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Ionization of air. Air pollution factors, their effect on the human body

IW is determined by the presence of electrically charged particles in the air, which are formed as a result of the splitting of molecules and atoms of air gases under the action of ionizers (positive ions - cations, negative ions - anions).

Ionizing factors are:

* Ultraviolet rays of the sun;

* Lightning discharges;

* Mechanical shocks and vibrations;

*Surf;

* Waterfalls.

Ions that exist on their own, or attached to neutral molecules of oxygen, nitrogen, or ozone, are called light. Light air ions have a positive effect on the human body. If some suspensions are contained in the air (i.e. the air is not clean), light ions are deposited on these suspensions (dust particles, microbial bodies) and become heavy - indicators of air pollution. The air of the city contains 100-200 light ions in cm3, in rural areas - up to 1000 ions in 1 cm3, in resorts, in mountainous regions, etc. - from 2000 ions 1 cm3.

Ions are attracted to synthetic materials.

Physiological studies have shown that air ionization actively affects the functional systems of the human body. Especially negative oxygen ions (positive changes in gas and mineral metabolism, acceleration of wound healing processes) have a beneficial effect, and positive carbon dioxide ions, on the contrary, negatively (drowsiness, depression, reduces working capacity). Therefore, artificial air ionizers are widely used.
In addition, wet cleaning and through ventilation are mandatory.

Pollution is divided into:

* Mechanical (smoke, soot, dust, sprayed liquids). They irritate the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and eyes, resulting in inflammation (catarrh). Submicroscopic dust and carcinogenic fumes of asphalt, tar, coal burning, and oil burning are especially harmful. Therefore, in the cities green protective zones (sanitary zones) are arranged, which take on these air suspensions;

* Chemical. Emissions from various enterprises cause acute and chronic diseases, poisoning and increase the role of the general incidence. About 60% of all chemical pollution comes from harmful emissions from motor vehicles;

* Biological (fungal spores, bacteria and viruses). Pathogenic bacteria and viruses are especially harmful. In the cold season, the air is less polluted, and in the summer it is more polluted (due to the drying of the upper layers of the soil and increased t °)

Means of struggle against microorganisms:

*Ultra-violet rays;

* Regular ventilation and drying of the room;

*Disinfection.

With increased air pollution, massive diseases arise: caused by microorganisms within one state - this is an epidemic, and spread to several states - a pandemic.
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Ionization of air. Air pollution factors, their effect on the human body

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