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Lecture IV. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. INFECTIOUS DISEASES


Among the biological factors that are subject to normalization are those that in one way or another can harm the human body. First of all, these are pathogenic (pathogenic) pathogens of an infectious and invasive nature (bacteria, viruses, fungi, helminths, protozoa), their vital products (toxins, enzymes), various allergens, etc.
Pathogenic microorganisms act on the human body, like chemicals, on a dose-time-effect basis. Therefore, it is necessary to control them quantitatively, i.e. carry out rationing.
The natural habitat of pathogenic pathogens is the human or animal organism.
One of the tasks of hygiene is the prevention of all diseases, including infectious diseases, arising as a result of the introduction of specific pathogens of a particular disease into the human or animal organism (infection - introduction, infection).
The causative agents of infections (microbes) are divided into:
- saprophytes, living and reproducing in the external environment, feeding on dead organic materials;
- parasites penetrate the body, multiply and produce poisons (toxins).

The relevance of the fight against infectious diseases and its complexity led to the separation of an independent science - epidemiology (from the Greek words epi - for; demos - people).
The epidemic is a widespread among the population of infectious diseases that cover large groups of people.
A pandemic is an extremely widespread infectious disease spanning entire continents or the entire globe.
Her tasks are:
- identification of the source of infection;
- study of the mechanism of infection;
- patterns of infection;
- study of the ways of spreading and extinction of epidemics;
- development of infection control measures.
Epidemiology and hygiene are inextricably linked and serve the cause of protecting public health.
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Lecture IV. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. INFECTIOUS DISEASES

  1. Soil as an environmental factor. The role of soil in the transmission of epidemic, infectious and parasitic diseases. Soil pollution and self-cleaning
    The study of soil, its assessment of various indicators can conditionally be divided into 4 stages. I. The Dopaster period (until 1852). The central point of this period is the localistic theory of Pettenkofer, who believed that all epidemics are closely linked to the mechanical composition of the soil, the content of carbon dioxide and the amount of organic substances. Unaware of infectious agents
  2. Biological pollution of environmental objects as an important hygienic and environmental problem
    "The term" biological pollution "covers various biological objects that can have direct or indirect (through environmental objects) adverse effects on human health by inhibiting their natural self-cleaning processes" (G.I. Sidorenko). The main components of biological pollution are: living organisms (macro- and microorganisms) and their products
  3. The influence of environmental factors on microorganisms
    The life of microorganisms is closely dependent on environmental conditions. Both plants, macroorganisms, and the microworld are significantly affected by various environmental factors. They can be divided into three groups: chemical, physical and
  4. Hygienic characteristics of environmental factors
    The environment - air, water, soil - has a constant impact on the life of a person, his health, as well as on the composition and safety of food products. According to the WHO, public health is influenced by lifestyle (50%), environment (20%), heredity (20%), quality of care (10%). In this regard, hygiene has the following main tasks: • study
  5. CORRELATION OF GENETIC FACTORS AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS IN PATHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
    The facts accumulated to date by medical genetics allow us to present the whole variety of relationships between heredity and the environment in a generalized form. Imagine a situation where the contribution of heredity to the development of a trait, including a pathological one, is zero. This would mean that the trait is completely formed by the external environment, without any involvement of the genotype. In other words, Wednesday
  6. Pathology caused by adverse environmental factors that are inhaled.
    Nowadays, the structure of diseases caused by adverse environmental factors has undergone significant changes due to the manifestation of various pathways of xenobiotics into the human body. During evolution, the bulk of toxic products entered the body through the gastrointestinal tract and rendered harmless in the liver. Currently, the majority of foreign products
  7. LESSON 18 TOPIC. PROFESSIONAL DISEASES. PATHOLOGY CAUSED BY EXTERNAL FACTORS
    Motivational characteristic of the topic. Knowledge of topic materials is necessary for their successful mastery in clinical departments. In the practical work of a doctor, this knowledge is necessary for the clinical anatomical analysis of sectional observations and for comparing clinical data with the results of a biopsy study. The general purpose of the lesson. Learn to identify macro - and microscopic signs of acute and
  8. DISEASES CAUSED BY BIOLOGICAL AGENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
    DISEASES CAUSED BY BIOLOGICAL AGENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
  9. Water as a factor in the environment, its hygienic and epidemiological significance. Rationing the quality of drinking water
    The drinking water supply development program is an integral part of the plan for the socio-economic development of territories within the Russian Federation. Water is essential for sustaining life and it is therefore important to provide consumers with good quality water. As you know, the human body consists of 65% of water and even a slight loss of it leads to serious health conditions. Upon loss
  10. The value of environmental factors for hardening. Tempering by air, sun and water
    Air quenching. Air is the most affordable hardening agent for all children at any time of the year. The use of air for recreational purposes begins with good ventilation of the room in which the children are. A great influence on strengthening the body of children is provided by walks in the fresh air. In the summer, the whole life of children (excluding night sleep) should be transferred to the site. IN
  11. Lecture number 8 Topic: Infectious diseases
    Pathogens. 2. Classification. 3. Methods of prevention. 1.Infectious disease - a disease that is caused by microorganisms that can be transmitted from a patient to a healthy one. FEATURES: 1. Infectious (rabies, tetanus). 2. are epidemic. 3. after infection, a latent period (incubation) of 1-7 days passes before the onset of the disease. - ARVI 21d. - measles
  12. Health damaging factors. Infectious diseases and their prevention. Addiction.
    Health damaging factors. Infectious diseases and their prevention.
  13. The influence of environmental conditions on microorganisms.
    Physical factors. 2. Chemical factors. 3. Biological factors. The external environment is a combination of physical, chemical and biological factors on which all the functions of the organism living in a given environment and its life processes depend. Physical factors. These include: temperature, humidity, pressure, light, radiant energy, the nature of the nutrient medium.
  14. Determination of radioactivity of environmental objects and animal products
    Purpose of the lesson: To acquire the practical skills of radiation monitoring of environmental objects, meat, secondary products of slaughter of cattle, meat products by express methods of radiometry. Tasks: 1. Learn to take samples of environmental objects 2. Learn the rules of sampling animals and plant products Research objects. Meat and bone of various species of slaughtered animals and poultry;
  15. Lecture II. AIR HYGIENE
    Issues of the topic “Hygiene of the air” is a section of communal hygiene. The air environment is a gaseous envelope surrounding the globe, consisting of a mixture of gases. It is divided into: 1. Free atmosphere (atmospheric air). 2. The atmosphere of the premises (industrial, residential and public buildings). It is necessary to reckon with the sanitary state of the environment, because adverse changes in
  16. Options for the biological effects of environmental pollutants
    Environmental pollutants cause various biological effects in the human body. Annoying effect. Substances cause acute or chronic irritation, and then aseptic inflammation of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, conjunctiva of the eyes, skin. Toxic effect. The action that causes damage to the tissues of the liver, lungs, kidneys, heart. Such a substance in toxicology
  17. 3. EXTERNAL FACTORS
    The partial pressure of CO2 and O2 in the blood 25-1. Autoregulation of cerebral circulation. Partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood (PaCO2) is the most important external factor affecting MK. MK is directly proportional to PaCO2 ranging from 20 to ZOmmrt. Art. (Fig. 25-2). The increase in PaCO2 by 1 mm RT. Art. entails an instant increase in MK by 1-2 ml / 100 g / min, a decrease in PaCO2 leads to
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