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Intestinal infections (typhoid fever, paratyphoid A and B, dysentery, cholera) and their prevention.

Acute intestinal infections include dysentery, typhoid fever, paratyphoid A and B, cholera infectious hepatitis, etc. These diseases are characterized by the same location (intestines), the same transmission route (fecal-oral), similar symptoms (disorders of the intestinal tract).

Diseases are caused by pathogenic bacteria that are transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person. The causative agents of acute intestinal infections enter the body through the mouth. The further fate of the bacteria is different. With varying degrees of immunity and the number of incoming bacteria, bacterial death, slight or rapid development is possible. In the first case, there will be no disease, in the second, the disease will develop on the legs, and in the third, a clearly defined picture will appear. In the last two cases, after recovery, bacterial carriage may form.

Pathogens with feces are excreted from the patient’s body into the external environment, inseminate some objects, and through them enter the body of a healthy person. This transmission of disease is called fecal-oral. Transmission factors for acute intestinal infections include water, soil, food, equipment, implements, dishes, rodents, flies, cockroaches, etc. Animals do not have acute intestinal infections. Thus, an acute intestinal disease occurs when a chain of three links is made up: a source (a patient or a bacterium carrier), transmission factors, and a susceptible organism. In the absence of one link in the chain, intestinal disease does not occur. Based on this statement, preventive measures are built.

The routes of transmission of acute intestinal infections are water and food, and the latter is currently the most likely.

Pathogens survive for quite a long time in water, food products and food (from several days to 2-3 months), die when boiled in two minutes, the range of breeding temperatures ranges from +6 to + 50 ° C, the optimum temperature is + 37 ° C

Food products and food can be infected with the dirty hands of a sick or bacterial carrier, flies, contaminated water, equipment, implements, dishes, and linen. Especially dangerous is the infection of products that do not require heat treatment (cottage cheese, sour cream, vegetables, fruits, etc.) or products that have undergone heat treatment (culinary products, milk, etc.).

Among the preventive measures in the first place is the neutralization of the source of infection. Patients and bacteria carriers are identified and isolated, primarily from food enterprises. In families of patients disinfection is carried out; Bacterial carriers are treated and observed; they are not allowed to work until they are cured.

Most of all measures are taken to eliminate transmission factors. This includes sanitary improvement and maintenance of not only public catering enterprises, but also all food enterprises, the entire village; compliance with all sanitary norms and rules for the reception, transportation, storage, culinary processing of food products, sale and storage of prepared food; strict implementation of health literacy rules.

Finally, the third way of prevention involves increasing the body's resistance to pathogens that have entered the body. It is recommended to lead a healthy lifestyle, take care of your health, take preventive vaccinations according to epidemic indicators to create immunity for a certain period.

Typhoid and paratyphoid A and B are acute infectious diseases of a bacterial nature. The causative agents of typhoid fever and paratyphoid A and B belong to the family of intestinal bacteria of the genus Salmonella.

The optimum temperature for the development of typhoid paratyphoid bacteria is 37 ° C, but they can also develop at 25-40 ° C. These bacteria can withstand heating up to 50 ° C for 60 minutes, up to 58-60 ° C - 30 minutes, up to 80 ° C - 10-15 minutes. At 100 ° C they die instantly.

The causative agents of these infections from the body of a sick person are excreted into the external environment along with feces, urine and saliva. Contact infections, water and foodborne transmission factors are characteristic of these infections.

The causative agents of typhoid fever and paratyphoid for a relatively long time remain viable in foods. These bacteria, depending on the type of product and storage conditions, can remain viable in it for several days, months, and even years. Infection with pathogens of typhoid fever and paratyphoid is extremely dangerous, since in certain products these pathogens can not only persist for a long time, but also multiply.

Typhoparathyphoid diseases are characterized by seasonality: the largest number of cases is recorded in the summer-autumn period. This is explained by the fact that during this period the conditions for the survival and reproduction of bacteria in the external environment, including in food products, are most favorable.

The incubation period for typhoid fever can last from 7 to 28 days, and for paratyphoid fever from 2 days to 2 weeks. The selection of pathogens from the patient's body begins at the end of the incubation period at the height of the disease. The disease begins gradually: fatigue, malaise, headache appear.
The temperature also rises gradually and reaches 39-40 ° C by the end of the first week of illness. Starting from the fourth week, the temperature gradually drops, and the patient begins to recover. Sometimes the disease proceeds in a milder form (more often with paratyphoid or in individuals immunized against typhoid fever). Most of those who have recovered are relieved of pathogens, but 3-5% remain carriers for a long time, and some remain lifelong (chronic bacterial carriers). Chronic bacteria carriers are the main sources of infection.

Dysentery is an infectious disease of a bacterial nature. At present, many independent species of dysentery sticks are known, among which the most common pathogens are Grigoryev-Shiga, Flexner and 3onna and others. Since the 50s of the last century, the circulation of Sonne sticks still prevails.

Dysenteric bacilli are immovable, do not form spores and capsules; facultative anaerobes are formed by the method of respiration. The optimum temperature of their development is 37 ° C. However, Sonne sticks can develop at a temperature of 40-45 ° C.

The stability of various types of dysenteric sticks in the external environment is not the same. Zonne dysentery stick is more resistant. It remains viable in river water for 6-35 days, in well water - up to 26, in tap water - up to 92 days. On the surface of the body of the fly and in its intestines, the stick is viable for 2-5 days.

Unlike other types of pathogens of dysentery, the Sonne coli can not only survive for a long time, but also multiply in food. In addition, the causative agent of Sonne dysentery is less pathogenic than other types, and therefore mainly causes mild and atypical forms of the disease, which often remain obscure and pose a danger to others. Especially dangerous are sick or bacterium carriers that work in catering establishments.

The incubation period for dysentery lasts from 7 to 48 hours. The disease caused by Sonne dysentery bacillus is relatively easy. Typically, the temperature rises slightly or does not rise at all. With the disease, abdominal pain, loose stools (stool frequency does not exceed 2-5 times), sometimes with an admixture of mucus and blood, appear. In mild forms of the disease lasts from 3 to 8 days, in severe forms - up to several weeks.

Cholera. The causative agents of cholera are two varieties of microorganisms - Koch cholera vibrio (classic) and El Tor vibrio. According to the basic morphological properties, these vibrios are not much different from each other. However, cholera caused by the pathogen El Tor has a number of epidemiological features associated with less pathogenicity. With cholera caused by El Tor vibrio, there are a significant number of erased atypical forms and the formation of a longer carriage after a disease, as well as a healthy carriage. In addition, El-Tor vibrio is more resistant to environmental factors. All this can affect the timely identification and isolation of patients.

Vibrions have the appearance of slightly curved sticks, spores and capsules do not form. By type of respiration - obligate aerobes. Vibrio cholerae is able to reproduce at a temperature of 16-40 ° C. The optimum development temperature is 25-38 ° C. Heat and disinfectants are unstable. In a humid environment at a temperature of 80 ° C they die after 5 minutes, when heated to 60 ° C they die after 30 minutes, and when boiled, after 1 minute. Quickly die off at a concentration of active chlorine of 0.3 mg per 1 liter of water. Vibrio cholerae are very sensitive to the action of acids, which must be taken into account when disinfecting objects in the foci of infection and when neutralizing the environment. The causative agents of cholera are able to survive for a long time in the external environment. In feces, they maintain vital activity for more than 3 days, in soil - from 8 to 91, in running water - 3-5, in ponds or wells - 7-13, in sea water - from 10 to 60 days. Vibrio cholerae retain good viability in foods. Depending on the type of product and storage conditions, cholera vibrio can remain viable for up to a month.

The incubation period for cholera lasts from several hours to 5 days. The disease usually begins suddenly. Vomiting, frequent loose stools appear. Loss of fluid on the first day of the disease can reach 10-15 liters or more. Sometimes there are so-called fulminant forms that occur without diarrhea and vomiting, but with a fast onset of fatal outcome. Often there are mild forms of cholera, which are characterized only by intestinal upset, while the patient quickly recovers. Such forms of cholera are more often caused by vibrio El Tor. The timing of the selection of cholera vibrios in convalescent and vibriocarriers rarely exceeds 3 weeks and only in exceptional cases, the selection lasts up to 48-56 days. There are cases when people who have suffered a disease periodically isolated cholera vibrio for 1-3 years.
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Intestinal infections (typhoid fever, paratyphoid A and B, dysentery, cholera) and their prevention.

  1. Typhoid fever, paratyphoid A and B
    Training target: using diagnostic algorithms, be able to establish a diagnosis of typhoid fever, determine the clinical form, severity, complications and prescribe adequate treatment. Assignment for independent study of the topic. Using a textbook and lecture material to acquire the necessary basic knowledge, learn the following sections for practical training: 1) etiology;
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    1. Macroscopic characteristics of the small intestine with cholera enteritis 1. a gray-yellow film tightly soldered to the wall 2. ulceration of the mucous membrane 3. multiple hemorrhages 4. wall sclerosis 2. Elements of the pathogenesis of typhoid fever 1. bacteremia 2. bacteriocholia 3. cerebral swelling 4. exudative inflammation 5. hypersensitivity reaction in the lymphoid apparatus 3. Modern
    Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are acute infectious diseases characterized by bacteremia, fever, intoxication, damage to the lymphatic apparatus of the small intestine, rose-like skin rashes, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Clinical diagnosis The incubation period is from 1 to 3 weeks (on average 2 weeks). The onset is often gradual. Weakness, fatigue, adynamia.
    Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever are called typhoid paratyphoid diseases. Typhoparathyphoid diseases are bacterial diseases, usually of an anthroponous nature, caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella with a fecal-oral transmission mechanism, with a pronounced cyclicity, fever, bacteremia, symptoms of general intoxication and specific damage to the lymphatic apparatus of the small intestine.
  5. Abstract. Intestinal infections and their prevention. Distinctive signs of intestinal infections from food poisoning of microbial nature, 2011
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  6. Intestinal anthroponotic infections and their prevention
    Acute intestinal infections include typhoid, paratyphoid A and B, dysentery, cholera, salmonellosis, infectious hepatitis A, etc. These intestinal infections are characterized by the same localization of the pathogen (intestines), the same infection mechanism (fecal-oral), a similar clinical picture of the disease (gastrointestinal upset) and the same principles for their prevention. Sources of
    Acute intestinal infections include typhoid, paratyphoid A and B, dysentery, cholera, infectious hepatitis, etc. This group of diseases is characterized by the same localization of the pathogen (intestines), the same mechanisms and pathways of infection (fecal-oral, contact-household), similar intestinal manifestations of the disease (intestinal tract dysfunction), as well as general principles of control and
  9. Pathogenesis of typhoid fever and paratyphoid
    In practice, the pathogenesis of typhoid and paratyphoid is identical. The causative agent enters through the mouth. Phases of pathogenesis: • the introduction phase includes the ingestion of a microbe in the mouth, where it is already possible to enter the lymphatic formations (because salmonella are tropic to the lymphatic system). There may be catarrhal inflammation in the tonsillar tissue, and then, at the height of the disease, there may be ulcerative necrotic
  10. Typhoid fever.
    Typhoid fever is an acute intestinal infectious disease caused by S.typhi abdominalis. The causative agent is the main representative of a large genus (2500 serotypes) of salmonella - flagellate gram-negative microbes that cause a disease called salmonellosis. Typhoid fever is the most dangerous form of salmonellosis, therefore it is isolated in an independent form. This is anthroponosis, the source is
  11. Typhoid fever
    Typhoid fever is an acute infectious disease that is caused by Salmonella bacteria and is characterized by damage to the intestinal lymphatic system. The disease proceeds with severe intoxication, an increase in the liver and spleen, and a rash. In the external environment, typhoid paratyphoid bacteria are relatively stable. In water and soil, they can persist from several days to several months.
  12. Typhoid fever
    Typhoid fever is an acute infectious disease caused by typhoid bacilli. Characteristic features are a predominant lesion of the lymphatic apparatus of the small intestine, high fever, severe intoxication and bacteremia. Epidemiology. Mostly people under the age of 20 get sick. The transmission of the pathogen is carried out by contact-household, water, food, and
  13. Typhoid fever
    Particularly dangerous intestinal infection, accompanied by severe intoxication of the body: weakness, malaise, headache, high fever. The causative agent of the disease is Salmonella group A. These bacteria are stable in the external environment. Survive in vegetables (fruits) for 10 days, butter - 25 days, meat - up to 90 days. The optimum development temperature for them is 37 C.
  14. Typhoid fever
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  15. Typhoid fever.
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