home
about the project
Medical news
For authors
Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous Next >>

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT INFECTIOUS DISEASES. CONDITIONS OF THE ORIGIN AND DISEASE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THEIR PREVENTION

The emergence and spread of various microbial diseases is due to the fact that some microbes under certain conditions can acquire the properties of pathogens. These are the so-called pathogenic microorganisms. Pathogenic microorganisms can cause various diseases, including infectious ones. It is known that pathogenic microorganisms are characterized by strict specificity, i.e., each specific pathogen causes only a specific disease. The main difference between infectious diseases and other diseases is that they can be transmitted from a sick person to a healthy one and, under certain conditions, affect large groups of people. It should be recalled that food poisoning, in contrast to infectious diseases, is not transmitted from a sick person to a healthy one.

Pathogenic microbes can produce two types of toxins, which also have a pathogenic effect on the human body:

a) exotoxins - are released into the environment during the life of microorganisms;

b) endotoxins - released into the environment after the death of microorganisms.

Human infectious diseases can take three forms:

1. With a disease, the physiological functions of the body are violated, and the body is brought out of equilibrium with the environment, that is, an infectious disease develops, and the signs of the disease appear sharply;

2. The symptoms of the disease do not appear sharply and, as a rule, a person transfers such diseases, as they say, “on his feet”, such forms of the disease are “atypical” or “erased”;

3. There are no signs of the disease at all, and this form of interaction between a person and a microorganism is a “hidden” infection, which is sometimes called a healthy carrier.

It is known that when an infectious disease occurs, not all people in a particular team get sick. This is due to the fact that with high immunobiological reactivity (resistance) of the body, the pathogenic microorganisms that enter it die, and the disease does not occur. Conversely, when microorganisms find favorable conditions for their existence in the human body, then an infectious disease occurs.

In general, for an infectious disease to occur in a team, three prerequisites are necessary:

1) There must be a source of infection;

2) There must be certain ways of spreading the infection;

3) There should be a susceptibility of the population (team) to this infectious disease.

It should be noted that the exclusion from this epidemiological chain of at least one of these links does not lead to the occurrence of an infectious disease.

1.
Sick people and animals can be a source of infection for humans. If only people are the source of infection, then such diseases are called anthroponoses. If only animals are the source of the disease, then such diseases are called zoonoses. If the source of this infectious disease can be both animals and people, then such diseases are called zooanthroponoses.

It should be noted that in addition to patients with a certain infectious disease of humans and animals, bacteria carriers may also be a source of infection, i.e. people or animals who have had a certain infectious disease, but who for a certain time have been releasing microorganisms into the environment that cause the infectious disease.

2. The route of transmission of infection depends on the location (localization) of the causative agent of the infectious disease. And in this regard, there are four types of transmission mechanisms:

a) fecal-oral (localization of the pathogen in the intestine);

b) drip (localization of the pathogen in the respiratory tract);

c) transmissible, or transmission of infection by blood-sucking vectors (localization of the pathogen in the circulatory system);

d) contact - transmission of the pathogen through household and industrial items or by direct contact (localization of the pathogen on the skin and mucous membranes)

Depending on the transmission factors of the infectious disease, there are water factors, food, airborne, soil, household, etc.

3. The third prerequisite for the occurrence of an infectious disease is the susceptibility of the population to this disease, that is, the person's resistance to the disease when meeting with a pathogenic pathogen. It should be noted that the lower the susceptibility of the population to this disease, the less intense the nature of the epidemic.

Prevention of infectious diseases is reduced to the following main areas:

1- Carrying out government measures aimed at eliminating the causes that contribute to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases (improving working conditions, life, public services, etc.);

2- Raising the level of sanitary culture of the population;

3- Carrying out medical measures (isolation of an infected person, sanitary control over the cleaning of settlements, water supply, sewage, compliance with the sanitary regime at catering, trade, child care facilities, vaccination, and others).
<< Previous Next >>
= Skip to textbook content =

GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT INFECTIOUS DISEASES. CONDITIONS OF THE ORIGIN AND DISEASE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THEIR PREVENTION

  1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
    An important role in the epidemic process — the emergence and spread of infectious diseases — belongs to social factors. In our country, much attention is paid to measures aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases. Prevention of infectious diseases is a complex of various measures, among which the most important are: • increasing the level of
  2. General requirements for the prevention of infectious diseases.
    In order to prevent the occurrence and spread of infectious diseases, a complex of organizational, engineering, medical, preventive, hygienic and anti-epidemic (related to the elimination of emerging cases of diseases) measures should be carried out. The complex of preventive measures includes: • providing the population with benign drinking water;
  3. The concept of an infectious focus. General principles of work in an infectious (epidemic) outbreak
    Epidemiology is a medical science that studies the patterns of occurrence and spread of infectious diseases in human society, and develops methods for their prevention and elimination. Even the medicine of the Ancient World used such measures to combat epidemics as removing the sick person from the city, burning things of the sick and dead, attracting those who were ill to care for the sick. In modern
  4. The basic conditions necessary for the occurrence of an infectious disease
    For the occurrence of an infectious disease, three prerequisites are necessary: ​​the source of infection, the mechanism of transmission of infection and the susceptibility of the human body. 1. Sources of infection: Sick person - refers to the most dangerous sources of infection, because it excretes in a large number of pathogens, moreover, in the most virulent state. Of particular danger are patients
  5. Infectious Disease General Concepts
    Infectious diseases - an extensive group of human diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, etc. Infectious diseases differ from non-communicable diseases in such fundamental ways as: • contagiousness (contagiousness); • specificity of the pathogen; • formation of immunity in the process of disease. Infectious diseases can be transmitted from the patient
  6. Infectious diseases in modern society. Basic principles of prevention
    Latin infection means infection. Infectious diseases include those that develop as a response of the body to the introduction and reproduction of pathogens - bacteria, fungi, viruses. After the introduction of an infectious agent, antibodies are produced in the body, complex protein formations by which humans and animals fight
  7. Infectious diseases, their causative agents. Sources and routes of infection
    Infection - parasitic microorganisms that cause various diseases. The source of infection can be: * Human diseases; * Animals; * The natural environment. Healthy skin with mucous membranes is a barrier to infection, because on the surface of the skin, the chemical substance lysozyme is released, which has a detrimental effect on microorganisms, overcoming
  8. Glomerular diseases (general information)
    Glomerular (glomerular) diseases are the cause of some serious problems in nephrology. For example, chronic glomerulonephritis is one of the most common causes of chronic renal failure. Glomeruli can be damaged by various factors, as well as systemic diseases. Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, vascular
  9. 2. General information about inflammatory diseases of the female reproductive system.
    Infectious damage, depending on the localization, causes inflammation: • of the vagina (colpitis); • external genitalia (vulvitis); • large gland of the vestibule (bartholinitis); • cervix (cervicitis); • inner lining of the cervical canal (endocervicitis); • the inner lining of the uterus (endometritis); • fallopian tubes (salpingitis); • ovaries (oophoritis);
  10. Infectious Disease Conditions
    For the development of an infectious disease, a combination of various factors is necessary: ​​socio-economic living conditions and a set of biological factors. 1. Socio-economic factors are associated with the class structure of society. This is evidenced by differences in the course of the same epidemics among people living in different socio-economic conditions. They usually started with unsecured
Medical portal "MedguideBook" © 2014-2019
info@medicine-guidebook.com