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The basic physiological functions of man in his work

The physiology of labor is part of the general physiology of man. The tasks of the physiology of labor include the study of physiological processes, i.e. conditions and changes in the vital functions of the human body in the process of his labor activity, and on the basis of this, the development of measures aimed at improving the working capacity and strengthening the health of workers.

Under the work refers to all types of energy conversion, including those related to human activities. In this sense, we can talk about the work of arms, legs and other organs or the body as a whole. Work in the physiological sense takes place in the game, and in dancing, and in sports exercises, in any movements.

Depending on the proportion of physical and mental components in the implementation of the stages of the action itself, the following forms of labor are distinguished:

labor requiring significant muscle activity;

mechanized types of labor requiring medium or light muscle effort;

semi-automated and automated types of labor;

group (conveyor) labor;

labor associated with the use of remote control;

mental (intellectual) labor.

Labor requiring significant muscle activity (diggers, lumberjacks, blacksmiths) is characterized by:

a) increased energy costs;

b) stereotypicity, repeatability of movements, which leads to hypertrophy of mainly proximal muscle groups of limbs and auxiliary muscles;

c) social inefficiency, expressed in the fact that in order to achieve self-sufficient productivity, a high, non-optimal stress of physical forces is required.

Mechanized types of labor that require medium or light muscle effort (turners, milling machines and other machine tools) are characterized by:

a) average energy costs, less muscle effort;

b) a certain focus of muscle effort;

c) the complication of the program of action.

Mechanization provides a greater variety in motor acts and a fine gradation of muscle movements to control mechanisms (machines) allows you to increase the speed and accuracy of production movements.

In semi-automated work, a person is turned off from the process of actually processing the subject of labor, which completely performs the mechanism. A man only serves the machine: feeds the workpiece, starts the mechanism, removes the finished part. This form of labor is characterized by monotony (for example, when stamping the same parts). The work does not require special qualifications, it is carried out due to the motor apparatus, its accuracy and speed. Man becomes an appendage of the machine.

Automation of labor dramatically changes the role of a person: he no longer just supplements the mechanism, but controls this mechanism, ensures its smooth operation (for example, the installer). The employee has the ability to service several mechanisms. His work is more diverse in content. The main feature of this form of labor is a constant readiness for activity, which creates a lot of nervous tension.

Group (conveyor) forms of labor are characterized by synchronization of labor of participants. It is associated with the cycle (time interval) of the conveyor and requires simplification of work operations. A person is characterized by natural variability of reactions. Therefore, a clear rhythm of the conveyor in combination with simplified work operations is an unfavorable factor. The basis of high productivity on the conveyor is the differentiation of labor and the automation of motor skills in humans. The latter creates the conditions for the development of gynokinesia.

The labor associated with remote control is implemented on various remotes.

On remotes requiring rare interventions, the operator is constantly in a state of readiness without switching attention and activating the motor sphere, which causes the rapid development of fatigue.

To mental work include work related to the reception and processing of information, requiring increased activity of sensory systems, concentration of attention, activation of memory, thought process, emotional sphere.
Most modern professions are characterized by a sharp increase in the volume and heterogeneity of information, lack of time for making decisions, an increase in the social significance of these decisions and the personal responsibility of the employee.

Depending on which systems or processes the load falls on, they distinguish:

visually strenuous work;

work with stress attention;

emotionally and psycho-intellectually intense work;

intellectual and creative work.

In a generalized form, human labor activity is divided into physical and mental labor. The main characteristics of labor is its severity and tension.

The severity of labor more characterizes the physical component of labor and is determined by the energy costs of the body, the power of external work, the mass and distance of the transported load, the nature of the labor movements, as well as the severity of changes in the autonomic functions of human organs.

The energy necessary for a person to perform various types of work is released in his body in the processes of redox decomposition of carbohydrates, proteins, fats and other organic compounds contained in food. Redox reactions in living organisms can occur both with the participation of oxygen (aerobic oxidation) and without oxygen (anaerobic oxidation). Anaerobic oxidation is characterized by less energy released and is of limited value in higher organisms.

The released energy is partially spent on useful work, and partially (up to 60%) is dissipated in the form of heat in living tissues, heating the human body. To carry out the work, an appropriate amount of energy is expended, the replenishment of which is due to the consumption of nutrients that come constantly with the bloodstream. The same bloodstream from the working organs carries away waste substances - oxidation products. The main source of energy for working muscles is glycogen, and the combustion process consists in its oxidation, that is, combination with oxygen.

The set of chemical reactions in the body necessary for life is called metabolism. For the characteristics of total energy metabolism, the concepts of basic metabolism are used for various types of activity.

The main metabolism is characterized by the magnitude of energy costs in a state of complete muscle rest under standard conditions (at a comfortable ambient temperature, 2-6 hours after eating in a lying position). The energy consumption under these conditions is 87.5 W for a person weighing 75 kg, and the oxygen consumption is 200-250 cm3 / min. The main metabolism is influenced by gender, age, food composition, climatic conditions, etc.

The body's need for oxygen is greater, the harder the work.

When you change the position of the body or when doing any work, energy costs increase compared with the main exchange. Additional energy costs depend on the working posture of the body, the intensity of muscle activity, information richness of work, the degree of emotional stress and other factors. In a sitting position due to the work of the muscles of the trunk, energy expenditures exceed by 5-10% the level of basic metabolism, in a standing position - by 10-15%, with a forced uncomfortable posture - by 40-50%.

With intense intellectual work, the brain’s energy needs account for 15-20% of the basal metabolic rate, although brain mass is about 2% of body weight.
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