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Chlorine has the ability to stand out with sweat, but the main excretion of chlorine occurs in the urine.
The natural chlorine content in foods is negligible. It is somewhat larger in products of animal origin, for example: in egg — 196, milk — 106, cheese — 880 mg per 100 g of product.
The need for chlorine is 4-6 g per day.
Sulfur is actively involved in many processes in the body. It is part of some amino acids - methionine, cystine, cysteine, vitamins - thiamine and biotin, as well as insulin produced by the pancreas. The bulk of the sulfur associated with proteins. Much sulfur is found in nerve tissue, bones, hair, bile and blood.
Sources of sulfur are mainly animal products:
cheese contains 263, fish — 175, meat — 230, eggs — 195 mg per 100 g of product.
The need of adults for sulfur is approximately determined in the amount of 1 g / day.
Biomicroelements unite a significant group of mineral substances that are represented in food products in very small quantities, but which are characterized by pronounced biological properties. These include iron, copper, cobalt, iodine, fluorine, zinc, strontium, etc.
Iron plays an important role in blood formation, normalization of the blood. About 60% of the total amount of iron contained in the body is concentrated in the hemochromogen - the main part of hemoglobin. Insufficient intake of iron can lead to the development of anemia. This is especially true for children whose iron reserves are limited. Iron can be deposited in the body. Iron takes part in the reactions of oxidation and reduction, catalyses the processes of tissue respiration.
The sources of iron in mixed foods are the majority of the products used. It is easily absorbed in the body of iron contained in vegetables and fruits. The greatest amount of iron is found in the liver, kidneys, caviar, meat products, eggs, nuts.
The adult's need for iron is 10 mg / day for men and 18 mg / day for women.
Copper is the second (after iron) blood-forming biomicrocell. Copper promotes the transfer of iron to the bone marrow. The effect of copper on the function of the endocrine glands and its connection with insulin and adrenaline are also noted. Copper is contained in the body of an adult in the amount of 150 mg, it is found mainly in the liver, kidneys, heart, muscles.
Copper is contained in the liver, fish, egg yolk and green vegetables. Daily requirement in it is about 2.0 mg.
Manganese activates the processes of bone formation, blood formation, promotes fat metabolism, has lipotropic properties, affects the function of the endocrine glands.
Excessive amounts of manganese can lead to changes in bones that are identical to rickets.
Manganese prevents liver obesity and contributes to the overall utilization of fat in the body.
Manganese is involved in the metabolism of certain vitamins, it can be considered as a factor contributing to the accumulation of ascorbic acid in the tissues of animals and plants.
Its main sources are vegetable products, especially leafy vegetables, beets, blueberries, dill, nuts, legumes, tea.
The need for manganese is about 5 mg per day.
Cobalt is the third biomicrocell involved in blood formation; it activates the formation of red blood cells and hemoglobin. The hematopoietic effect of cobalt is manifested under the condition of a sufficiently high level of copper in the body.
Cobalt is the main source material for the formation of vitamin B12 in the body. Cobalt is the most abundant in the pancreas.
Meeting the body's need for cobalt is possible with a mixed diet, although cobalt is found in natural foods in small quantities. Cobalt is found in beef liver - 13.5, beets - 12.1, strawberries - 9.8, in oatmeal groats - 7.56 mg per 100 g of the product. The need for cobalt is approximately 100-200 µg / day.
Nickel on biological action has much in common with cobalt in relation to stimulating blood formation processes.
In nickel-rich areas, there is an increased incidence of corneas in humans. Nickel is found in large quantities in plant products growing on the soils of “nickel” areas, in sea and river water.
The need for nickel has not been established.
Strontium plays a significant role in bone formation processes. In bone tissue, the content of strontium is 0,024% in terms of ash. Increased introduction of strontium inhibits osteogenesis and leads to disruption of the ossification processes and the occurrence in experimental animals of a disease called strontium rickets. Unlike normal rickets, this disease is not cured with vitamin D preparations or with a balanced diet.
Biomicrocells associated with endemic diseases are iodine, fluorine.
Iodine is involved in the formation of thyroid hormone - thyroxin, which enhances the oxidative processes and basal metabolism of the body, increasing oxygen consumption. The development of thyrotoxicosis is promoted by a diet containing excessive amounts of carbohydrates and poor in animal proteins and vitamins.
Iodine is distributed unevenly in nature; the largest quantities are concentrated in seawater, air, and soil in coastal areas. These areas have the highest iodine content in local foods.

Endemic goiter is common in all countries of the world in mountainous or lowland areas with low natural iodine content in local products. This disease is characterized by enlargement of the thyroid gland, various clinical manifestations. Iodine deficiency leads to a decrease in secretion and production of thyroid hormones.
Prevention of endemic goiter includes specific and general measures. Specific measures include the systematic provision of iodized salt to the population, which allows for the daily intake of about 200 μg iodine into the human body.
Fluoride plays an important role in the development of teeth, the formation of dentin and tooth enamel, as well as bone formation. With a lack of fluorine, dental caries occurs - a pathological process, manifested by demineralization and progressive destruction of hard tooth tissues with the formation of a cavity defect. Excess fluoride in drinking water leads to inhibition of fat and carbohydrate metabolism and mottling of tooth enamel - fluorosis.

Prevention of fluorosis mainly consists in reducing the fluorine content in water by special treatment (defluorination).
The maximum permissible concentrations of fluoride can be considered: in water — 1.2 mg / l, food - 2.4 - 4.8 mg per 1 kg of the diet.
With insufficient fluorine content in water (less than 0.5 mg / l), contributing to the development of dental caries, fluoridation of drinking water (0.7–1.2 mg / l) is performed.
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