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Mineral substances are essential nutrients that must be ingested. The value of minerals in human nutrition is very diverse:

1. Mineral substances in the body are included in the complex of substances that make up the living protoplasm of cells, in which the main substance is protein.

2. Mineral substances are part of all intercellular and interstitial fluids, providing them with the necessary osmotic properties.

3. Mineral substances in large quantities are included in the composition of supporting tissues, skeletal bones and in the composition of such tissues as teeth, in which both hardness and special strength are necessary.

4. Mineral elements are part of some endocrine glands (iodine is part of the thyroid gland, zinc is part of the pancreas and tissues of the sex glands).

5. Mineral substances are part of some complex organic compounds (iron is part of Hb, phosphorus is part of phosphatides, etc.).

6. In the form of ions, mineral substances are involved in the transmission of nerve impulses.

Mineral substances provide blood clotting.

Especially important are minerals for a growing organism. The increased need for children in them is due to the fact that the processes of growth and development are accompanied by an increase in the mass of cells, the mineralization of the skeleton, and this requires the systematic intake of a certain amount of mineral salts in the child’s body.

Mineral substances enter the body mainly with food. Elements found in food products can be divided into 3 groups: macronutrients, microelements, and ultramicroelements.

Macronutrients - elements that are present in products in significant quantities (tens and hundreds of mg%). These include: phosphorus, calcium, potassium, magnesium, manganese. Trace elements - elements that are present in food in quantities of less than 1 mg%: fluorine, iodine, cobalt, iron.

Ultramicroelements - their content in products in µg%: gold, lead, mercury, radium, etc.

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  4. Hygienic importance of minerals and vitamins in the diet of the population
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