes suffer. An edematous form of the disease develops. Congenital edema of the subcutaneous tissue, fluid accumulation in the pleural and abdominal cavities are characteristic of the hemolytic disease of the fetus. A baby may be born dead or in very serious condition.

Diagnosis during pregnancy. The most accurate method for detecting hemolytic disease during pregnancy is the study of fetal blood obtained by cordocentesis. An informative method is ultrasound of the fetus. There are reliable ultrasonic signs of hemolytic disease.

Prediction of the likelihood of developing hemolytic disease. Anti-Rhesus antibodies and their level (titer) are determined in the blood of a Rh-negative pregnant woman. The increase in antibody titer in the dynamics indicates the possible development of hemolytic disease of the fetus. Today it has become a reality to determine the Rhesus affiliation of the fetal blood by its DNA in the mother’s blood (PCR diagnostics).

Treatment. The only method of treating severe hemolytic disease of the fetus, allowing to save his life - intrauterine transfusion of washed red blood cells. The procedure is carried out by cordocentesis.

Prevention It involves refusing to terminate the first pregnancy in women with Rh-negative blood. Any blood transfusion to a woman should be carried out only taking into account the Rhesus affiliation of the blood of the donor and recipient. Currently, pregnant women with Rh-negative blood and the absence of Rh antibodies are administered human anti-Rhesus immunoglobulin (manufactured in the USA). This prevents the development of hemolytic disease of the fetus.
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

DISEASES ARISING FROM INCOMPATIBILITY OF MOTHER AND FRUIT ON BLOOD ANTIGENS

  1. ISOSEROLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF BLOOD OF MOTHER AND FRUIT
    The basis of the isoserological incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus is the heterogeneity of antigenic factors of red blood cells in them, more often in the Rhesus system, less often in the ABO system. Due to the penetration of fetal blood factors with antigenic properties into the bloodstream of a mother who does not have them, in her body alloimmune antibodies are produced that penetrate the placenta to the fetus,
  2. Group incompatibility of maternal and fetal blood
    Incompatibility occurs if the mother has 0 (1) blood type and the fetus has A (P) or B (W). However, group incompatibility does not proceed as hard as Rh incompatibility. This is because antibodies A and antibodies B belong to class M immunoglobulins and do not cross the placenta, while anti-Rhesus antibodies belong to class G immunoglobulins, have a small molecule and are easily
  3. Rhesus blood system and its importance in the development of isoserological incompatibility of mother and fetal blood
    Isoserological incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the fetus most often occurs as a result of the Rh conflict, when the mother’s blood is Rh-negative and the fetal blood is Rh-positive. The Rh factor system (Rh) consists of various antigens RhD, RhC, RhE. There are varieties of Hr c, d, e, which have six main types (alleles) of Rh factor antigens. They have
  4. ISOSEROLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF BLOOD OF MOTHER AND FRUIT
    ISOSEROLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF BLOOD OF MOTHER AND
  5. Problem 42. ISOSEROLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF THE BLOOD OF THE MOTHER AND THE FRUIT BY RESUSCENT FACTOR
    Pregnant K., 25 years old, turned to the antenatal clinic on March 30 about pregnancy. From the anamnesis. Menarche from 13 years old, established immediately, regular, 5 days, 23 days later. Last menstruation December 24-28, Sexual life from 19 years. The first and second pregnancies ended in childbirth, the children died antenatally from the hemolytic disease of the fetus. This pregnancy is the third, desired, in
  6. ISOSEROLOGIC INCOMPATIBILITY OF BLOOD OF MOTHER AND FRUIT BY RESUS FACTOR
    ISOSEROLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF BLOOD OF MOTHER AND FRUIT
  7. Prevention and treatment of isoserological incompatibility, depending on the degree of risk of developing hemolytic disease of the fetus
    To diagnose isosensitization (the presence of antibodies against the fetus), women with Rh-negative blood are serologically tested during pregnancy in the dynamics of its development. The presence of antibodies and an increase in the titer of atypical antibodies may indicate a developing fetal disease, however, not always, as in sensitized patients (repeated pregnancy, blood transfusion,
  8. IMMUNOLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY BETWEEN MOTHER AND FRUIT (on the example of Rh-sensitization and Rh-conflict
    Isoimmunization is the formation of antibodies in the mother (AT) in response to the ingestion of fetal erythrocyte antigens (AH) inherited by the fetus from the father or foreign AH during blood transfusion into her bloodstream. The degree of immunization depends on the strength of the AH and the number of antibodies formed. Hemolytic disease of the fetus (HBP), the condition of the fetus caused by hemolysis of red blood cells, characterized by anemia,
  9. IMMUNOLOGICAL INCOMPATIBILITY BETWEEN MOTHER AND FRUIT (on the example of Rh-sensitization and Rh-conflict)
    Isoimmunization is the formation of antibodies in the mother (AT) in response to the ingestion of fetal erythrocyte antigens (AH) inherited by the fetus from the father or foreign AH during blood transfusion into her bloodstream. The degree of immunization depends on the strength of the AH and the number of antibodies formed. Hemolytic disease of the fetus (HBP), the condition of the fetus caused by hemolysis of red blood cells, characterized by anemia,
  10. Incompatibility of blood groups of cats and kittens
    If the breeder knows what blood types his producers have, he can avoid the negative consequences of the incompatibility of the blood groups of the cat and its offspring. For this, kittens must be weaned and fed artificially during the first 72 hours of their life. Thus, kittens will “miss” a portion of colostrum with a maximum concentration of antigens. However, it should be borne in mind that in this case the general
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com