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MINERAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR VALUE IN FOOD

Chlorine has the ability to stand out with sweat, but the main excretion of chlorine occurs in the urine.
The natural chlorine content in foods is negligible. It is somewhat larger in products of animal origin, for example: in egg — 196, milk — 106, cheese — 880 mg per 100 g of product.
The need for chlorine is 4-6 g per day.
Sulfur is actively involved in many processes in the body. It is part of some amino acids - methionine, cystine, cysteine, vitamins - thiamine and biotin, as well as insulin produced by the pancreas. The bulk of the sulfur associated with proteins. Much sulfur is found in nerve tissue, bones, hair, bile and blood.
Sources of sulfur are mainly animal products:
cheese contains 263, fish — 175, meat — 230, eggs — 195 mg per 100 g of product.
The need of adults for sulfur is approximately determined in the amount of 1 g / day.
Biomicroelements unite a significant group of mineral substances that are represented in food products in very small quantities, but which are characterized by pronounced biological properties. These include iron, copper, cobalt, iodine, fluorine, zinc, strontium, etc.
Iron plays an important role in blood formation, normalization of the blood. About 60% of the total amount of iron contained in the body is concentrated in the hemochromogen - the main part of hemoglobin. Insufficient intake of iron can lead to the development of anemia. This is especially true for children whose iron reserves are limited. Iron can be deposited in the body. Iron takes part in the reactions of oxidation and reduction, catalyses the processes of tissue respiration.
The sources of iron in mixed foods are the majority of the products used. It is easily absorbed in the body of iron contained in vegetables and fruits. The greatest amount of iron is found in the liver, kidneys, caviar, meat products, eggs, nuts.
The adult's need for iron is 10 mg / day for men and 18 mg / day for women.
Copper is the second (after iron) blood-forming biomicrocell. Copper promotes the transfer of iron to the bone marrow. The effect of copper on the function of the endocrine glands and its connection with insulin and adrenaline are also noted. Copper is contained in the body of an adult in the amount of 150 mg, it is found mainly in the liver, kidneys, heart, muscles.
Copper is contained in the liver, fish, egg yolk and green vegetables. Daily requirement in it is about 2.0 mg.
Manganese activates the processes of bone formation, blood formation, promotes fat metabolism, has lipotropic properties, affects the function of the endocrine glands.
Excessive amounts of manganese can lead to changes in bones that are identical to rickets.
Manganese prevents liver obesity and contributes to the overall utilization of fat in the body.
Manganese is involved in the metabolism of certain vitamins, it can be considered as a factor contributing to the accumulation of ascorbic acid in the tissues of animals and plants.
Its main sources are vegetable products, especially leafy vegetables, beets, blueberries, dill, nuts, legumes, tea.
The need for manganese is about 5 mg per day.
Cobalt is the third biomicrocell involved in blood formation; it activates the formation of red blood cells and hemoglobin. The hematopoietic effect of cobalt is manifested under the condition of a sufficiently high level of copper in the body.
Cobalt is the main source material for the formation of vitamin B12 in the body. Cobalt is the most abundant in the pancreas.
Meeting the body's need for cobalt is possible with a mixed diet, although cobalt is found in natural foods in small quantities. Cobalt is found in beef liver - 13.5, beets - 12.1, strawberries - 9.8, in oatmeal groats - 7.56 mg per 100 g of the product. The need for cobalt is approximately 100-200 µg / day.
Nickel on biological action has much in common with cobalt in relation to stimulating blood formation processes.
In nickel-rich areas, there is an increased incidence of corneas in humans. Nickel is found in large quantities in plant products growing on the soils of “nickel” areas, in sea and river water.
The need for nickel has not been established.
Strontium plays a significant role in bone formation processes. In bone tissue, the content of strontium is 0,024% in terms of ash. Increased introduction of strontium inhibits osteogenesis and leads to disruption of the ossification processes and the occurrence in experimental animals of a disease called strontium rickets. Unlike normal rickets, this disease is not cured with vitamin D preparations or with a balanced diet.
Biomicrocells associated with endemic diseases are iodine, fluorine.
Iodine is involved in the formation of thyroid hormone - thyroxin, which enhances the oxidative processes and basal metabolism of the body, increasing oxygen consumption. The development of thyrotoxicosis is promoted by a diet containing excessive amounts of carbohydrates and poor in animal proteins and vitamins.
Iodine is distributed unevenly in nature; the largest quantities are concentrated in seawater, air, and soil in coastal areas. These areas have the highest iodine content in local foods.

Endemic goiter is common in all countries of the world in mountainous or lowland areas with low natural iodine content in local products. This disease is characterized by enlargement of the thyroid gland, various clinical manifestations. Iodine deficiency leads to a decrease in secretion and production of thyroid hormones.
Prevention of endemic goiter includes specific and general measures. Specific measures include the systematic provision of iodized salt to the population, which allows for the daily intake of about 200 μg iodine into the human body.
Fluoride plays an important role in the development of teeth, the formation of dentin and tooth enamel, as well as bone formation. With a lack of fluorine, dental caries occurs - a pathological process, manifested by demineralization and progressive destruction of hard tooth tissues with the formation of a cavity defect. Excess fluoride in drinking water leads to inhibition of fat and carbohydrate metabolism and mottling of tooth enamel - fluorosis.

Prevention of fluorosis mainly consists in reducing the fluorine content in water by special treatment (defluorination).
The maximum permissible concentrations of fluoride can be considered: in water — 1.2 mg / l, food - 2.4 - 4.8 mg per 1 kg of the diet.
With insufficient fluorine content in water (less than 0.5 mg / l), contributing to the development of dental caries, fluoridation of drinking water (0.7–1.2 mg / l) is performed.
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MINERAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR VALUE IN FOOD

  1. Hygienic importance of minerals and vitamins in the diet of the population
    Minerals and vitamins play a very important and at the same time peculiar role in the vital activity of the organism. First of all, they are not used as energy materials, which is a specific feature for proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Another distinctive feature of these nutrients is the relatively very insignificant quantitative need for them in the body. Enough
  2. The value of fats, carbohydrates and minerals in human nutrition. The norms of these components of food and the sources of their entry into the human body
    As mentioned in the previous lecture, fats are substances that perform in the body mainly energy function. In this regard, fats are superior to all other components of food (carbohydrates and proteins), since their combustion releases 2 times more energy (1 g of fat forms 9.3 kcal, while 1 g of protein and the corresponding amount of carbohydrates is only 4, 3 kcal). However biological
  3. Nutrition as a factor in the preservation and promotion of health. Physiological norms of nutrition. The value of the individual components of food in human nutrition. The value of proteins in human nutrition, their norms and sources of entry into the body
    Nutrition is one of the most active and important environmental factors, which has a variety of effects on the human body, ensures its growth, development, preservation of health, disability and optimal life expectancy. All this is provided by a daily, regulated meal with a certain set of foods. Foods are complex
  4. The value of connective tissue elements, endothelial cells and blood cell elements in the mechanisms of inflammation
    The role of connective tissue elements in the development of the inflammatory process is extremely important. Sometimes inflammation is identified with the response of histion, the structural unit of connective tissue to the action of the altering factor. As you know, connective tissue consists of cells, fibers and the main substance. Specific fixed cells are fibroblasts and reticular cells,
  5. Diseases associated with a lack of vitamins and minerals
    Hypovitaminosis A (A hypovitaminosis) occurs when there is a lack of vitamin A in the body (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid), it is clinically manifested by growth retardation, development, reduction of natural resistance and local immune protection, increased peeling of the epidermis and dermatitis, metaplasia and keratinization of the mucous membranes and glands. More often the disease is registered in
  6. The value of vitamins and minerals for the growth and development of the child
    For the normal development of the body, children should have enough vitamins in their diet. They not only protect the body from diseases associated with them, but also are components of the tissues. Without vitamins, enzymes are not formed, and, consequently, all reactions occurring in the body are delayed, normal metabolism is disturbed, digestion and blood formation are affected, and
  7. PROTEINS AND THEIR MEANING IN FOOD
    * Proteins are indispensable substances necessary for the life, growth and development of the body. The lack of protein in the body leads to the development of alimentary (from the Latin. Alimentum - food) diseases. Proteins are used as plastic material to build various tissues and cells of the body, as well as hormones, enzymes, antibodies and specific proteins. Proteins - a necessary background for
  8. FATS AND THEIR MEANING IN FOOD
    Fats in the human body play both energy and plastic role, being a structural part of the cells. Fats serve as a source of energy, surpassing the energy of all other nutrients. During the burning of 1 g of fat, 37.7 kJ (9 kcal) is formed, while at the burning of 1 g of carbohydrates and 1 g of proteins - 16.7 kJ (4 kcal). Fats are good solvents of a number of vitamins and sources
  9. The value of nutrition in life support
    The basis of life is a combination of three streams: matter, energy and information. To ensure these streams, the source material must come from the external environment, largely with food substances. The main food substances include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water, vitamins, minerals, volatile production and some others. Proteins in the body perform diverse functions, to
  10. CARBOHYDRATES AND THEIR MEANING IN FOOD
    Carbohydrates are the main component of the diet. The physiological significance of carbohydrates is mainly determined by their energy properties. Each gram of carbohydrate provides 16.7 kJ (4 kcal). For all types of physical labor there is an increased need for carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are also used in the body as the plastic material of many cells for
  11. VITAMINS AND THEIR VALUE IN FOOD
    Vitamins are low molecular weight organic compounds that differ in their chemical nature. In the body, vitamins are not synthesized or synthesized in small quantities. They take part in the metabolism, have a great impact on health, adaptive abilities, and ability to work. Prolonged absence in the food of a vitamin causes disease,
  12. QUESTION - SIGNIFICANCE AND HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF PUBLIC CATERING ENTERPRISES
    Regular ventilation of residential and public buildings ensures the timely removal of excess heat, moisture and harmful gaseous impurities that accumulate in the air as a result of people and various household processes. The air of poorly ventilated dwellings and various rooms as a result of its chemical and bacterial contamination can have a detrimental effect on health
  13. The value of vitamins in human nutrition. Food - sources of vitamins
    For a long time, mankind has noticed that with a long monotonous diet, in cases of exclusion of some products from the diet, especially during long expeditions, quite often various diseases occurred. At first glance, there was no first cause. However, with the accumulation of this experience, it became clear that in food there are some specific components in very small quantities,
  14. Minerals
    Mineral substances are essential nutrients that must be ingested. The value of minerals in human nutrition is very diverse: 1. Mineral substances in the body are included in the complex of substances that make up the living protoplasm of cells, in which the main substance is protein. 2. Mineral substances are part of all the extracellular and interstitial
  15. Morphological elements of skin rashes primary elements of skin rashes and their evolution (infiltrative)
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  16. Minerals and trace elements (minerals)
    Minerals are inorganic constituents of food. Many of them play an important role in the body, and their constant intake with food is necessary. The mineral composition of food includes more than 60 macro-and micronutrients. ___________ __ conduction of nervous excitement to muscles Iron hematopoiesis (composed of hemoglobin, 60% of total Fe in the body), anemia, rapid fatigue
  17. Mineral water
    Natural mineral waters are groundwater with different chemical composition, saturated with carbon dioxide and other gases. Water salinity varies from 1-2 g / l (table water) to 8-12 g / l (medicinal water). Some natural mineral waters contain a large number of trace elements - iron, bromine, iodine, giving the waters a certain flavor. Artificial mineral waters are obtained
  18. WATER AND MINERAL EXCHANGE
    Water is an important part of any cell, the liquid base of the blood and lymph. In humans, the water content in different tissues is not the same. For example, in adipose tissue it is about 10%, in bones - 20, in the kidneys - 83, in the brain - 85, in the blood —90%, which averages 70% of body weight. Water in the body performs a number of important functions. Many chemicals are dissolved in it, it actively participates in
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