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Hygienic characteristics of environmental factors
The environment - air, water, soil - has a constant impact on the life of a person, his health, as well as on the composition and safety of food products.
According to the WHO, public health is influenced by lifestyle (50%), environment (20%), heredity (20%), quality of care (10%). In this regard, hygiene has the following main tasks:
• study of the influence of certain environmental factors on the human body;
• determination of optimal environmental conditions for human life;
• limiting or eliminating the harmful effects of the environment on the body;
• development of norms and rules for improving the environment and strengthening public health.
To carry out these tasks, hygienic standards are being developed that regulate the physical, chemical, toxicological, radiological, microbiological and parasitological parameters of the external environment. After approval, hygiene standards are issued in the form of sanitary legislative documents, on the basis of which measures aimed at improving the environment are developed.
Of particular relevance in modern conditions is environmental pollution and environmental degradation in the world. Changes in climatic conditions on the planet, an increase in the concentration of toxic substances in air, water, soil, food products, and the complication of technological production processes cause the adaptive capacities of humans, and contribute to the spread of various environmentally dependent diseases. In the development of environmental protection measures, hygienic forecasting, monitoring data, types and volumes of environmental pollution are essential.
Environmental protection is one of the most important state tasks provided for by the Basic Law of the State - the Constitution of the Russian Federation (Ch. 2, Art. 41, 42).
Environmental factors in hygiene practice are divided into:
• for chemical - elements or compounds that are part of the air, water, soil, food, or are impurities to them;
• physical - temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, solar radiation, noise, vibration, ionizing radiation, etc .;
• biological - pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, protozoa, helminths, etc., causing infectious diseases; social - living conditions, depending on the social structure (labor characteristics, living conditions, the nature of food, etc.).
For the hygienic characteristics of environmental objects, two groups of methods are used:
The method of sanitary-epidemiological examination - includes sanitary-topographic, sanitary-technical and sanitary-epidemiological study and description of the object (food, water source, etc.).
2. Laboratory and instrumental methods:
• physical methods - allow you to assess the microclimate of the room (temperature, humidity, air velocity), noise, vibration, etc., as well as the physical properties of food products (density, porosity, etc.);
• sanitary-chemical methods - used to analyze air, water, soil, determine the quality and safety of food products, etc .;
• microbiological methods - are used to assess the microbial contamination of air, water, soil, food products, etc .;
To study the influence of environmental factors on the human body, the following methods are used:
• physiological and biochemical studies of the functional state of organs and systems;
• anthropometric - the study of the physical development of a person (weight, height, etc.);
• clinical - identifying the impact of environmental conditions on human health;
• epidemiological methods - identifying the causes and conditions of the occurrence of infectious and non-infectious diseases;
• experimental - study of the influence of various factors on the human or animal organism;
• toxicological - carried out in experiments on laboratory animals;
• sanitary-statistical methods - they study the indicators of public health, including indicators of mortality, morbidity, birth rate,
average life expectancy, physical development, etc.
The practical implementation of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance using the above methods is assigned to the state sanitary and epidemiological service, the institutions of which should be in each territorial entity.
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Hygienic characteristics of environmental factors
- Water as a factor in the environment, its hygienic and epidemiological significance. Rationing the quality of drinking water
The drinking water supply development program is an integral part of the plan for the socio-economic development of territories within the Russian Federation. Water is essential for sustaining life and it is therefore important to provide consumers with good quality water. As you know, the human body consists of 65% of water and even a slight loss of it leads to serious health conditions. Upon loss
- The influence of environmental factors on microorganisms
The life of microorganisms is closely dependent on environmental conditions. Both plants, macroorganisms, and the microworld are significantly affected by various environmental factors. They can be divided into three groups: chemical, physical and
- LESSON 18 TOPIC. PROFESSIONAL DISEASES. PATHOLOGY CAUSED BY EXTERNAL FACTORS
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- CORRELATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN PATHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
The facts accumulated to date by medical genetics allow us to present the whole variety of relationships between heredity and the environment in a generalized form. Imagine a situation where the contribution of heredity to the development of a trait, including a pathological one, is zero. This would mean that the trait is completely formed by the external environment, without any involvement of the genotype. In other words, Wednesday
- Lecture IV. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. INFECTIOUS DISEASES
Among the biological factors that are subject to normalization are those that in one way or another can harm the human body. First of all, these are pathogenic (pathogenic) pathogens of an infectious and invasive nature (bacteria, viruses, fungi, helminths, protozoa), their vital products (toxins, enzymes), various allergens, etc. Pathogens act on
- Biological pollution of environmental objects as an important hygienic and environmental problem
"The term" biological pollution "covers various biological objects that can have direct or indirect (through environmental objects) adverse effects on human health by inhibiting their natural self-cleaning processes" (G.I. Sidorenko). The main components of biological pollution are: living organisms (macro- and microorganisms) and their products
- Pathology caused by adverse environmental factors that are inhaled.
Nowadays, the structure of diseases caused by adverse environmental factors has undergone significant changes due to the manifestation of various pathways of xenobiotics into the human body. During evolution, the bulk of toxic products entered the body through the gastrointestinal tract and rendered harmless in the liver. Currently, the majority of foreign products
- Hygienic requirements for external factors affecting the living conditions of the population
Requirements for the land allotted for the construction of residential buildings. They should be aimed at eliminating the adverse effects of environmental factors (physical, chemical, biological) on the health status of the population and sanitary living conditions. Plots that are most favorable in natural terms are allocated for residential buildings: located on hills, far from
- Hygienic basis for the regulation of factors of the internal environment of the place of residence
A person is influenced by such factors as the indoor environment, microclimate, air quality, levels of insolation and lighting, electromagnetic fields, ionizing radiation, noise, vibration, etc. In the light of modern scientific data, the concept of "environment" should be considered more broadly. The environment for all living organisms, including humans, includes abiotic and biotic factors.
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- The value of environmental factors for hardening. Tempering by air, sun and water
Air quenching. Air is the most affordable hardening agent for all children at any time of the year. The use of air for recreational purposes begins with good ventilation of the room in which the children are. A great influence on strengthening the body of children has outdoor walks. In the summer, the whole life of children (excluding night sleep) should be transferred to the site. IN