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FIRST AID IN ACCIDENTS

Traumatic injuries. Traumatic injuries can be closed and open. Closed are those damage in which the integrity of the skin is not broken. This type of damage includes bruises, sprains, dislocations and fractures. Damage in which there is a violation of the integrity of the skin (or mucous membranes) is called open. This type of damage includes cuts, wounds, a characteristic feature of which is bleeding.

In the event of injury, soft tissue damage occurs with a rupture of the blood vessels and blood soaking of the tissues. A bruise forms at the site of the injury. First aid for bruises is reduced to the creation of complete rest to the victim and the local application of cold (ice pack).

Sprains are characterized by swelling in the area of ​​the joint, soreness and some limitation of mobility. With dislocations, the usual form of the joint is disrupted, its mobility is sharply limited.

First aid for sprains and sprains is the application of a bandage, which will provide peace and immobility of the damaged joint. Attempts to reduce the dislocation without a doctor are unacceptable, as they can only worsen the patient's condition and cause additional damage.

Signs of fracture (violation of bone integrity) are severe pain, swelling, change in shape and the appearance of mobility at the site of injury. First aid for fractures is to create complete immobility of the damaged area of ​​the body. To do this, you need to impose a tire or other available tools (stick, board, plywood, skis, etc.).

Cuts. In the barbershop, cuts most often occur when using razors, scissors, and manicure tools. When cuts violate the integrity of the skin, there is a wound. In this case, you must immediately stop work and even smear minor skin damage with tincture of iodine. At the same time it is necessary to lubricate only the edges of the wound, using a clean cotton swab.

To protect against the ingress of dirt and pathogens, the wound should be tied up with a sterile bandage. In the absence of bandage use clean gauze, a napkin, pre-ironed. The dressing should be applied with clean hands to prevent infection in the wound.

If the damage to the skin is accompanied by bleeding, it must be stopped.

Bleeding. Human blood consists of plasma, red blood cells (red blood cells), white blood cells and blood platelets.

Blood is extremely important for the human body. It brings nutrients to all tissues and organs of the body, oxygen and removes decay products from them. Blood serum protects the body from pathogenic microbes.

Blood coagulation is a complex process, the essence of which is the transformation of liquid blood into a clot. The resulting clot clogs the damaged vessel, stopping the bleeding.

The speed of clot formation, or blood clotting, depends on the availability of the required number of various substances, including calcium salts.

If the victim's blood does not clot or its coagulability is reduced, the bleeding will continue.

Bleeding when injuring the smallest skin vessels usually stops on its own without special measures.

The use of special tools stops bleeding much faster, and this protects the human body from the penetration of pathogenic microbes.

Currently, there are many means of stopping the bleeding: hydrogen peroxide, aluminum alum, a solution of iron pentochloride, etc.

In the barbershop, hydrogen peroxide and aluminum alum are used to stop bleeding.

Hydrogen peroxide is used in the form of a 3-6% odorless solution and. colors. To stop bleeding fleece moistened in hydrogen peroxide and applied to the wound. Most often use a glass rod, which is wound cotton wool. After each visitor fleece change. However, the hydrogen peroxide solution stops the bleeding very slowly.

Aluminum alum quickly stops bleeding. Aluminum alum is produced in the form of stone, pencil and crystalline powder (aluminum burnt alum). But in this form, aluminum alum can not be used to stop bleeding, as they can become a means of transmitting skin diseases. When rubbing against the damaged surface, pathogenic microbes located on the skin or in the victim's blood can get onto the alum pencil or stone. When you reapply this pencil or stone to stop bleeding from another victim, microbes can be introduced into his blood. Therefore, aluminum alum is used in the form of a solution. A solution of aluminum alum is prepared as follows: 15-20 ml of hydrogen peroxide are poured into a clean vial, poured into small portions of alum crystals and shaken until complete dissolution. Then add a new batch of alum and do so; until some undissolved crystals remain at the bottom of the vial. The solution prepared in this way is called a saturated solution of aluminum alum in hydrogen peroxide.

The solution of alum is stored for a long time if the bottle in which it is poured is made of dark glass and has a tight stopper. The positive quality of the solution of aluminum alum when applied to the wound is the rapid formation of a blood clot. In addition, aluminum alum does not stain linen and skin when used. These properties contribute to the widespread use of alum in hairdressing salons as a hemostatic agent.

A hemostatic agent quickly forming a blood clot is also a solution of iron and a half of iron. However, when using it, yellow stains remain difficult to wash on the laundry. Therefore, in the barbershop a solution of iron and a half of iron does not apply.

Sanitary requirements for hemostatic agents are as follows: they must quickly form a blood clot, that is, stop the bleeding; should not dirty hairdressing; should not have a harmful effect on the skin of the visitor and paint it.

These requirements are met by a 3-6% solution of hydrogen peroxide and a saturated solution of aluminum alum.

If the skin is damaged, accompanied by severe bleeding, the use of these chemicals is insufficient.

In these cases, in order to provide first aid, you must:

a) press the bleeding site with a pressure bandage. Place sterile gauze folded several times on a bleeding area, a layer of cotton wool on it. Bandage tightly secure with circular bandaging. In the absence of sterile gauze, you can use a piece of cloth or other material ironed with a hot iron.

Due to the pressure effect of the dressing, the bleeding stops as the vessels squeeze;

b) lift the damaged part of the body to reduce bleeding (for example, the arm). Usually, such a position is given after the application of a pressure bandage;

c) press a blood vessel with a finger. This method is used for severe bleeding in order of emergency;

d) maximum bend the limb.

For example, when injuring the vessels of the forearm, the arm is bent at the elbow joint, when the vessels of the lower leg are injured, the limb is bent and pinned, and so on;

d) drag the limb. With severe bleeding, if the wound is on the arm or on the leg, a tourniquet should be applied. The harness is an elastic rubber tube 1.5 m long. In the absence of a harness, you can use a handkerchief, etc. The harness is usually placed on a raised shoulder or thigh. Plait stretch, make 2-3 turns around the limb, fasten. In order to avoid skin infringement, it is recommended to put a harness on top of a towel or bandage. With the correct imposition of the harness first, the turn should be the most tight. At weak imposing of a plait bleeding does not stop, and amplifies. If excessive pressure is applied, nerve paralysis can occur. The correctness of the imposition of the harness is checked to stop the bleeding. The harness can be held no more than 2 hours from the time of its imposition. Otherwise, tissue death can occur. To prevent this, it is necessary when sending the victim to the hospital to specify the time of application of the harness.

Burn. Tissue damage caused by heat or chemicals is called a burn. The first type of burn is called thermal, the second - chemical.

Thermal burns in a barbershop can be caused by a flame, red-hot instruments, hot liquid, etc.

The degree of damage during a burn depends on the temperature of the active substance, the duration of exposure, the size of the burned surface, the structural features of the skin (thick or thin skin), etc.

Burns are I, II and III degrees.

In a first degree burn, burning pain, redness and swelling appear, only the surface layer of the skin, the epidermis, is affected.

A second degree burn is characterized by more pronounced phenomena characteristic of a first degree burn and the formation of bubbles in the damaged area of ​​the skin filled with a transparent or slightly turbid liquid. Bubbles form immediately after a burn or after a day, depending on the strength and duration of exposure to the substance that caused the burn. In a second degree burn, damage occurs to the deeper layers of the skin, but the papillary layer remains intact.

In a III degree burn, all layers of the skin are deadened.

The highest degree of burn - charring, which occurs with direct exposure to the flame.

First aid to the victim is provided depending on the degree of the burn, its location, the situation and the conditions under which the accident occurred.

In case of burns of I degree (from hot water, when perming a permanent, etc.), it is necessary to take measures to stop the impact of an adverse factor — first of all, take out or remove the victim.
On the burned areas, a cotton swab moistened with a solution of alcohol or potassium permanganate should be applied.

In case of II degree burns, it is impossible to open the formed blisters. Lingerie, especially when it is stuck, should be removed very carefully, it is better to cut it along the seam. The burnt area must not be touched. The burned surface of the skin must be tied up using sterile material or a clean, ironed cloth. Patient after first aid should be sent to a doctor.

Chemical burns occur from exposure to chemicals that have a cauterizing effect. Acids, alkalis, and other substances cause burns if handled improperly (work without gloves, etc.). The burn pattern is exactly the same as with high temperature burns.

First aid for chemical burns consists in immediate abundant irrigation with a stream of water from the burned area to flush the chemical. For acid burns, the burn site is washed with an alkali solution (bicarbonate soda) to neutralize it, and 2% acetic acid solution is usually used for alkali burns.

Fainting. Short-term loss of consciousness is called syncope. The cause of fainting can be a variety of neuro-psychological moments, pain, blood type, overheating.

In a barbershop, a visitor may faint at the sight of blood, during hair drying, when the temperature in the room is elevated, and ventilation is not enough.

Fainting is accompanied by pallor of the face, nausea, ringing in the ears, darkening of the eyes, cold sweat, dizziness, lack of air, tightness in the chest and loss of consciousness.

A patient who is in a state of fainting must be immediately put in such a way that his head is lowered and his legs raised, unbuttoning body-tight clothing, ensure fresh air, give a wad of cotton dipped in liquid ammonia and sprinkle with cold water on his face. When consciousness returns to the patient, you should give him valerian drops. The patient must remain calm all the time and not get up until all the fainting phenomena disappear.

If the condition of the victim does not improve, there are sharp signs of indisposition, shallow breathing, unconsciousness continues, you should seek medical help and, if necessary, resort to artificial respiration.

Electric shock. Causes of damage can be violations of safety regulations, personal protection, malfunctioning devices and equipment.

In a barbershop, an electrical shock can be caused by contact with a bare wire and other electrical equipment used.

The severity of the damage caused by the action of electric current on the human body depends on the strength of the current, its voltage.

Slight defeat is accompanied by fright, fainting, fatigue, weakness, dizziness. In severe cases, loss of consciousness develops and breathing may stop.

First aid for electric shock is the immediate release of the victim from the action of the current.

If the victim is unconscious, proceed to artificial respiration, which begins immediately after the victim is released from the current and continues continuously until the doctor arrives. Before proceeding with artificial respiration, it is necessary to quickly release the victim from the constraining clothing: unbutton the belt, untie the scarf, etc .; if there are dentures, they must be removed.

There are several ways to conduct artificial respiration.

I. Lay the victim on his back, put a cushion under the shoulder blades (you can use clothes or other material). Stand at the head of the victim on his knees, take both his hands below the elbow and take them as much as possible back and up behind the head. This is achieved breath. Holding your hands in this position for a few seconds, lower them down and press them against your chest, squeezing them hard. This achieves exhalation. Such movements produce rhythmically 12-16 times per minute.

Ii. Stand up behind or in front of the victim, grab his costal arches with both hands and regularly stretch them sideways upwards or compress them to the middle downwards, which also corresponds to inhalation and exhalation.

Iii. Put the victim on the stomach and stretch his arms forward. Stand on your knees and press on the victim's sides, thus achieving exhalation. After a few seconds, stop pressing - inhale occurs. These movements must be performed rhythmically — 12-16 times per minute.

Eye damage. In case of mechanical damage to the eye, there are blunt injuries, foreign bodies entering the conjunctival sac, cornea, as well as wounds with a violation of the integrity of the eye membranes.

A characteristic feature of dull eye injuries are hemorrhages both in the skin of the eyelids and under the conjunctiva of the eyeball. Hemorrhages into the thickness of the eyelids (bruises) are not dangerous in themselves and usually disappear after a while without any special treatment. Hemorrhages in vision are not reflected. Immediately after a bruise, it is necessary to put a cold on the eye area (a clean cloth moistened with cold water, a bubble with ice, etc.). But there are hemorrhages in the depths of a century of a different nature. At the same time, immediately after the injury, there is no bruise, it appears after 2–3 days and surrounds the eye slit as if with a ring (the bruise has the shape of glasses). Such hemorrhages indicate that a skull fracture occurred as a result of the injury. In such cases, you should immediately consult a doctor.

In some cases, the mote, small foreign bodies that fly at low speed and do not pierce the eye shell, enter the conjunctival sac. They freely float in the conjunctival sac, causing everyone a well-known sensation - clogging of the eye. If you get such small foreign bodies do not rub your eyes: you have to blink for centuries.

A foreign body, being behind the eyelids, together with pain, causes lacrimation, which usually removes a foreign body.

If this does not happen, it is necessary to apply this simple technique: since the foreign body is usually under the upper eyelid, you should pull the eyelashes away from the eye, invite the victim to look up and put the upper eyelid with the inner side on the outer surface of the lower eyelid. The eyelashes of the lower eyelid, like a rake, remove the mote that was on the inner surface of the upper eyelid. It is necessary to do all this with clean, well-washed hands, so as not to introduce an infection into the eye.

Often there are damage to the eyes by chemicals. Among them are two groups - burns with acids and alkalis. If we consider the severity of eye damage by acids and alkalis, then all other things being equal (the same temperature of the solution, the same concentration, pressure, under which the solution enters the eye, etc.), alkali damage is much more dangerous.

Burns of the eyelid and conjunctival skin with acid cause a feeling of sharp pain and burning. The acid burns immediately, immediately after the burn, the area and severity of the lesion are visible. Redness is observed, and in more severe cases, blanching (tissue necrosis) and further rejection of dead tissue.

Alkali burns are different. Обычно сразу же после попадания щелочи в глаз ощущается небольшая боль, незначительное покраснение конъюнктивы, побледнение роговицы. Нередко пострадавшие не придают значения травме и не обращаются к врачу. Но через 1—2 дня покраснение глаза увеличивается, роговица мутнеет и иногда через несколько дней (в зависимости от тяжести ожога) становится совершенно мутной. В дальнейшем она может отторгнуться, и человек слепнет.

Все это происходит вследствие того, что кислота непосредственно обжигает ткани, с которыми она соприкасается. Щелочь же просачивается между клетками (из которых состоит весь наш организм), проникает в глубь ткани и там уже производит свое разрушительное действие.

В первые минуты при попадании в глаз каких-либо химических веществ необходимо как можно скорее тщательно промыть конъюнктивальный мешок достаточно большим количеством жидкости. При попадании в глаз кислоты обильно промыть его слабым 1—2%-ным раствором соды, а при попадании щелочи — слабым раствором борной кислоты из расчета чайная .ложка борной кислоты на стакан воды (борная кислота растворяется только в горячей воде).

Если нет борной кислоты или соды, глаз можно промывать обычной водой. Важно, чтобы вода, которой промывают глаза, вытекала под некоторым давлением.

Промывать глаза после ожога надо тщательно — в течение 15-20 мин, а затем обязательно обратиться к врачу.

Очень тяжело проходят повреждения глаз химическими красителями, которые очень быстро и интенсивно проникают в поверхностные ткани глаза. Поэтому при повреждении ими необходимо глаза промывать возможно быстрее, особенно тщательно и достаточно длительное время. В этих случаях хорошо закапывать в глаза 3%-ный раствор танина. Если его нет, то до оказания помощи врачом рекомендуется промывать глаза крепким настоем чая, в котором также содержится танин.

Из общих мер профилактики глазного травматизма надо подчеркнуть значение освещения.

Для предупреждения глазного травматизма должно быть предусмотрено достаточное поступление света в производственное помещение. Необходимо систематически протирать окна и источники искусственного освещения.
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