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Floors of buildings, layout and size of premises


Modern cities are characterized by high-rise housing construction, which is very economically advantageous. In the new and reconstructed cities, residential areas are mostly built up with 9-12-storey houses. In the 6-storey and higher buildings should be equipped with an elevator and garbage chute.
The big advantage of multi-storey buildings is the availability of all types of sanitary and household amenities, but an increase in the number of floors inevitably leads to an increase in population density. The location of the rooms in the apartment on one facade eliminates their through ventilation, complicates communication with the land, increases the noise level in the apartments and contributes to the spread of infectious diseases.
Types of houses should be different, as monotonous standard construction can hardly claim to be attractive, and is especially bad when it is repeated in different cities.
Rational planning of apartments provides for the arrangement of rooms on the principle of through ventilation, i.e. on two opposite facades. This is important not only to maintain cleanliness of the air, but also to be able to choose the room most distant from street noise and other external stimuli to practice and rest. In this regard, the construction of apartments on the principle of through ventilation is advisable in all climatic zones, with the exception of cold.
In contrast to urban high-rise housing construction, individual 1- to 2-storey residential buildings with outbuildings and a land plot for a vegetable garden and a garden predominate in rural areas. The village with all its approach to the city in the cultural, everyday and sanitary relations preserves the identity associated with the peculiarities of lifestyle, and the mechanical application of typical projects of urban residential buildings in rural areas is impractical. The accumulated experience shows that two-storey houses have an advantage over single-storey buildings, ensuring compact construction and reducing its cost due to savings on engineering networks.
However, the construction of 3-4-storey sectional buildings without household plots, in which young families, medical workers and specialists in the field of agricultural production often prefer to live, is not excluded. Construction should be carried out taking into account the climatic, soil and other conditions, provided with modern engineering equipment, meet the increased requirements and opportunities to create cultural and everyday comfort.
Residential rooms should be located only in the above-ground floors of the building. The layout should provide a functional link to the individual rooms. Kitchen, toilet and bathroom should be isolated from living rooms. In the front and the corridor it is necessary to provide a pantry or closets. For the convenience of placing furniture, lighting and visual perception rooms are preferred, approaching in shape to the square. The depth of the living room should not be more than 6 m. The device in the depth of the room is a niche, usually considerably distant from the window, is impractical, since in niches and alcoves worse conditions are created for ventilation, and yet beds or sofas are often installed in them and rest.
The minimum size of living space, established in the Russian Federation for a person, is 14 m2. The required height of the premises is determined in connection with the climate of the area, the air cube required for one person, and the ventilation system used. Lowering the height of living rooms has an adverse effect on the temperature distribution in the vertical direction, air and radiation regimes, especially in the southern areas, which adversely affects the well-being of people. With this in mind, differentiated hygienic standards for the height of the premises were established: for the cold climate zone - 2.7 m, for the moderate climate - 3 m and for the warm and hot - 3.2 m. Allowable temporary decrease in the height of the living rooms to 2.5—2.6 m was caused by economic considerations and the need for the early provision of the population with comfortable housing.
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Floors of buildings, layout and size of premises

  1. Features of requirements for internal planning and equipment of various types of residential buildings
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  2. Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the planning and design of premises
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  3. Sanitary requirements for store layout and interior decoration
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  4. Rule number 2. Buy clothes size in size
    The second important rule of visual reduction of a figure is a careful selection of the dress by size. It would seem such a small thing! But I was convinced by my own experience that too tight clothes made the bodies stick up and swim out in the most unaesthetic way. A short blouse of an unsuitable size will treacherously expose the stomach, which it is too early to be proud of, too tight - it will tighten the folds of fat. Small
  5. General principles and hygienic principles of planning of populated areas. District planning and its hygienic value
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  6. Hygienic standards microclimate sports facilities of various specializations. Natural and artificial lighting of sports facilities, taking into account hygienic standards.
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  7. Building orientation
    To ensure adequate lighting and the required thermal conditions in the rooms, orientation of the windows to the cardinal points is important. The sun's rays should penetrate into all the main premises, which are the place of permanent or long stay of people, providing insolation as long as possible during the day, especially in winter. In the period from March 22 to September 22
  8. Lighting of dwellings and public buildings
    Good lighting of residential premises is necessary to create normal conditions for visual work and in general hygiene. Insufficient or irrational lighting leads to fatigue of the eyes, the central nervous system, lowers mental and physical performance, leads to the development of a number of diseases, in particular myopia in children, creates the possibility of injury.
  9. Hygienic characteristics of the air in residential and public buildings
    Modern man spends in the premises of residential and public buildings, depending on the lifestyle and working conditions from 52 to 85% of daily time. Therefore, the internal environment of the premises, even at relatively low concentrations of a large amount of toxic substances, is not indifferent to a person and can affect his health, performance and health. In addition, in
  10. Hygiene of residential and public buildings
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  11. State sanitary supervision of the construction and operation of residential and public buildings
    Control over the construction and operation of residential and public buildings occupies a significant place in the doctor’s work on communal hygiene. Preventive and current sanitary supervision is carried out in accordance with the law of Ukraine "On ensuring the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population" (1994); "Code of Ukraine on Administrative Offenses" (1984, with changes and
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