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Features of nutrition of the elderly


In connection with the transition of the economy of our country to market relations at the end of the 20th century, the most important demographic indicators of the population sharply worsened: fertility, life expectancy, mortality, indicators of the physical development of the younger generation, which was due to a significant decrease in the standard of living of the bulk of the population.
Already, a sharp aging of the population is observed, since in the Russian Federation 20% of its people are people of retirement age, and 11% of them are in age groups over 80 years old. This situation creates great medical and social problems for the state, which is obliged to provide a sufficient number of beds in hospital hospitals, to develop a network of nursing homes, boarding houses, provide them with appropriate medical personnel, etc.
Demographics forecasts regarding the population of the Russian Federation and fertility are still unfavorable. They believe that the population of Russia will decline in the first decades of the new century, and the proportion of people over 40 will increase significantly. One of the biological laws to which nutrition obeys is the law of adequate nutrition for the stages, or periods, of the development of living organisms.
A person after birth goes through periods of infancy, childhood, adolescence, then comes adulthood, passing into the elderly and senile.
To the elderly, it is customary to include people of retirement age (from 55 years for women and from 60 years for men). The age of 60-75 years is considered old, and from 75 years old - senile. What is the aging of the body?
Aging is a general biological phenomenon, the essence and cause of which cannot be reduced to specific mechanisms. This is the process of reducing the body's viability over time, which increases the likelihood of his death from a variety of causes. This spontaneous process of reducing the vital activity of an organism is equivalent to increasing the degree of chaos, i.e., decreasing the ordering of its structures.
In any complex organism there are non-renewable structures inside it, for example neurons, teeth, lung alveoli, and therefore the fundamental reason for the aging of any complex organisms on Earth is the discrete (limb, discontinuous) form of their existence. By the way, the aging process also takes place in inanimate nature, which indicates its universality.
The study of aging using a systematic approach allows us to identify the main mechanisms that include the "pollution" of the body by metabolic products and xenobiotics, the lack of selection forces to preserve only the "necessary" body structures, a decrease in the number of non-renewable structures, metabolic dysregulation due to a decrease in evolutionary selection with age (after puberty) and the presence of final development programs (growth, tissue differentiation, immunity, etc.).
Knowledge of the mechanisms of aging is important for the prevention of premature aging, the biological activation of the body and the prolongation of a vigorous period of life.
The development of aging processes is significantly affected by a decrease in muscle activity - hypokinesia and the associated excess body weight. Aging is characterized by a weakening of the functional ability of all body systems, including digestive:
• there is a decrease and restriction of the secretory and motor functions of the stomach due to atrophic processes in the gastric mucosa;
• secretion of gastric juice is reduced, the release of hydrochloric acid is weakened until complete cessation, the activity of the enzyme pepsin is reduced, which negatively affects the functional ability of gastric digestion, as well as the condition and character of intestinal microflora, in which putrefactive microorganisms begin to dominate;
• atrophy of the active elements of the pancreas is noted, accompanied by a decrease in its functional abilities. The proteolytic activity of pancreatic juice is especially reduced, to a slightly lesser extent = amylolytic and lipolytic;
• the condition of the dentofacial system worsens, primarily due to the loss of teeth, and it is known that the loss of even 1-2 teeth leads to a deterioration in the mechanical processing of solid food in the oral cavity, which negatively affects the processes of digestion and assimilation of food.
There are numerous scientific data indicating that the proper nutrition of the elderly, compiled taking into account the listed changes in their body, helps to extend the active period of life for 4 or even 7 years. In this regard, when organizing the nutrition of people of this age category, one should take into account the decrease in physical activity and functional capabilities of the digestive system, so the nutrition of the elderly should be based on the following principles:
• moderation of nutrition, ie a certain restriction of nutrition in quantitative terms (reduction in the intake of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and the energy value of the diet);
• maintaining a high biological usefulness of food due to a sufficient amount of essential amino acids, PUFAs, phospholipids, vitamins and mineral salts (the presence in the diet of animal proteins and "overvalued" foods - nuts, herbs, garlic);
• enrichment of the diet with antisclerotic and antitumor substances contained in natural products (dietary fiber, methionine, beta-carotene, pectin, antioxidants);
• strict adherence to the diet (eating small meals 4-5 times a day at the same time);
• preservation of the functional state of the dentition by timely treatment and prosthetics;
• consumption of organic food products not containing xenobiotics;
• the use of gentle culinary processing of products (sharply limit the use of fried, pickled and canned foods).
The need for protein. In old age, the processes of growth and formation of body tissues have already been completed, and therefore the need for plastic materials becomes less, and physical activity is also reduced. However, there remains a need for regeneration of worn cells, which requires protein, the daily need of which is about 1 g per 1 kg of normal body weight. In this case, the share of animal protein should account for 55-60%.
Recommended norms for protein intake in old age are given in table. 5.14,
According to reports, high levels of protein intake increase the concentration of cholesterol in the blood.
Table 3.14. The daily need of older people for proteins, fats and carbohydrates
Floor Age,
years
Energy expenditure, kcal Proteins, g Fats
g
Carbohydrates, g
Total stomach
ny
Men 60-74 2300 6S 37 77 334
more than 75 1950 61 33 65 280
Women 60-74 1975 61 33 66 284
More than 75 1700 55 thirty 57 242




The need for fats.
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Features of nutrition of the elderly

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