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A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRITION SCIENCE

A number of provisions related to the formation of the science of nutrition have been identified as far back as antiquity. The encyclopedic works of Hippocrates (460 - 377 BCE), Galen (About 130 - 200 GG), Ibn Sina (980 - 1037 GG) and other scholars of various nations cover certain provisions of science about nutrition. Hippocrates, for example, in his essay “On Diet,” noted that the amount of food taken depends on the constitution of the body, age, season, weather, and terrain. In the treatise "On a diet for acute diseases," he emphasizes the need to observe moderation in food. The ancient Greek philosopher Socrates (469 - 399 BC) expressed his thought about moderation in food with the following words: "A person eats to live, but does not live to eat."

Many useful tips on nutrition for a healthy and sick person are contained in the Canon of Medical Science, the fundamental work of Ibn Sina (Latinized Avicenna). Ibn Sina believed that food, depending on its composition, can act on the body in three ways: in quality, in elements, in certain substances (toxic substances, alcohol, etc.). Interesting thoughts of Ibn Sina about digestion in the mouth, appetite, diet, the importance of water in the diet, nutrition of children, the elderly.

In Russia, the progressive transformations of Peter I contributed to the rapid development of the country's economy and culture. At this time, control was organized over the receipt, storage and sale of food products, as well as over the nutrition of certain groups of the population, primarily soldiers, sailors, etc. In 1716, the military was published in Russia, and in 1720 - the maritime regulations, which first introduced nutritional standards for army soldiers. By the end of the XVII century, in connection with the successes of medicine and other sciences, as well as the rapid development of sanitary science, objective conditions were prepared for the development of food hygiene as a science.

Towards the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 19th century, food hygiene issues began to be developed on a scientific and experimental basis. A large role in the development of nutrition science belongs to the German chemist J. Liebig (1803 - 1873), who for the first time determined the importance of nutrients for the human body and gave them a scientifically based classification. He divided all food substances into plastic (proteins), respiratory (carbohydrates, fats) and salts.

An important role in the development of the science of nutrition was also played by German scientists I. Pettenkoffer (1818 - 1901) and especially C. Voight (1831 - 1908). These scientists determined the nature of the exchange of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the human body and established the dependence of the conversion of these substances on a number of factors: physical activity, rest, ambient temperature, etc. K. Voith determined the human body's needs for energy and nutrients, substantiated daily allowance norms of consumption of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. These norms have not lost their significance to the present. In 1881 Voith proposed the first nutritional standards for people with moderate labor: 118g protein, 56g fat, 500g carbohydrates.

A great contribution to the development of nutrition science was made by domestic scientists. S.F. Khotovitsky (1796 - 1886) compiled the first food hygiene manual with elements of food hygiene. Based on domestic and foreign experience in this fundamental work, the author substantiated in detail the provisions relating to various nutrition issues, and paid particular attention to the quality of food supplies. This manual emphasizes that the harmful qualities of food can arise from the “natural properties” of food products or arise from the process of “inadvertent” and “untidy” receipt, manufacture and consumption, as well as when the food comes in contact with “tools and utensils” used to its “manufacture and storage”.

A great contribution to the development of nutrition science was made by the founder of Russian physiological science I.M. Sechenov (1829 - 1905). In his studies, he paid great attention to the study of the nervous system, as well as to the processes of transformation of nutrients in the human body, as he believed that this would make it possible to know the essence of life phenomena in their relationship. Based on the idea of ​​I.M. Sechenov his student M.N. Shaternikov developed a method for studying gas exchange in a special modification, which made it possible to obtain objective data for rationing nutrition and to do a lot of work to develop nutrition standards for the population.

The leading role in the formation and development of food hygiene as an independent section of hygienic science was played by the founders of domestic hygiene A.P. Dobroslavin, F.F. Erisman and G.V. Khlopin. As a result of their scientific work and practical activities, hygiene as a science, including food hygiene, has acquired a social character.

A.P. Dobroslavin (1842 - 1889) - the founder of the first independent department of hygiene in St. Petersburg at the Medical and Surgical Academy, the creator of the first Russian hygiene school. At the initiative and insistence of Dobroslavin, a city analytical laboratory was organized in St. Petersburg and the question of creating camp laboratories was raised for the first time, allowing to study the basic qualities of food and food products in any conditions. Under his leadership, the composition and nutritional value of food products and the hygiene issues of nutrition of various population groups (urban and rural population, troops, children, prisoners of imperial prisons, etc.) were studied.

F.F. Erisman (1842 - 1915), the Swiss by origin gave the best years of his life to the service of Russia. F.F. Erisman is the author of a three-volume guide, The Hygiene Course. The general laws of nutrition are described here, proper nutrition of a person in various living conditions, etc. is described. In 1882, F.F. Erisman headed the Department of Hygiene at Moscow University. At the initiative of F.F. Erisman in 1891 created the Moscow Sanitary Station - the prototype of the modern SES. This station was transformed into the F.F. Sanitary Institute Erisman, which was organized by the food laboratory. F.F. Erisman was a versatile scientist, he published more than 200 scientific papers. On food hygiene, he carried out 12 scientific studies related mainly to the nutrition of industrial workers (in the factories of the Moscow province).
F.F. Erisman developed a methodology for studying the nutrition of the population.

G.V. Khlopin (1863 - 1929) wrote fundamental scientific works on the most diverse branches of hygiene and sanitary chemistry. More than 30 of his works are devoted to food hygiene. He is the author of a three-volume guide, Food Research Methods. Khlopin was the first to examine clay glazed dishes and showed that the products stored in these dishes may contain lead in quantities that are not indifferent to the body. He was also interested in the issues of catering, the problems of providing the population with protein, especially in difficult hungry years. G.V. Khlopin did a lot of rationing of military nutrition; he was the founder of the national hygienic school, which brought up many prominent hygienic scientists.

In the 20s of the last century, M.N. headed the scientific work in the field of nutrition. Shaternikov (1870-1939), who not only conducted a number of important studies, but also put them into practice. The main merit of M.N. Shaternikova is an intensive study of nutrition and its rationing for certain groups of the population. M.N. Shaternikov together with P.N. The Diatroptovs (1859-1934) were offered the first domestic protein standards: 110g / day (100 g digestible) for moderate work and 130 g / day (115 g digestible) for hard work. Under the direction of M.N. Shaternikov developed the nutritional standards of the country's population, which formed the basis for planning food production in the recovery period. Catering on a scientific basis and the creation of an economic base for this was a prerequisite for the organization of special research institutes.

In 1930, the Central Scientific Research Institute of Nutrition of the People's Commissar of the RSFSR was opened (currently the Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Russia). In the same year, the Kharkov Central Institute of Nutrition was established in Ukraine with branches in Kiev, Dnepropetrovsk, etc. In 1932, the central specialized hygiene magazine Issues of Nutrition began to be published.

During the Great Patriotic War, scientific topics in the field of food hygiene were closely related to the needs of the front and rear: the prevention of food poisoning and other diseases associated with the consumption of sanitary and epidemiologically dangerous food; prevention of malnutrition diseases (alimentary dystrophy, vitamin deficiencies, etc.) and others. During this period, large-scale scientific research was carried out in a short time. During the war, a large number of materials on the organization of catering in the troops were published.

In the post-war period, the scientific basis for the nutrition of a healthy and sick person was developed in various directions. Until the end of the 50s, work on the physiology of nutrition predominated (O.P. Molchanova, I.P. Razenkova, and others).

In the same period, the work of D.I. Lobanova. He is the founder of the scientific technology of the culinary process. Under the direction of D.I. Lobanova developed most of the substantiated provisions that came into practice. Monograph articles and works, as well as a textbook on the technology of production of catering products, have created a solid base for the training of engineers and process engineers for the catering system. In the development of scientific technology of culinary production, a large participation

In the 60-70 years of the last century, the Institute of Nutrition of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR under the guidance of Academician A.A. Pokrovsky significantly expanded the range of biochemical studies for the development of the concept of balanced nutrition.

It should be noted that a significant role in the development of nutrition science belongs to Ukrainian scientists. The coordination of scientific research in the field of food hygiene in Ukraine is entrusted to the Ukrainian Research Institute of Food Hygiene. In the 70-80 years of the last century, this institute was headed by P.N. Maystruk. Under his leadership, a number of important studies were carried out in the field of development and biomedical assessment of new food sources, clarification of the requirements of different categories of the population for nutrients and food products, studying the chemical composition of food products and culinary dishes, developing the basics of therapeutic nutrition, etc.

Currently, the Ukrainian Research Institute of Food Hygiene solves a number of major problems in the field of food hygiene, which are primarily associated with the refinement and processing of a number of regulatory documents in the field of nutrition in connection with the formation of an independent state of Ukraine. For example, the first national nutritional standards for residents of Ukraine, new sanitary rules for the storage of especially perishable products, and others were developed. The Institute also conducts a number of fundamental studies, the most important of which is the development of principles and products of radioprotective nutrition in connection with the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, research chemical composition of food products and ensuring their harmlessness in connection with the aggravated environmental situation, the study and development of acceptable pollution standards food products with salts of heavy metals, pesticides, microorganisms, bacterial and mycotoxins, etc.

A significant contribution to the development of nutrition science is made by the Department of Nutrition Hygiene of medical institutes of Ukraine. Active creative work in the field of solving the problems of nutrition science is currently carried out by V.D. Vanhanen, V.I. Tsipriyan and others. A number of other specialized departments of various universities are also involved in nutrition issues: trade, national economy, etc.

A prominent role in solving the problem of industrialization of public catering, the development of new methods of mechanical culinary and heat treatment, the development of new dishes and culinary products belongs to M.I. Belyaev. Under his leadership, a number of serious studies of a fundamental and practical nature have been carried out at the Kharkov Institute of Public Catering (currently the Kharkov University of Public Catering) over the past 10-15 years.
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A BRIEF REVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRITION SCIENCE

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