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Hygienic regulation of harmful substances in the environment and food

Hygienic regulation is mandatory for all toxic substances entering the human body from the environment - air, water, soil, food, materials in contact with food, etc.

Any chemical is toxic under certain exposure conditions. Toxicity - the ability of a substance to cause harm to a living organism. On the human body has the greatest impact dose of the substance, the duration of exposure, mode and route of entry into the body.

The main hygienic regulation is the maximum permissible concentration of a harmful substance in various environmental objects.

MPC is the maximum permissible concentration of a substance that, when daily exposed to the body for an indefinitely long time, does not cause deviations in the health of the present and subsequent generations. The concentration of a substance is taken into account in mg per volume or mass of the object.

To establish the MAC it is necessary to experimentally substantiate the following indicators:

• threshold concentration - the concentration with which ChHW begins to have a toxic effect;

• subthreshold concentration - a concentration that has no toxic effect;

• maximum inactive concentration - equal to approximately 0.1 threshold concentration;

• safety factor - is introduced to increase the safety of the substance (depending on the degree of toxicity of the substance, cumulation, etc., it can be from 2 to 2000).

When hygienic regulation of harmful chemicals in food products use organoleptic, general hygienic, technological and toxicological indicators of harm.

Rationing of harmful substances in food consists of several stages:

Stage 1 - a preliminary toxicological and hygienic assessment of the test substance, involving the analysis of literature data on the properties of the substance under study and the characteristics of the technological process;

Stage 2 - the determination of the stability of the substance in the process of cooking and storage, as well as possible products of its destruction and transformation;

Stage 3 - the study of the effect of a substance on the organoleptic properties of a food product and the determination of the concentration of a substance that do not impair these properties;

Stage 4 - assessment of the possible effect of a substance on the biological value of food with the determination of the threshold concentration for the general hygienic indicator of harm;

Stage 5 - conducting an acute, subacute and chronic toxicological experiment on laboratory animals. The most sensitive to ChHV, contained in food, pregnant, lactating and feeding on mother's milk animals. Chronic experience in establishing the most inactive and the threshold dose of the test substance is carried out within 8-12 months or throughout the life of the animal receiving the test substance with a diet.

Stage 6 - the study of possible long-term effects of a regulated substance (embryotoxic, gonadotoxic, teratogenic, mutagenic, allergenic, carcinogenic effects).
To do this, it is necessary to study the functions of reproduction of 3-4 generations of animals.

The information obtained at these stages is used to establish the allowable daily dose (DSD), allowable daily intake (DSP) and maximum allowable concentration (MPC) of the substance in food.

In food hygiene, the basic regulation of the regulated substance is the permissible daily dose.

The permissible daily dose (DSD) of a substance is the maximum dose, daily oral administration (from Latin per os - through the mouth), which is harmless throughout the life of a person, i.e. does not adversely affect the livelihoods, health of present and future generations. DSD is expressed in mg per kg of body weight.

Permissible daily intake (DSP) - is determined by multiplying the value of DSD on the human body weight. It characterizes the permissible amount of ChHV in the composition of the diet (mg / day). The average body weight of an adult is assumed to be 60 kg, children - 30 kg.

Knowing the value of DSD, particle board and the average set of food in the daily diet, calculate the MPC of the harmful substance in those products in which it can be.

MPC - the maximum permissible concentration, in mg of substance per kg of product, is determined by calculation:

PDK = (DSP x Ps) / (Mpr x 100)

where: DSP is the allowable daily intake of the substance under regulation;

PS - the actual or predicted content of the substance in this product (in percent DSD or the total content of the substance in the products);

Mpr - the mass of this product in the standard daily diet, kg.

The MPC for foodstuffs is now commonly referred to as MRL (maximum allowable level) and DM (allowable level). According to the content and methods of substantiation of the magnitude of the MPC and MRL, DU are completely identical.

In recent times, standards have been used, called OBUV - approximate safe levels of exposure to harmful substances. They are developed using accelerated and calculated express methods. The term of validity of the shoes is defined by 2-3 years, during which time MPC is developed according to the usual method.

If HCV is highly toxic (LD50 less than 50 mg / kg), cumulative or carcinogenic, mutagenic and allergenic, it is either not allowed to be used deliberately, for example, as food additives, or limit the scope or timing of use. It is also necessary that the similar ChHV is not contained in the objects from which its migration into the food product is possible (fertilizers, pesticides, feed additives, polymeric materials in contact with food, etc.). In cases where such hazardous substances are of natural origin, for example, mercury, lead, cadmium compounds, their content is compared with the background in normal geochemical provinces. The concentration of these substances in the diet should not exceed the established DSD and MPC.
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Hygienic regulation of harmful substances in the environment and food

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