Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
Ascaridosis - caused by roundworm parasitizing in the small intestine of a person. These are round worms with pointed ends. The body length of the female is 25–40 cm, the male is 15–20 cm. The only source of causative agents of ascariasis is a sick person. A roundworm female lays up to 200-240 thousand immature eggs per day (their size is 0.06 x 0.04 mm), which enter the environment with human feces. Eggs are very stable and can be stored in the soil up to 5-7 years or more. In the ascaris eggs, the larva matures within 2-6 weeks.
A person becomes infected with ascariasis when swallowing invasive eggs (containing a mature larva) that are on dirty hands, unwashed or poorly washed vegetables, fruits, berries grown on soil contaminated or fertilized with feces. Food products can be contaminated with roundworm eggs when washing dishes, vegetables, fruits with contaminated water.
After entering the human intestines, larvae emerge from mature eggs. They "drill" the intestinal mucosa and with venous blood are transferred to the pulmonary alveoli, and from there to the bronchi, from which they enter the oral cavity, are swallowed with saliva and reappear in the intestines, where adult roundworms develop from them. The entire development cycle, from the moment an invasive form is swallowed to the appearance of the parasite eggs, lasts about 3 months. The life of roundworm is about 1 year.
The disease is characterized by a decrease in appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, unstable stool, decreased performance. Roundworms can cause obstruction of the intestines, bile ducts. There may be a pulmonary form of ascariasis.
Prevention of the disease includes the improvement of populated areas, sanitary protection of soil and water from pollution by fecal waters, deworming of the population, compliance with personal hygiene rules (wash hands before eating, after using the toilet, working in the garden, etc.), medical examination of workers of food facilities at helminths. For food purposes, only drinking water should be used. Vegetables and fruits before eating raw should be thoroughly washed in running water. It is permissible to use the contents of toilet toilets for fertilizer only after composting it for 5-12 months or keeping it in a closed cesspool for 2 years.
It is important to instill hygiene skills in children as early as possible (wash hands, do not put fingers in your mouth, do not bite your nails, etc.
P.). A systematic examination should be carried out for roundworms of preschoolers, elementary schoolchildren and persons of certain professions (workers in farms, greenhouses and greenhouses).
If a disease is detected, deworming is performed. The effectiveness of treatment is determined by a 3-fold negative result when examined after 2-3 weeks.
Trichocephalosis. The causative agent is vlasglav. This is a thin helminth, 3.5-5.5 cm long, its front end is subtle and resembles hair. According to the frequency of occurrence, trichocephaliasis is the third among human helminths. It parasitizes in the human large intestine, more often in the cecum. The number of parasites in the intestine can reach several hundreds and even thousands, the duration of parasitism is 5-6 years. Only a person is sick and is a source of infection. From the intestines, helminth eggs along with feces enter the soil, where for 2-4 months. with sufficient humidity and a temperature of 15-37 ° C, larvae develop in the eggs. Human infection occurs when drinking water, vegetables, fruits, berries, etc., contaminated with invasive eggs. In the human intestines, larvae emerge from the eggs, which after 1.5 months. turn into adult helminths. Signs of the disease: lower abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anemia, loss of appetite, weight loss. Whipworm larvae do not penetrate into the blood. Laboratory diagnosis is based on the detection of helminth eggs in feces. Prevention is similar to the prevention of ascariasis. It consists primarily in strict observance of the sanitary regime at food facilities and the rules of personal hygiene. Applicants must be examined for the presence of helminthic diseases.
Strongyloidosis. The causative agent is a small round hairy worm. It parasitizes in the small intestine of many animals (cattle, sheep, goats, birds, rabbits), as well as in humans. Eggs from the intestines of animals are secreted on the 25th day of development, pollute the soil, water, etc. After 3-4 weeks, the larvae mature. Infection often occurs through contaminated vegetables, fruits, berries. A person is practically not a source of infection. Signs of the disease: nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation, sometimes diarrhea, sleep disturbance, increased irritability, itchy skin. Prevention: animal and environmental health, personal hygiene, thorough washing of raw vegetables, fruits, berries.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
- LECTURE No. 15. Helminthiasis in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention
Helminthiasis - diseases that develop when localized in the body of parasitic helminth worms and their larvae. Classification of helminthiases: 1) on the biological principle: nematodoses (roundworms), cestodoses (tape), trematodoses (flukes); 2) according to the epidemiological: geohelminthoses, biohelminthoses,
- Fauna and taxonomy of the main groups of parasitic organisms.
Representation of parasites in different systematic groups of animals. Parasitic protozoa. Parasitic worms. Parasitic mollusks and arthropods. Diseases caused by protozoa. The main helminthiases (bio - and geohelminthoses). Sanitary helminthology. Diseases caused by parasitic arthropods. Tick-borne encephalitis. Tick-borne relapsing fever. Pediculosis. Prevention
- Parasitic worms.
The subject of helminthology. The history of domestic medical helminthology and its current state in the Russian Federation. The basic concepts of helminths: round, ribbon, flukes. The localization of helminths in the human body. The intensity of the invasion. The role of helminths in human pathology. The effect of helminths on the course of infectious diseases. Immunity for helminthiases. The concept of bio-and geohelminthiasis.
The causative agent is roundworm. The transmission path is feck-op. Anthroponosis, geohelmintosis - for the maturation of eggs, their stay in the soil at 24 ° C is necessary. Pathogenesis. Eggs enter the intestine, larvae are hatched, which enter the portal vein through the wall of the intestine, then into the liver (by the 5th day). By the 10th day - hematogenously into the lungs, where they molt 2 times, break through the wall of the alveoli and through the respiratory tract
- Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of certain types of tissue helminthiases
Toxocarosis (Toxocarosis) - zoonotic geohelminthiasis caused by toxocar larvae, which occurs with damage to internal organs and eyes. Etiology. The causative agents of toxocariasis are the larvae of nematodes of the family Anisakidae of the genus Toxocara: Toxocara canis (a helminth that parasitizes in canines, which is most important in human pathology) and Toxocara mystax (helminth
- Hygienic basis for cleaning populated areas
The cleaning of populated areas is understood as a complex of special measures for the collection, storage, disposal, disposal, disposal or disposal of various production and consumption wastes. V.G. Gorbov proposed the classification of waste, dividing them into liquid and solid. Liquid includes sewage (feces and urine), slops (dirty water from cooking, washing the body, dishes, floors, washing
- Epidemiological significance of the soil
As already mentioned, soil is a natural receiver of solid and liquid wastes of human and animal life, in which pathogens of various diseases can be. Fortunately, most pathogens caught in clean, unpolluted soil die more or less quickly. In soil contaminated with organic substances, they are able to preserve
- Vizer V.A .. Lectures on therapy, 2011
On the subject - almost completely cover the difficulties in the course of hospital therapy, the issues of diagnosis, treatment, as stated, are concise and quite affordable. Allergic lung diseases Joint diseases Reiter's disease Sjogren's disease Bronchial asthma Bronchiectasis Hypertension Glomerulonephrosafasdit Esophageal hernia Destructive lung diseases
- ALLERGIC LUNG DISEASES
In recent decades, a significant increase in the number. patients with allergic diseases of the bronchopulmonary apparatus. Allergic lung diseases include exogenous allergic alveolitis, pulmonary eosinophilia, and drug
- EXOGENOUS ALLERGIC ALVEOLITES
Exogenous allergic alveolitis (synonym: hypersensitive pneumonitis, interstitial granulomatous alveolitis) is a group of diseases caused by intensive and, more rarely, prolonged inhalation of antigens of organic and inorganic dusts and are characterized by diffuse, in contrast to pulmonary eosinophilia, lesions of the alveolar and interstitial structures of the lungs. The emergence of this group
1. General measures aimed at disconnecting the patient from the source of antigen: compliance with sanitary and hygienic requirements at the workplace, technological improvement of industrial and agricultural production, rational employment of patients. 2. Drug treatment. In the acute stage, prednisone 1 mg / kg per day for 1-3 days, followed by a dose reduction in
- Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia
It differs from Leffler's syndrome in a longer (more than 4 weeks) and severe course up to severe intoxication, fever, weight loss, the appearance of pleural effusion with a high content of eosinophils (Lehr-Kindberg syndrome). The prolonged course of pulmonary eosinophilia, as a rule, is the result of an under-examination of the patient in order to identify its cause. Besides the reasons
- PULMONARY EOSINOPHILIA WITH ASTHMATIC SYNDROME
This group of diseases can include bronchial asthma and diseases with a leading broncho-asthmatic syndrome, which are based on other etiological factors. These diseases include: 1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. 2. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. 3. Pulmonary eosinophilia with systemic manifestations. 4. Hyperoseosinophilic
1. Respiratory diseases: A guide for doctors: In 4 volumes. Edited by N.R.Paleeva. T.4. - M .: Medicine. - 1990. - S. 22-39. 2. Silverstov V.P., Bakulin M.P. Allergic lung lesions // Klin.med. - 1987. - No. 12. - S.117-122. 3. Exogenous allergic alveolitis / Ed. A.G. Khomenko, St. Mueller, V. Schilling. - M.: Medicine, 1987. -
- BRONCHEECTATIC DISEASE
Bronchiectatic disease is an acquired (in some cases congenital) disease characterized by a chronic suppurative process in irreversibly changed (enlarged, deformed) and functionally defective bronchi, mainly in the lower parts of the lungs. ETHIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS. Bronchiectasis are congenital in 6% of cases, as a fetal malformation, a consequence