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Hygienic characteristics of environmental factors

The environment - air, water, soil - has a constant impact on the life of a person, his health, as well as on the composition and safety of food products.

According to the WHO, public health is influenced by lifestyle (50%), environment (20%), heredity (20%), quality of care (10%). In this regard, hygiene has the following main tasks:

• study of the influence of certain environmental factors on the human body;

• determination of optimal environmental conditions for human life;

• limiting or eliminating the harmful effects of the environment on the body;

• development of norms and rules for improving the environment and strengthening public health.

To carry out these tasks, hygienic standards are being developed that regulate the physical, chemical, toxicological, radiological, microbiological and parasitological parameters of the external environment. After approval, hygiene standards are issued in the form of sanitary legislative documents, on the basis of which measures aimed at improving the environment are developed.

Of particular relevance in modern conditions is environmental pollution and environmental degradation in the world. Changes in climatic conditions on the planet, an increase in the concentration of toxic substances in air, water, soil, food products, and the complication of technological production processes cause the adaptive capacities of humans, and contribute to the spread of various environmentally dependent diseases. In the development of environmental protection measures, hygienic forecasting, monitoring data, types and volumes of environmental pollution are essential.

Environmental protection is one of the most important state tasks provided for by the Basic Law of the State - the Constitution of the Russian Federation (Ch. 2, Art. 41, 42).

Environmental factors in hygiene practice are divided into:

• for chemical - elements or compounds that are part of the air, water, soil, food, or are impurities to them;

• physical - temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, noise, vibration, ionizing radiation, etc .;

• biological - pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, protozoa, helminths, etc., causing infectious diseases; social - living conditions, depending on the social structure (labor characteristics, living conditions, the nature of food, etc.).

For the hygienic characteristics of environmental objects, two groups of methods are used:

1.
The method of sanitary-epidemiological examination - includes sanitary-topographic, sanitary-technical and sanitary-epidemiological study and description of the object (food, water source, etc.).

2. Laboratory and instrumental methods:

• physical methods - allow you to assess the microclimate of the room (temperature, humidity, air velocity), noise, vibration, etc., as well as the physical properties of food products (density, porosity, etc.);

• sanitary-chemical methods - used to analyze air, water, soil, determine the quality and safety of food products, etc .;

• microbiological methods - are used to assess the microbial contamination of air, water, soil, food products, etc .;

To study the influence of environmental factors on the human body, the following methods are used:

• physiological and biochemical studies of the functional state of organs and systems;

• anthropometric - the study of the physical development of a person (weight, height, etc.);

• clinical - identifying the impact of environmental conditions on human health;

• epidemiological methods - identifying the causes and conditions of the occurrence of infectious and non-infectious diseases;

• experimental - study of the influence of various factors on the human or animal organism;

• toxicological - carried out in experiments on laboratory animals;

• sanitary-statistical methods - they study the indicators of public health, including indicators of mortality, morbidity, birth rate,

average life expectancy, physical development, etc.

The practical implementation of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance using the above methods is assigned to the state sanitary and epidemiological service, the institutions of which should be in each territorial entity.
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Hygienic characteristics of environmental factors

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