Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead || Next >> |
Steam sterilization is carried out using saturated steam, usually at a temperature of 134 ° C. The formation of stains as a result of "molting" chemical indicators A large number of chemical indicators in one batch of sterilized can lead to the formation of stains on the instruments, especially during direct contact. This concerns, first of all, silverware or with a silver-plated surface. Ensure steam quality in accordance with EN 285! In the case of the use of certified steam sterilization processes in accordance with ISO 17665, EN 554 (for German DIN 58946 part 6) with appropriate documentation indicating the required parameters, such as pressure, temperature and the content of inert gases in the steam, you can refuse the use of chemical and biological indicators to control the batch to be processed, if three parameters important from a process point of view are continuously monitored. The steam must not contain any foreign particles that may interfere with the sterilization process and damage the instruments and the sterilizer. Substance / Property Condensate Silicates (SiO2) <0.1 mg / l Iron <0.1 mg / l Cadmium <0.005 mg / L Lead <0.05 mg / L Heavy metals in the sediment except iron, cadmium and lead <0.1 mg / l Chlorides (CI-) <0.1 mg / l Phosphates (P2O5) <0.1 mg / l Conductivity (at 25 ° C) <3 μS / cm PH value (acidity) 5 to Appearance colorless, transparent, without sediment Hardness I (alkaline earth ions) <0.02 mmol / l Note: Condensate sampling method is given in 22.4. Source: EN 285, edition 2 The high content of bicarbonate in drinking water leads to an increased content of inert gases in the steam used for sterilization and impairs sterilization results. Risk of corrosion due to residual moisture / moisture Moisture in containers may cause rusting of the instrument. Often the cause of poor, inadequate drying is improper loading, as well as the use of poorly usable nonwoven fabric for drying. Permissible values for the content and concentration of various substances in boiled water and condensate should not exceed the values given in Table B.1 of EN 285. Otherwise, rust particles, for example, from the steam supply system can cause corrosion, and excessive silicic acid can cause discoloration of tools. Condensate contamination of the steam supply system of sterilizers defined in the supply line of the sterilizer Usually, heavy mesh trays should be installed at the bottom so that a large part of the condensate can immediately drain. In the case of sterilization units (30x30x60 cm) weighing more than 10 kg (according to EN 868), special drying measures should be checked when checking the suitability. The permissible level of residual moisture content in practice should be considered as individual water droplets (not pools), drying out within 15 minutes. There may be stains. Measures to prevent residual moisture / moisture can be agreed with the manufacturer of the sterilizer. As a rule, dental instruments can be sterilized in the same way as surgical instruments.
If you need additional special processing, the following rules apply: ¦ Rotary tools (cutters and burs) can be steam sterilized. ¦ Tips should be steam sterilized at 134 ° C due to a shorter holding time. ¦ To sterilize turbines, refer to the manufacturer's instructions. ¦ Dental mirrors can be sterilized with steam, but over time they become dull due to moisture penetration and as a result of different thermal expansion of materials. All engine systems can be steam sterilized at 134 ° C. The instructions should be guided by the manufacturer, for example, fixation during sterilization. Compressed air hoses during sterilization must be protected against compression and fracture. They should be laid in trays so that their bending radii are not less than acceptable values. Limited durability and performance due to cracks / kinks When sterilizing battery-powered systems, it is imperative that you follow the manufacturer's instructions when handling battery. Prolonged exposure to temperature on batteries noticeably reduces their charge state. Instruments for minimally invasive surgery, rigid endoscopes, fiber optic cables, HF instruments can usually be sterilized similarly to surgical instruments. Autoclavable optical systems are best sterilized at 134 ° C than at 121 ° C, since at the same time they are exposed to a lower temperature load. Alternatively, you can perform H2O2 peroxide-plasma sterilization, with the temperature load completely eliminated. To prevent damage, optical devices during sterilization should be laid in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Flexible endoscopes cannot be steam sterilized due to low resistance to heat. If necessary, their sterilization should be applied low-temperature sterilization. However, endoscopic instruments (clamps, catheters, etc.) can be steam sterilized. Tools made of elastic materials (with or without a balloon), such as silicone and natural rubber (rubber or latex), can be steam sterilized. It is better to sterilize them at 134 ° C, since this requires less sterilization time. However, thermoplastic or plastic products can be steam sterilized only if allowed by the manufacturer. When autoclaving tools made of elastic materials, all cavities (convex parts of masks, cylinders) must be in the open state to avoid damage due to pressure difference. Cavity, closed valves, before sterilization must be completely free from water and air with a syringe. The working parts of the respiratory systems can be sterilized with steam at a temperature not higher than 134 ° C. Cavities should be opened so as not to damage the valves.
| << Ahead || Next >> |
| = Go to tutorial content = |
- Instruction No. 154.021.98 PI on the use of single-use sterilization indicators IS-120, IS-132, IS-160, IS-180 for monitoring the parameters of operating modes of steam and air sterilizers
AGREED NIIID Director Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences MG Shandala, 01/07/99. APPROVED: Head of the Department of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the Ministry of Health of Russia A.A. Monisov 07/18/99. control parameters parameters (temperature, time) of steam and air sterilizers. The use of indicators allows you to detect non-compliance with the sterilization regime, due to technical failure of sterilizers,
- Guidelines for the control of sterilization using sterilization indicators IS-120, IS-132, IS-160, IS-180 of the Scientific-Production Company "VINAR"
APPROVED Head of the Department of Prevention Ministry of the R.I. KHALITOV Healthcare of the Russian Federation dated 11.06.93 No. 11-8 / 03-54 General Provisions These Guidelines are intended for all health care workers performing work related to the decontamination and sterilization of medical instruments and medical devices, as well as
- Guidelines for monitoring the operation of steam and air sterilizers
APPROVED Head of the Main Epidemiological Department of the USSR Ministry of Health M.I. NARKEVICH dated 28.02.91 No. 15 / 6-5 (Extracts) General Provisions The methodological guidelines are intended for personnel of disinfection and sanitary-epidemiological stations, as well as personnel of treatment-and-prophylactic institutions (MPI) monitoring the operation of steam and air sterilizers.
In the scope of EN standards, the use of sterile instruments on or in a patient assumes that the instruments are properly cleaned and disinfected, sterilized in an approved sterilization package and stored after sterilization in accordance with the rules in force for sterile products. It is important that only such methods of sterilization and
- Low temperature sterilization
Low-temperature sterilization methods include gas and plasma sterilization. All these methods use chemicals with temperatures between 37 and 75 ° C. When choosing a low-temperature sterilization method, special attention should be paid to the treatment guidelines of the manufacturer of medical devices. Depending on the type, method and year of production of the sterilizers used
- Instructions for disinfection and disinsection of clothing, bedding, shoes and other objects in air-formalin, steam and combined disinfection chambers and disinsection of these objects in air disinsection chambers
(Approved by the USSR Chief Sanitary Doctor 29.08.77) General This Instruction contains the basic rules for disinfection and disinsection of clothing, bedding, shoes and other objects in air steam-formalin, steam and combined disinfection chambers and disinsection of these objects in air disinsection chambers. Disinfecting facilities in
Sterilization is a fairly common method of contraception in families where women are over 40. This is an irreversible process that one spouse undergoes. In women, the fallopian tubes are ligated, in men, the vas deferens is excised. • Dressing, cauterization In women, sterilization is carried out by dressing, and dividing into parts of a specific area of both uterine
- Section 57. Medical Sterilization
1. Medical sterilization as a special medical intervention in order to deprive a person of the ability to reproduce offspring or as a method of contraception can be carried out only by a written statement of a citizen over the age of thirty-five or a citizen who has at least two children, and if there are medical indications and informed voluntary consent of a citizen -
- Industry standard. Sterilization and disinfection of medical products (Extraction)
OST 42-21-2-85 was put into effect by the Order dated 10.06.85 No. 770 (extraction). Methods, means and modes. Non-compliance with the standard is prosecuted. This standard applies to medical devices that are sterilized and / or disinfected during use. The standard is mandatory for facilities operating medical devices, as well as for
- Hot air sterilization
Although hot air sterilization no longer corresponds to the current level of science, in some cases this method is still used. If hot air sterilization is applied, the following requirements must be met: At temperatures from 185 ° C, paraffin oil is tarred, as a result of which its lubricity is lost and the performance of the instrument is reduced. Do not exceed
- Voluntary surgical sterilization
Voluntary surgical sterilization (DHS) is given a special place in the family planning program, since, firstly, this method is associated with surgical intervention and, secondly, it is irreversible. Currently, DHS is the most common method of birth control in both developed and developing countries (according to world statistics, in 1990, DHS
- Guidelines for the sterilization of ligature suture material in medical institutions
(Approved by the Main Epidemiological Directorate of the Ministry of Health of the USSR of July 19, 90 No. 15-6 / 34) General Provisions The methodological recommendations were drawn up in accordance with OST 42-21-2-85 “Sterilization and disinfection of medical products. Methods, means and modes. Methodical recommendations are intended for the staff of medical institutions that are engaged in the preparation of ligature
- LAPAROSCOPIC STERILIZATION BY IMPLEMENTING HULKA CABLES
This method of sterilizing women differs from other laparoscopic sterilization methods in that special brackets are applied to the tubes. When this happens the least damage to the tissues of the pipe, so this method is considered the most reversible. Laparoscopic surgery itself is similar to that described earlier. The purpose of the operation is the sterilization of the woman. Physiological effects.
- STERILIZATION ON POMEROY
This is the most famous and most frequently performed operation for the sterilization of women. It can be performed during a cesarean section operation immediately after the baby is removed or some time after the birth, using the minilaparotomy or colpotomy method. The purpose of the operation - the prevention of pregnancy by violating the tubal patency Physiological effects. There are reports of cases
- Surgical sterilization surgery for women
Surgical sterilization of women until recent years was carried out only as a co-operation with gynecological or obstetric (cesarean section) operations. Currently, surgical sterilization is performed as an independent intervention. There are many methods of surgical sterilization of women. Technique performance. The most common is the resection of tubes on
- Is sterilization dangerous?
Sterilization is a fairly simple, thoroughly tested operation. It is performed under general anesthesia and is completely painless, its duration in cats is 5 to 7 minutes, and in cats it is 10 to 20 minutes (depending on the qualifications of the veterinarian-surgeon). Anesthetics, which are used by modern veterinary experts, are so perfect that the risk of complications is almost zero. Maximum,
- Means of disinfection and sterilization
Mechanical disinfectants Mechanical disinfectants are based on the removal of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microbes from objects to be disinfected by washing, shaking, sweeping, wet wiping, vacuuming, ventilation, ventilation, washing clothes. Mechanical means and methods of disinfection are recommended to be widely used as
- What is sterilization?
Often, discussing whether or not to sterilize your cat or castrate a cat, we go to the philosophical area and begin to talk about animal rights to "self-determination." Rights are right and necessary, but let's look at the problem from the other side - medical. First, it is worth mentioning several terms that are often perceived and interpreted differently. So: 1. Castration -