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Nutrition as a factor in maintaining and strengthening health. Physiological nutritional standards. The importance of the individual components of food in human nutrition. The importance of proteins in human nutrition, their norms and sources of entry into the body



Nutrition is one of the most active and important environmental factors that has a diverse effect on the human body, ensures its growth, development, preservation of health, working capacity and optimal life expectancy. All this is provided by a daily, regulated meal with a certain set of food products. Food products are a complex set of chemicals, including:

1. Nutrients.

food:

squirrels

fats

carbohydrates

vitamins

mineral salts

water

flavoring:

organic acids

esters

ketones

dyes

tannins aromatics

other

II. Anti-nutritional substances.

- anti-amino acids

- antimineral substances

- anti-vitamins

other

III. Alien substances (impurities).

- residual amounts of pesticides

- radioactive substances

- salts of heavy metals

- nitrosamines

- impurities of plant and other origin

other

At the same time, “nutrient” and “anti-nutrient” substances are natural components of a food product, and foreign (impurities), as the name implies, enter food products as a result of disturbances in the agricultural technology of their cultivation, storage, transportation, use of inappropriate containers, and as a result other reasons. Nutrients are those components for which, in fact, food is consumed. Nutrients provide the biological needs of the body for substances and energy, and taste, without usually having a biological effect, provide certain organoleptic properties of the food product (its appearance, texture, color, smell, taste, etc.). Anti-nutritional substances, being a natural component of food, reduce its biological value due to impaired absorption of relevant food substances (for example, the anti-vitamin ascorbinase destroys the ascorbic acid of the product). Alien substances not only do not have a beneficial biological effect, but can also have an adverse effect on the body. A separate lecture will be devoted to this issue.

In a modern view, food hygiene tasks include the following key issues:

1. The study of the quantitative and qualitative aspects of human nutrition in various conditions of his life and work (carried out by doctors of any profile).

2. Development of measures to improve the nutritional value and enrichment of food products with biologically active substances = vitamins, amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and other fortifiers (carried out by food industry technologists at the recommendation of medical experts in the field of food hygiene).

3. Development and implementation of effective control methods - preventive and ongoing sanitary supervision (carried out by hygienists).

4. Implementation of measures to prevent food poisoning and intoxication and the creation of conditions for their complete elimination as a nosological form (carried out by doctors of any profile through sanitary education).

5. Control and organization of preventive nutrition in industrial enterprises, school and child nutrition in schools and child care facilities, as well as special nutrition in all other organized groups (carried out by doctors of the respective institutions).

6. Catering on rational foundations in the public catering system and turning them into centers of propaganda and practical introduction of rational nutrition among the population (carried out by dietitians and doctors of the outpatient network through health education).

Based on the objectives, we can say that food hygiene is the science of healthy, rational and preventive nutrition.

I. Healthy nutrition - harmless (combating food falsification, monitoring the addition of chemicals, residual amounts of insectofungicides, etc.).

II. Rational nutrition is nutrition of an almost healthy person, built on scientific foundations and contributing to:

a) improving health;

b) increase the body's resistance;

c) preservation (possibly longer) of high working capacity, vitality and life expectancy;

d) the physical and mental development of the younger generation.

III. Preventive nutrition is also the nutrition of a healthy person, but daily affected by harmful factors in the workplace. The main goal is to weaken the effect of harmful factors affecting the worker’s body.

It is necessary to say a few words about medical nutrition. Clinical nutrition is a differentiated diet therapy that takes into account the pathogenesis, clinical picture and dynamics of the disease.

Clinical nutrition should be a mandatory background in which other therapeutic measures are used. It should be used for all diseases, since the chemical constituents of food are involved in the processes of interstitial metabolism, a violation of which occurs in all diseases. Good nutrition has three links:

1. Physiological norms.

2. The norms of consumption of products.

3. The diet.

Physiological norms are scientifically based nutritional standards that completely cover the energy expenditures of the body and provide it with all substances in the proper amounts and in the most favorable (optimal) ratios.

In physiological nutritional standards, there are 2 sides:

1) quantitative, i.e. calorie intake;

2) qualitative - where the structure of calorie content is decoded, i.e. due to which nutrients calorie content is provided.

The quantitative side of physiological norms should provide coverage of the energy expenditure of the body, which is formed under normal conditions of unregulated spending - the main metabolism (1400_1700 kcal) and the specific dynamic effect of food (SDD), which is 10% of the main metabolism, i.e. 140-170 kcal and regulated spending - energy consumption in the process of labor, domestic and domestic labor, sports, etc. (200_260 kcal / hour).

As a result of a long study of the body's needs for calories and nutrients, it was found that the determining factor for children, adolescents and the elderly is their age, and for the able-bodied population, the age and nature of work. In our country, the first standards were approved in 1951. Subsequently, these standards were repeatedly revised, specified, improved, or forced adjustments were made to them without a significant decrease in quality.

In accordance with the current physiological norms, the entire population is divided into a number of groups. Among them, 9 groups of children by the age principle, including 3 groups of infants, 6 groups of preschool and school age. In the last two groups, in addition to the age, gender was also used - boys and girls in the group of 11-13 years old and boys and girls in the group of 14-17 years old. By the age principle, groups of persons of retirement age 60_74 years and older than 75 years with differentiation by gender have been identified.

The adult able-bodied population, depending on the severity of work, is divided into 5 groups in men and 4 groups in women.

1 group. Workers predominantly mental work: heads of enterprises and organizations; engineering and technical workers whose work does not require significant physical activity; doctors (except for surgeons); educators; science workers; writers;

cultural and educational workers; Planning and accounting workers secretaries and clerks; dispatchers and workers of control panels.

2 group. Workers engaged in light physical labor: engineering and technical workers whose labor is associated with certain physical efforts; workers engaged in automated processes; electronic industry workers; sewing machines; agronomists and livestock specialists; veterinarians; nurses and nurses; sellers of department stores and services; communication and telegraph workers; teachers physical education and sport instructors, trainers.

3 group. Workers of medium severity of labor: machine workers; locksmiths; adjusters and adjusters; surgical doctors; chemists textile workers and shoe makers; drivers of vehicles; food industry workers; public utilities and catering workers; food sellers; foremen of transport and field crews; railway workers and water workers; truck drivers; polygraphists.

4 group. Hard physical workers: construction workers; the bulk of agricultural workers and machine operators; miners at surface works; oil and gas industry workers; metallurgists and casters; workers in the pulp and paper and woodworking industries; slingers and riggers; carpenters; workers in the building materials industry.

5 group. Workers engaged in particularly hard physical labor: miners in underground work; steelworkers; fellers of the forest; masons and concrete workers; diggers; movers.

In each of these groups, differentiation by age is distinguished: 18-29 years old, 30-39 years old and 40-59 years old.

As additional groups, pregnant and lactating women with children of 1_6 months and 7_12 months are distinguished. For them, additives to the relevant group labor standards are indicated.

Physiological nutritional standards are approximate average values ​​reflecting the optimal needs of certain groups of the population in the main nutrients and energy.

Physiological nutritional standards should be used as initial values:

a) when planning the development of the country's economy, in particular agriculture and the food industry;

b) when making the calculations necessary for the development of rational nutrition in groups;

c) for the general orientation of medical workers and the population in matters of good nutrition;

d) as a criterion for assessing the state of actual nutrition of the population.

When comparing our physiological nutritional standards with those developed in other countries, there is a significant difference. Nutrition rates in our country far exceed those not only in developing, but also in developed countries. This is due to the fact that a significant part of the territory of our country is located in a relatively cold climate zone and the average temperature is lower than in Western Europe, the USA and Canada, not to mention Asian, African and Latin American countries. This makes it necessary to increase the daily calorie content by 5% while lowering the average annual temperature for every 10 ° С.

The qualitative composition of nutrition is the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts and vitamins in the diet. All food substances according to their primary purpose can be divided into 3 groups:

1) proteins and mineral salts: calcium and phosphorus (with a predominantly plastic function);

2) fats and carbohydrates (with a predominantly energy function);

3) vitamins and mineral salts, microelements and macroelements - substances that play a specific role in the body as normalizers of metabolic processes. The daily requirement for nutrients and energy groups * The needs of children in the first year of life for energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates are given in the calculation of g / kg body weight.

Age gender Physiological norms
Energy (kcal) Protein (g) Fats (g) Carbohydrates (g) Mineral
Calcium Phosphorus Magney
Total Including
0-3 months * 115 2.2 2.2 6.5 (0.7) thirteen 400 300 55
4-6 months 115 2.6 2,5 6.0 (0.7) thirteen 500 400 60
7-12 months 110 2.9 2,3 5.5 (0.7) thirteen 600 500 70
1-3 years 1540 53 37 53 212 800 800 150
4-6 years old 1970 68 44 68 272 900 1350 200
6 (school.) 2000 69 45 67 285 1000 1500 250
7-10 years 2350 77 46 79 335 1100 1650 250
11-13
boy 11-13 2750 90 54 92 390 1200 1800 300
girls 14-17 2500 82 49 84 355 1200 1800 300
youths14-17 * 3000 98 59 100 425 1200 1800 300
girls. 2600 90 54 90 360 1200 1800 300
children's population. The brackets indicate the need for linoleic acid (g / kg body weight). Values ​​for protein are given for breastfeeding.
needs (per day)
substances (mg) Vitamins
Iron Zinc Iodine C mg A, mcg ret. eq. E mg D, mcg current. eq. Vmg Vmg Vmg Nia_ Qing, Pho_lat, mg niac. eq. B12 mcg mcg
4 3 0.04 thirty 400 3 10 0.3 0.4 0.4 5 40 0.3
7 3 0.04 35 400 3 10 0.4 0.5 0.5 6 40 0.4
10 4 0.05 40 400 4 10 0.5 0.6 0.6 7 60 0.5
10 5 0.06 45 450 5 10 0.8 0.9 0.9 10 100 1,0
10 8 0,07 fifty 500 7 2,5 0.9 1,0 1.3 eleven 200 1,5
12 10 0.08 60 500 10 2,5 1,0 1,2 1.3 thirteen 200 1,5
12 10 0.10 60 700 10 2,5 1,2 1.4 1,6 fifteen 200 2.0
fifteen fifteen 0.10 70 1000 12 2,5 1.4 1.7 1.8 18 200 3.0
18 12 0.10 70 800 10 2,5 1.3 1,5 1,6 17 200 3.0
fifteen fifteen 0.13 70 1000 fifteen 2,5 1,5 1.8 2.0 20 200 3.0
18 12 0.13 70 800 12 2,5 1.3 1,5 1,6 17 200 3.0
eye or a substitute for human milk with a biological value (BC) of the protein component of more than 80%; when feeding dairy products with BC less than 80%, the indicated values ​​"must be increased by 20-25%.

Protein. One of the most important components of food is protein. A sufficient amount and high quality of protein in food provides the best conditions for the normal functioning of the body and its high performance. Adequate protein content for a growing organism is especially important because protein plays a major plastic role.

It is the protein part of the diet that is the source of growth, restoration and renewal of the protoplasm of cells and tissues. Insufficient intake of protein in the body affects the function of all systems.

1. First of all, the enzyme system suffers.

2. Closely linked to proteins is the synthesis of hormones,

3. The protective functions of the body are reduced - due to a decrease in antibody production (because the biosynthesis of globulins, y-globulin is reduced). The resistance of the child's body to respiratory and intestinal infections is reduced.

4. With a lack of protein in the diet, a change in the morphology in the bone marrow cells is observed, and this entails a violation of the hematopoiesis process and a change in the morphological composition of the blood, as well as a decrease in oncotic pressure.

5. A decrease in the amount of protein in the diet is reflected in conditioned reflex activity, causing a weakening of the excitatory and inhibitory processes.

6. Chronic insufficient protein intake leads to deep violations of the liver, causing the development of fatty liver. The work of Soviet scientists found that in order to prevent fatty liver infiltration, choline is required, which can come ready-made with products (phosphotides) or can be synthesized in the body with the participation of the amino acid methionine. Methionine comes with complete proteins of animal origin. The disease most often affects young children (6-8 months). Mortality - 40-50%. When a complete protein is introduced into the diet, the disease is cured.

7. Inadequate intake of protein from food affects the course of mineral metabolism.
It has been established, for example, that a violation of phosphorus-calcium metabolism in children can be associated not only with a lack of these salts, vitamin D, but also with a lack of protein. In this case, a decrease in bone growth is observed and their chemical composition changes. This is due to a decrease in the activity of the phosphase enzyme, an important factor in bone formation.

8. There is evidence (Rodies, 1959) that protein deficiency for the first time in life can subsequently lead not only to short stature, but also to a delay in psychomotor development.

9. Regarding the effect of protein deficiency on vitamin metabolism, there are many works in this area that indicate a close relationship between these exchanges. It is known, for example, that with a lack of proteins, the synthesis of vitamin PP in the body is disturbed, because its synthesis is associated with the amino acid tryptophan. Observations showed that if in the diet of the population a large proportion falls on a product such as corn (maize) which contains very little tryptophan, and if there are few dairy products in the diet, then pellagra diseases more often appear among the population. When a sufficient amount of animal protein is introduced into the diet, the disease of pellagra is reduced.

With a lack of protein in food, excretion of vitamin C from the body increases.

An increase in urinary excretion of riboflavin (B2) and the development of ariboflavinosis are most closely associated with the availability of protein in the body.

With prolonged insufficient intake of proteins with food, children develop a disease called Kwashiorkor disease, which is translated from the language of the inhabitants of Ghana as “a disease of a baby weaned”. Such a disease is common in developing countries of Indochina, Africa and South America. As the child grows, if protein deficiency persists, Kwashiorkor disease becomes an adult disease - alimentary dystrophy or alimentary insanity. These diseases are irreversible and lead to the death of such patients as early as adolescence.

How much protein do you need to have daily in your diet?

The need for protein depends on age, gender, nature of work, climatic and national characteristics, etc. Of particular difficulty is the determination of the optimal protein norm and the value of its allowable reduction without affecting human health in various conditions of his life and work.

It is precisely the data on the minimum human need for protein that have been most thoroughly studied and developed in detail, which is associated with the scarcity and special value of protein as a food substance and the presence of proven methodological approaches. For this purpose, the method of determining nitrogen balance is used. With a certain minimum intake of protein with food, a nitrogen equilibrium is established, i.e. the amount of nitrogen excreted in various ways becomes equal to its intake from food. If the amount of protein in the composition of the diet is insufficient, then a negative nitrogen balance is established, indicating that the consumption of tissue proteins exceeds their intake with the diet.

Согласно физиологическим нормам питания, действующим в нашей стране, общее количество белка в рационах питания детей должно составлять удвоенное количество по сравнению с обеспечивающим азотистый баланс или азотистое равновесие, а для взрослого населения —1,5 количество. Для дошкольников — 53-69 г, для школьников — 77-98 г, для взрослого населения: у женщин — 58-87 г и у мужчин — 65_1 17 г (в зависимости от их профессиональной деятельности).

В целом за счет белков должно обеспечиваться 14% калорийности рациона.

Наряду с общим количеством белка нормируется и количество белков животного происхождения, т.к. они являются полноценными белками, т.е. содержат все незаменимые аминокислоты — валин, гистидин, изолейцин, лейцин, лизин, метионин, триптофан, треонин и фенилаланин. Белки животного происхождения должны составлять не менее 60% для детей и не менее 55% — для взрослых.

Среди незаменимых аминокислот наибольшее значение для организма человека имеют триптофан, лизин и метионин. Оптимальным соотношением этих аминокислот в суточном рационе питания является 133, что соответствует их соотношению в женском молоке и усредненному аминокислотному составу тела человека. Если эти аминокислоты поступают в ином соотношении, то синтез белка в организме человека идет на уровне той аминокислоты, которой меньше всего, а оставшиеся неиспользованными аминокислоты выводятся из организма.

Биологическая роль трех наиболее дефицитных незаменимых аминокислот:

1. Метионин участвует в жировом обмене (регулирует обмен жиров- фосфатидов), являясь одним из лучших литотропных веществ, предупреждающих ожирение печени. Метионин является лучшим донатором метильных групп для синтеза холина — этого антисклеротического фактора. Метионин предохраняет от тяжелых поражений при лучевом воздействии и от действия бактериальных токсинов. Способствует более полному проявлению действия витамина ВА, фолиевой кислоты и т.д.

Хорошим источником метионина является молочный белок "казеин", который содержит до 3°/о метионина. Много его содержится в белках трески, яиц, мяса, т. е. в белках животных продуктов.

В природе самое высокое содержание серосодержащих аминокислот (метионинЧ-цистин) в зернах подсолнуха.

Суточная потребность в веществах и энергии взрослого
Нормы физиологических
Group Коэфф. физ. Act. Age Энергия (ккал) Белки (г) Жиры(г) Углеводы(г) Mineral
Total Including животн.
Calcium Phosphorus Magnesium
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 eleven
Мужчины
I 1.4 18-29 2450 72 40 81 358 800 1200 400
30-39 2300 68 37 77 335
40-59 2100 65 36 70 303
II 1.6 18-29 2800 80 44 93 411 800 1200 400
30-39 2650 77 42 88 387
40-59 2500 72 40 83 366
III 1.9 18-29 3300 94 52 110 484 800 1200 400
30-39 3150 89 49 105 462
40-59 2950 84 46 98 432
IV 2.2 18-29 3850 108 59 128 566 800 1200 400
30-39 3600 102 56 120 528
40-59 3400 96 53 113 499
V 2.5 18-29 4200 117 64 154 586 800 1200 400
30-39 3950 eleven 61 144 550
40-59 3750 104 57 137 524
Women
I 1.4 18-29 2000 61 34 67 289 800 1200 400
30-39 1900 59 33 63 274
40-59 1800 58 32 60 257


II 1.6 18-29 2200 66 36 73 318 800 1200 400
30-39 2150 65 36 72 311
40-59 2100 63 35 70 305
III 1.9 18-29 2600 76 42 87 378 800 1200 400
30-39 2550 74 41 85 372
40-59 2500 72 40 83 366
IV 2.2 18-29 3050 87 48 102 462 800 1200 400
30-39 2950 84 46 98 432
40-59 2850 82 45 95 417
Дополнительно к норме, соответствующей физической активности и возрасту
Pregnant women +350 thirty 20 12 thirty 300 450 fifty
Кормящие(1_6 мес.) +500 40 26 fifteen 40 400 600 fifty
Кормящие (7_12 мес.) +450 thirty 20 fifteen thirty 400 600 fifty
Нормы для лиц престарелого и старческого возраста
Мужчины 60-74 2300 68 37 77 335 1000 1200 400
75+ 1950 61 33 65 280 1000 1200 400
Women 60-74 1975 61 33 66 284 1000 1200 400
75+ 1700 55 thirty 57 242 1000 1200 400
трудоспособного населения и лиц пенсионного возраста * Для женщин старше 50 лет во всех группах кальций - 1000 мг/сут.

Потребностей (в день)
вещества (мг) Vitamins
Железо Zinc Иод С, мг А, мкг Е, мг Д, В1, В2, В6, Ниацин, Фолат, В12,
рет. экв. ток. экв. мкг mg mg mg mg мкг мкг
ниац. экв.
12 thirteen 14 fifteen 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
10 fifteen 0.15 70 1000 10 2,5 1,2 1,5 2 16 200 3
10 fifteen 0.15 70 1000 10 2,5 1,4 1.7 2 18 200 3
10 fifteen 0.15 80 1000 10 2,5 1,6 2.0 2 22 200 3
10 fifteen 0.15 80 1000 10 2,5 1.9 2.2 2 26 200 3
10 fifteen 0.15 100 1000 10 2,5 2.1 2,4 2 28 200 3
18 fifteen 0.15 70 800 8 2,5 1,1 1.3 1.8 14 200 3
18 fifteen 0.15 70 800 8 2,5 1,1 1.3 1.8 14 200 3
18 fifteen 0.15 80 1000 8 2,5 1.3 1,5 1.8 17 200 3
18 fifteen 0.15 80 1000 8 2,5 1,5 1.8 1.8 20 200 3
20 5 0,03 20 200 2 10 0.4 0.3 0.3 2 200 1
fifteen 10 0.05 40 400 4 10 0.6 0.5 0.5 5 100 1
fifteen 10 0.05 40 400 4 10 0.6 0.5 0.5 5 100 1
10 fifteen 0.15 80 1000 fifteen 2,5 1,4 1,6 2.2 18 200 3
10 fifteen 0.15 80 1000 fifteen 2,5 1,2 1,4 2.2 fifteen 200 3
10 fifteen 0.15 80 800 12 2,5 1.3 1,5 2 16 200 3
10 fifteen 0.15 80 800 12 2,5 1,1 1.3 2 thirteen 200 3
2. Лизин — тесным образом связан с кроветворением. При его недостатке уменьшается число эритроцитов и количество Нв.

Кроме того, при его недостатке отмечается нарушение кальцификации костей, истощение мышц. Лизин необходим для роста молодых организмов.

Основным источником лизина является молочный белок. Творог содержит его 1,5%. Имеется также в мясе животных.

3. Триптофан является аминокислотой, необходимой для синтеза в организме никотиновой кислоты (РР), гемоглобина, образования сывороточных белков. Ростовый фактор. Чем меньше возраст, тем выше потребность в триптофане (1,0).

Но триптофан набрать в достаточном количестве довольно трудно, т.к. в 100 г мяса, яиц его содержится только 0,2 г.

В молоке триптофан находится в альбумине, который при нагревании свыше 70°С денатурируется и выпадает в осадок на стенке посуды, следовательно, теряется и триптофан. Поэтому важно так обрабатывать молоко, чтобы не было потери альбуминов. Лучше всего, конечно, употреблять сырое молоко от здоровой коровы.

Продукты— источники полноценного белка (%)

Мясо - 16-рыба - 14-птица - 16-яйца - 12,яичный порошок - молоко - 3,творог тощий - 17,творог жирный - сыры разные - 18-25 Менее полноценными по аминокислотному составу являются белки из продуктов растительного происхождения.

Но неполноценность аминокислотного состава растительных белков компенсируется при питания смешанной пищей и особенно за счет рационального подбора различных продуктов растительного и животного происхождения.

Кроме того, среди растительных продуктов есть бобовые, содержащие большое количество полноценных белков.

1) горох - 19,8%

2) фасоль - 19,6%

3) чечевица - 20,4%

4) мука гороховая - 22%

5) мука соевая обезжиренная - 41-40%/

Белки этих продуктов имеют в достаточном количестве особенно ценные аминокислоты, такие как триптофан, лизин, метионин, а соя содержит этих аминокислот даже больше, чем мясо, а метионина в ней столько же, сколько и в твороге.

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Питание как фактор сохранения и укрепления здоровья. Физиологические нормы питания. Значение отдельных компонентов пищи в питании человека. Значение белков в питании человека, их нормы и источники поступления в организм

  1. The value of fats, carbohydrates and minerals in human nutrition. The norms of these food components and their sources of entry into the human body
    As already mentioned in the previous lecture, fats are substances that perform mainly an energy function in the body. In this regard, fats are superior to all other food components (carbohydrates and proteins), since when they are burned, 2 times more energy is released (1 g of fat forms 9.3 kcal, while 1 g of protein and the corresponding amount of carbohydrates are only 4, 3 kcal). However biological
  2. The concept of hygienically nutritious nutrition. Nutritional standards Food products, their composition and energy value.
    Nutrition is a complex process of the intake, digestion, absorption and assimilation of nutrients in the body necessary to cover its energy expenditure, build and renew cells and tissues of the body, and regulate the physiological functions of the body. In hygiene, the term “nutritious nutrition” is adopted, which means nutrition based on scientific foundations that can fully satisfy the need for
  3. The value of vitamins in human nutrition. Foods - Vitamin Sources
    For a long time, mankind noticed that with prolonged monotonous nutrition, in the cases of the exclusion of certain foods from the diet, especially in conditions of long expeditions, various diseases quite often occurred. At first glance, there was no root cause. However, with the accumulation of this experience, it became clear that there were some specific components in food in very small quantities,
  4. Тема «Питание как фактор здоровья»
    Питание как материальная основа жизнедеятельности организма человека, его психического и физического здоровья. 2. Энергетические затраты и энергетическая ценность пищи. Metabolism and energy. Энергетический баланс, нерегулируемые и регулируемые траты энергии. Рекомендуемые величины физиологической потребности в энергии и пищевых веществах. 3. Значение для жизнедеятельности организма,
  5. Гигиенические основы питания как источник здоровья и нормального физического развития
    Правильное в количественном и качественном отношении питание — важнейший фактор роста и гармоничного развития ребенка. Оно необходимо для адаптации к меняющимся условиям внешней среды, высокой сопротивляемости болезням. Потребность в питательных веществах растущего, развивающегося и активно двигающегося ребенка очень высока. Вместе с тем организм маленьких детей может усвоить далеко не всякую
  6. ЖИРЫ И ИХ ЗНАЧЕНИЕ В ПИТАНИИ
    Жиры в организме человека играют как энергетическую, так и пластическую роль, являясь структурной частью клеток. Жиры служат источником энергии, превосходящей энергию всех других пищевых веществ. При сгорании 1 г жира образуется 37,7 кДж (9 ккал), тогда как при сгорании 1 г углеводов и 1 г белков — 16,7 кДж (4 ккал). Жиры являются хорошими растворителями ряда витаминов и источниками
  7. Виды питания современного человека
    В соответствии с особенностями биологического действия пищи на организм различают 4 вида питания людей в современных условиях: превентивное, лечебно-профилактическое, лечебное и рациональное. Превентивное питание — это профилактическое питание здоровых людей, относящихся к группам риска, основанное на неспецифическом действии питания, препятствующее развитию и прогрессированию неинфекционных
  8. УГЛЕВОДЫ И ИХ ЗНАЧЕНИЕ В ПИТАНИИ
    Углеводы являются основной составной частью пищевого рациона. Физиологическое значение углеводов в основном определяется их энергетическими свойствами. Каждый грамм углеводов обеспечивает поступление 16,7 кДж (4 ккал). При всех видах физического труда отмечается повышенная потребность в углеводах. Углеводы используются в организме также в качестве пластического материала многих клеток для
  9. МИНЕРАЛЬНЫЕ ЭЛЕМЕНТЫ И ИХ ЗНАЧЕНИЕ В ПИТАНИИ
    Современные исследования подтверждают жизненную важность минеральных элементов. Выявлены новые стороны их биологического действия, что позволило выделить большую группу биологически активных веществ — биомикроэлементов. Изучение минеральных веществ как необходимой составной части питания тесно связано с предупреждением распространения и ликвидацией ряда эндемических заболеваний; эндемического
  10. PROTEINS AND THEIR VALUE IN FOOD
    * Proteins are indispensable substances necessary for life, growth and development of the body. Protein deficiency in the body leads to the development of nutritional (from lat. Alimentum - food) diseases. Proteins are used as plastic material for building various tissues and cells of the body, as well as hormones, enzymes, antibodies and specific proteins. Proteins are a necessary background for
  11. VITAMINS AND THEIR VALUE IN FOOD
    Vitamins are low molecular weight organic compounds that are different in their chemical nature. In the body, vitamins are not synthesized or synthesized in small quantities. They take part in the metabolism, have a great impact on the state of health, adaptive abilities, working capacity. A prolonged lack of this or that vitamin in food causes a disease,
  12. THE CONCEPT OF A SANITARY MODE OF A PUBLIC FOOD SERVICE. SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL "RISK FACTORS" IN PUBLIC FOOD.
    One of the most important requirements for the work of public catering enterprises is the release of benign, epidemically flawless products. This can only be achieved if certain requirements for the operation of the catering business are fully met. These requirements are set forth in various regulatory documents,
  13. The rational nutrition of modern man
    It is regrettable to note that at present there are no scientifically based recommendations on rational nutrition, as well as the science of nutrition itself. At the end of the XIX century, the WHO Congress approved the provision according to which the amount of food needed by a person should be determined based on its calorie content. In this case, the calculations based on the study of diet were taken as the basis
  14. Значение питания в обеспечении жизнедеятельности
    В основе жизни лежит сочетание трех потоков: вещества, энергии и информации. Для обеспечения этих потоков исходный материал должен поступать из внешней среды, в значительной степени с пищевыми веществами. К основным пищевым веществам относят белки, жиры, углеводы, воду, витамины, минеральные вещества, фитонциды и некоторые другие. Белки в организме выполняют многообразные функции, к
  15. Влияние питания на состояние зубочелюстной системы человека
    Рациональное питание является составной частью здорового образа жизни человека, играя немалую роль в предупреждении основных стоматологических заболеваний (кариеса зубов, гингивита, пародонтита и др.). Проявление этой роли рационального питания выражается в следующих аспектах: • формирование зубов, резистентных к действию неблагоприятных факторов; • снижение кариесогенного действия простых
  16. Гигиеническое значение минеральных веществ и витаминов в питании населения
    Минеральные вещества и витамины играют весьма важную и вместе с тем своеобразную роль в жизнедеятельности организма. Прежде всего, они не используются как энергетические материалы, что является специфической особенностью для белков, жиров и углеводов. Другой отличительной чертой этих пищевых веществ является относительно очень незначительная количественная потребность в них организма. Достаточно
  17. QUESTION - VALUE AND HYGIENIC EVALUATION OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL VENTILATION OF A Catering Enterprise
    Regular ventilation of residential and public buildings ensures the timely removal of excess heat, moisture and harmful gaseous impurities that accumulate in the air as a result of people staying and various household processes. Air from poorly ventilated dwellings and various premises as a result of its chemical and bacterial contamination can have a harmful effect on health
  18. Medical nutritional monitoring of organized populations. Therapeutic and therapeutic nutrition
    Nutrition is one of the main factors determining human health. The catering of the collective is connected with the type of institution (kindergarten, school, industrial institution, field camp, medical treatment institutions, army, etc.), the number of people and the length of their stay in this institution. In most cases, healthcare providers themselves take part in
  19. Parenteral Nutrition Components
    The leading drugs for parenteral nutrition are: 1) amino acid solutions, protein hydrolysates; 2) carbohydrate solutions; 3) fat emulsions; 4) electrolyte solutions; 5) vitamins. For the qualitative assimilation of substances introduced parenterally, anabolic steroid hormones are connected to the main parenteral nutrition scheme. Proteins, protein preparations and amino acid mixtures Normal
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