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Floors of buildings, layout and size of premises


Modern cities are characterized by high-rise housing construction, which is very economically advantageous. In new and reconstructed cities, residential areas are mostly built up with 9-12-storey houses. In the 6-storey and higher buildings should be equipped with an elevator and garbage chute.
The big advantage of multi-storey buildings is the availability of all types of sanitary and household amenities, but an increase in the number of floors inevitably leads to an increase in population density. The location of the rooms in the apartment on one facade eliminates their through ventilation, complicates communication with the land, increases the noise level in the apartments and contributes to the spread of infectious diseases.
Types of houses should be different, as a monotonous standard construction can hardly claim to be attractive, and is especially bad when it is repeated in different cities.
Rational planning of apartments provides for the arrangement of rooms on the principle of through ventilation, i.e. on two opposite facades. This is important not only to maintain cleanliness of the air, but also to be able to choose the room most distant from street noise and other external stimuli for practicing and relaxing. In this regard, the construction of apartments on the principle of through ventilation is advisable in all climatic zones, with the exception of cold.
In contrast to urban high-rise housing construction, individual 1- to 2-storey residential buildings with outbuildings and a land plot for a garden and a garden predominate in rural areas. The village with all its approach to the city in the cultural, domestic and sanitary relations preserves the originality associated with the characteristics of lifestyle, and the mechanical application of standard projects of urban residential buildings in rural areas is impractical. The accumulated experience shows that two-storey houses have an advantage over single-storey buildings, ensuring compact construction and reducing its cost due to savings on engineering networks.
However, the construction of 3-4-storey sectional buildings without household plots, in which young families, medical workers and specialists in the field of agricultural production often prefer to live, is not excluded. Construction should be carried out taking into account climatic, soil and other conditions, provided with modern engineering equipment, meet the increased requirements and opportunities to create cultural and domestic comfort.
Residential rooms should be located only in the above-ground floors of the building. The layout should provide a functional link to the individual rooms. The kitchen, toilet and bathroom should be isolated from the living rooms. It is necessary to provide a pantry or closet in the front and corridor. For the convenience of placing furniture, lighting and visual perception rooms are preferred, approaching in shape to the square. The depth of the living room should not be more than 6 m. The device in the depth of the room is a niche, usually considerably distant from the window, is impractical, since in niches and alcoves worse conditions are created for ventilation, and yet beds or sofas are often installed in them. and rest.
The minimum size of living space, established in the Russian Federation for a person, is 14 m2. The required height of the premises is determined in connection with the climate of the area, the air cube required for one person, and the ventilation system used. Lowering the height of living rooms has an adverse effect on the temperature distribution in the vertical direction, air and radiation regimes, especially in the southern areas, which adversely affects the well-being of people. With this in mind, differentiated hygienic standards for the height of the premises were established: for the cold climate zone - 2.7 m, for moderate - 3 m and for warm and hot - 3.2 m. Allowable temporary decrease in the height of living rooms to 2.5—2.6 m was caused by economic considerations and the need to speedily provide the population with comfortable housing.
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Floors of buildings, layout and size of premises

  1. Features of the requirements for the internal planning and equipment of various types of residential buildings
    There are three types of internal planning of residential buildings: apartment, gallery and hotel, or corridor. The most common apartment type. Apartments in residential buildings are combined into sections. {foto294} Figure 110. The plan of an ordinary section of a residential apartment building: - living rooms; 2 - kitchens; 3 - bathrooms; 4 - toilets; 5 - corridors; 6th cell per staircase section
  2. Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the planning and design of premises
    Space-planning and design solutions for the premises should provide for consistency (threading) of technological processes that exclude counter flows of: • raw materials, raw semi-finished products and finished products; • used and clean dishes; • the oncoming traffic of visitors and staff; • finished products and food waste. The set and space of the premises should
  3. Sanitary requirements for store layout and interior decoration
    The premises of grocery stores are divided into the following groups: a) trade - trading hall, cafeteria, hall for receiving and issuing orders; b) warehouse - refrigeration chambers, including low-temperature, pantries for the storage of non-perishable products, unloading; c) premises for preparing products for sale - unpacking, demolishing, filling; d) utility - storage of containers,
  4. Rule number 2. Buy clothes size in size
    The second important rule of visual reduction of the figure is a careful selection of the dress by size. It would seem such a small thing! But I learned from my own experience that too tight clothing makes the body stick up and swim out in the most unaesthetic way. A short blouse of the wrong size will treacherously expose the stomach, which it is still too early to be proud of, too tight - it will tighten the folds of fat. Small
  5. General principles and hygienic principles of planning of populated areas. District planning and its hygienic value
    When designing populated areas, one should take into account the laws of the country and regional programs for solving the most important social, architectural, economic, environmental and hygienic problems. Urban and rural settlements must be designed as elements of the country's unified settlement system, taking into account the territorial administrative division, socio-economic and natural
  6. Hygienic standards of the microclimate of sports facilities of various specializations. Natural and artificial lighting of sports facilities, taking into account hygienic standards.
    Sports facilities use natural and artificial lighting. Lighting of sports facilities must meet the following basic hygienic requirements, namely: sufficient in level, uniform, without brilliance; the spectrum of artificial light should approach daylight; artificial lighting should be uniform, flicker free. Light unit
  7. Building orientation
    To ensure adequate lighting and the required thermal conditions in the room, the orientation of the windows to the cardinal points is important. The sun's rays should penetrate into all the main premises, which are the place of permanent or long stay of people, providing insolation as long as possible during the day, especially in winter. In the period from March 22 to September 22
  8. Lighting of dwellings and public buildings
    Good lighting of residential premises is necessary to create normal conditions for visual work and in general hygiene. Inadequate or irrational lighting leads to fatigue of the eyes, the central nervous system, lowers mental and physical performance, leads to the development of a number of diseases, in particular myopia in children, creates the possibility of injury.
  9. Hygienic characteristics of the air in residential and public buildings
    Modern man spends in the premises of residential and public buildings, depending on the lifestyle and working conditions from 52 to 85% of the daily time. Therefore, the internal environment of the premises, even at relatively low concentrations of a large amount of toxic substances, is not indifferent to a person and can affect his health, efficiency and health. In addition, in
  10. Hygiene of residential and public buildings
    Hygiene of residential and public buildings is a complex of measures (legislative, architectural-planning, sanitary-technical, technological, scientific and hygienic) aimed at creating safe for human health conditions of stay in residential and public
  11. State sanitary supervision of the construction and operation of residential and public buildings
    Control over the construction and operation of residential and public buildings occupies a significant place in the doctor’s work on communal hygiene. Preventive and current sanitary inspection is carried out in accordance with the law of Ukraine "On ensuring the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population" (1994); "Code of Ukraine on Administrative Offenses" (1984, with changes and
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