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Microflora of water of various sources of water supply in Troitsk
Zelenskaya A.P., Peretrukhina M.A.
Scientific adviser: Zhukova M.G. cand. vet. Sciences, Associate Professor Microbiology and Virology FSEI HPE “Ural State Academy of Veterinary Medicine”,
Water is the most important substance on earth, without which no living organism can exist and biological, chemical reactions and technological processes cannot occur. A connection between the incidence of the population and the nature of water consumption has long been noted.
The main source of bacterial contamination of water bodies is domestic water and some industrial wastewater. Wastewater from urban sewers contains billions of microbial cells in 1 ml. The microflora of domestic wastewater consists mainly of saprophytic microorganisms released from the intestines of humans and animals, as well as microbes washed away from the human body and surrounding objects. One person excrets several trillions of microorganisms with feces per day, including: bacteria of the Escherichia coli group, enterococci, spore aerobic and anaerobic coli, etc.
Constantly found in water: Ps. fluorescens, Bact. aquatilis communis, Micr. candicans, micr. roseus, Sarcina lutea, Torula rosea; less commonly, spore-forming bacteria in you. cereus and others. In clean water, up to 80% of all aerobic saprophytic microbes account for coccal forms, 20% are rod-shaped.
The aim of our work was: the study of the microflora of water of various sources of water supply in the city of Troitsk.
The objective of the work is to conduct physicochemical and microbiological analysis of water of various sources of water supply in the city of Troitsk.
We conducted an opinion poll in oral form. 100 people were interviewed. As a result, the following data were obtained: a large part of the population of the city of Troitsk is not satisfied with the quality of tap water, but uses it because it is available and it is convenient than taking water in a well or in a well. Despite this, many people do not risk using it without boiling it. In the spring, when the quality of the source water drops, many people take water from springs and wells.
We selected 3 samples of drinking water from various sources of water supply in the city of Troitsk:
1- well water from Tokarevka;
2- well water from the settlement of G oncharka;
3- tap water.
Samples were selected according to the requirements of GOST.
We conducted chemical-toxicological studies of water samples on the main standardized quality indicators. Table 1 shows the results.
The content of calcium and chlorides does not exceed the MPC. Determination of the total content of calcium and magnesium showed that water is mostly hard. Except for sample No. 2. We also conducted a sanitary-microbiological assessment of water quality for:
1. Determination of the total number of microorganisms (KMAFAnM).
2. Determination of common and thermotolerant coliform bacteria by the titration method.
3. Determination of spore sulfite-reducing clostridia by direct inoculation.
The method for determining KMAFAnM is based on the ability of mesophilic aerobic and
facultatively anaerobic microorganisms grow on nutrient agar at a temperature of 37 ° C for 24 hours, with the formation of visible colonies with an increase of 2 times.
Result sample - 14 CFU in 1 ml of test water;
2. sample - more than 300 CFU in 1 ml of test water;
3. sample - lack of growth in 1 ml of water.
The method for determination of common and thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria by the titration method is based on the accumulation of bacteria after sowing a specified volume of water in a liquid nutrient medium, followed by reseeding on a selective solid nutrient medium with lactose and identification of colonies by cultural and biochemical tests.
The presence of gas, sediment, turbidity in the accumulation medium (Kessler) was revealed in all samples of the studied water. On the Endo medium, colonies of a dark red color with metallic luster, typical for lactose-positive bacteria, convex with a red center (100 ml).
The method for determination of spore sulfite-reducing clostridia by direct inoculation is based on inoculation of the established volume of water into test tubes with iron-sulfite agar, incubation of inoculations at a temperature of 44 ° C for 24 hours and counting of black colonies.
In all samples of the studied water, no spores of sulfite-reducing clostridia were found (in 20 ml of water).
For water disinfection apply:
3 UV exposure
4 Iodine treatment
5 Ozonation of water
6 Silver treatment
Chlorination is the most common way to disinfect drinking water. Chlorine inhibits microbial enzyme systems that catalyze redox processes. Chlorination is also used for disinfecting water in centralized water supply systems for epidemiological indications, as well as for disinfecting wastewater, swimming pool water, bleaching, deferrization of industrial waters, etc. The consequences of excessive chlorination are: oncological and skin diseases; may provoke a miscarriage in pregnant women; damage to the city communications system.
Another common method is boiling. Water becomes softer, as temporary hardness precipitates, some volatile organic substances evaporate. For reliable disinfection, it is recommended to boil water for 15-20 minutes. The causative agents of most serious diseases can not withstand high temperatures (the exception is the controversy of some pathogens).
Like us, our planet has a circulatory system. Earth’s blood is water, and blood vessels are rivers, streams, streams and lakes. And this is not just a comparison, an artistic metaphor. Water on Earth plays the same role as blood in the human body, and as scientists have recently noticed, the structure of the river network is very similar to the structure of the human circulatory system. passing from soil to plants, from plants to the atmosphere, flowing along rivers from continents to oceans and coming back with air currents, connecting various components of nature with each other, turning them into a single geographical system. Water does not just pass from one natural component to another. Like blood, it carries with it a huge amount of chemicals, exporting them from the soil to plants, from land to lakes and oceans, from the atmosphere to the earth.
Based on the data collected by us, it was concluded that not a single water sample meets safety indicators: it is hard (except for sample No. 2), in all samples growth of E. coli was detected, which is not allowed in 100 ml of water. Therefore, drinking water from a tap without additional purification and boiling is impossible.
List of references
1. Our Planet. - M .; 1985.
2. Chernyak, V.Z. Seven miracles and others. - M .; 1983.
3. Stepanov, V.N. The nature of the oceans. - M .; 1982.
4. Reference "General hygiene", - M., 2007.
5. Petryanov, I.V. The most unusual substance in the world. - M., 1975.
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Microflora of water of various sources of water supply in Troitsk
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