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Minerals



Mineral substances are essential nutrients that must be ingested. The value of minerals in human nutrition is very diverse:

1. Mineral substances in the body are included in the complex of substances that make up the living protoplasm of cells, in which the main substance is protein.

2. Mineral substances are part of all intercellular and interstitial fluids, providing them with the necessary osmotic properties.

3. Mineral substances in large quantities are included in the composition of supporting tissues, skeletal bones and in the composition of such tissues as teeth, in which both hardness and special strength are necessary.

4. Mineral elements are part of some endocrine glands (iodine is part of the thyroid gland, zinc is part of the pancreas and tissues of the sex glands).

5. Mineral substances are part of some complex organic compounds (iron is part of Hb, phosphorus is part of phosphatides, etc.).

6. In the form of ions, mineral substances are involved in the transmission of nerve impulses.

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Mineral substances provide blood clotting.

Especially important are minerals for a growing organism. The increased need for children in them is due to the fact that the processes of growth and development are accompanied by an increase in the mass of cells, the mineralization of the skeleton, and this requires a systematic intake of a certain amount of mineral salts in the child’s body.

Mineral substances enter the body mainly with food. Elements found in foods can be divided into 3 groups: macronutrients, microelements, and ultramicroelements.

Macronutrients - elements that are present in products in significant quantities (tens and hundreds of mg%). These include: phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium, manganese. Trace elements - elements that are present in food in quantities of less than 1 mg%: fluorine, iodine, cobalt, iron.

Ultramicroelements - their content in products in μg%: gold, lead, mercury, radium, etc.

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Minerals

  1. The exchange of water and minerals
    The human body is 60% water. Adipose tissue contains 20% of water (from its mass), bones - 25, liver - 70, skeletal muscles - 75, blood - 80, brain - 85%. For the normal functioning of the body, which lives in a changing environment, it is very important that the internal environment of the body is constant. It is created by blood plasma, tissue fluid, lymph, the main part of which is water, proteins and
  2. Minerals and trace elements (minerals)
    Minerals are inorganic constituents of food. Many of them play an important role in the body, and their constant intake with food is necessary. The mineral composition of food includes more than 60 macro-and micronutrients. ___________ __ conduction of nervous excitement to muscles Iron hematopoiesis (composed of hemoglobin, 60% of total Fe in the body), anemia, rapid fatigue
  3. DETERMINATION OF THE GENERAL CONTENT OF MINERAL SUBSTANCES (ASH)
    The total content of mineral substances in the material under study is established by its ashing, that is, organic substances are burned with free access of air. During combustion, carbon, hydrogen, and partly oxygen evaporate in the form of carbon dioxide and water vapor, and mineral elements in the form of oxide compounds remain in the so-called raw ash. Progress of determination
  4. Hygienic importance of minerals and vitamins in the diet of the population
    Minerals and vitamins play a very important and at the same time a peculiar role in the vital activity of the body. First of all, they are not used as energy materials, which is a specific feature for proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Another distinctive feature of these nutrients is the relatively very insignificant quantitative need for them in the body. Enough
  5. Absorption of vitamins and minerals
    Folic acid. Biologically active form of folic acid - tetrahydrofolic - the most important component in the reactions of "one-carbon" transfer in the synthesis of thymidine nucleic acid from deoxyuridine. A deficiency of folic acid leads to the development of macrocytic anemia. Folate is found in green vegetables and fruits and comes in the form of pteroyl polyglutamate. Suction occurs mostly in skinny
  6. The value of vitamins and minerals for the growth and development of the child
    For the normal development of the body, children should have enough vitamins in their diet. They not only protect the body from diseases associated with them, but also are components of the tissues. Without vitamins, enzymes are not formed, and, consequently, all reactions occurring in the body are delayed, the normal metabolism is disturbed, digestion and blood formation are affected, they fall
  7. The value of fats, carbohydrates and minerals in human nutrition. The norms of these components of food and the sources of their entry into the human body
    As mentioned in the previous lecture, fats are substances that perform in the body mainly energy function. In this regard, fats are superior to all other components of food (carbohydrates and proteins), since their combustion releases 2 times more energy (1 g of fat forms 9.3 kcal, while 1 g of protein and the corresponding amount of carbohydrates is only 4, 3 kcal). However biological
  8. MINERAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR MEANING IN FOOD
    Modern research confirms the vital importance of mineral elements. New aspects of their biological action have been revealed, which made it possible to isolate a large group of biologically active substances - biomicroelements. The study of mineral substances as a necessary part of nutrition is closely connected with the prevention of the spread and elimination of a number of endemic diseases; endemic
  9. Mineral water
    Natural mineral waters are groundwater with different chemical composition, saturated with carbon dioxide and other gases. Water mineralization ranges from 1-2 g / l (table water) to 8-12 g / l (medicinal water). Some natural mineral waters contain a large number of trace elements - iron, bromine, iodine, giving the waters a certain flavor. Artificial mineral waters are obtained
  10. WATER AND MINERAL EXCHANGE
    Water is an important part of any cell, the liquid base of the blood and lymph. In humans, the water content in different tissues is not the same. So, in adipose tissue it is about 10%, in bones - 20, in the kidneys - 83, in the brain - 85, in the blood —90%, which is on average 70% of body weight. Water in the body performs a number of important functions. Many chemicals are dissolved in it, it actively participates in
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