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SALMONELLOSIS AND THEIR PREVENTION
According to the classification of foodborne diseases, salmonellosis was previously assigned to the group of microbial food poisoning that causes toxic infections. Currently, according to the current classification, salmonellosis is assigned to the group of acute intestinal infections, where they are allocated in an independent section: "Other salmonella intestinal toxicoinfections." However, in their appearance, course, and prevention, they are also close to food poisoning and are quite common.
The causative agent of salmonellosis is the large group of salmonella, which causes various clinical diseases in animals: typhoid in mice, cholera in pigs, enteritis in calves and other diseases. In humans, salmonella causes one disease - salmonellosis, which manifests itself in the form of a flu-like, typhoid-like or septic disease, and also more often in the form of gastroenteritis.
Of the 2000 serological types of salmonella in our country, about 200 circulate, of which 10-15 species cause diseases: S. tyhimurium, S. enteriditis, ScholeraeSuic. and others. Most often, S. typhimurium is the causative agent of intestinal toxicoinfections.
Salmonella - indisputable facultative anaerobes, stable in the external environment. They withstand temperatures of -10 ° C for 115 days, 0 ° - 142 days, 2-3 months in salted meat (12-19% sodium chloride). Some species do not die when frozen to -48 ... -82 ° C, they also tolerate drying well. Salmonella survive in water and on various objects at room temperature for up to 45-90 days. At room temperature, salmonella rapidly multiply in food, without changing the organoleptic characteristics of food.
For a relatively long time, salmonella survive in food products, and they not only remain viable, but also reproduce without causing changes in the organoleptic properties of the products. So, in dry egg powder at a temperature of 70 ° C, salmonella survive for 8 hours, at 75 ° C for 2 hours, at 80 ° C for up to 42 minutes, at 90 ° C for up to 3.5 minutes, at 100 ° C die after 20 s.
Salmonella does not form a spore, therefore, when heated, they die relatively quickly: at 60 ° C after 1 h, at 70 ° C after 15 minutes, at 75 ° C after 5 minutes, and at 100 ° C instantly ..
In nature, salmonella is widespread. The main sources of these pathogens are animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, horses), birds, especially waterfowl (geese, ducks) and pigeons, as well as cats, dogs, rats, mice. Infection of meat and meat products is noted in 10% of the total number, it occurs during the life of cattle or after slaughter. In the first case, when slaughtering sick cattle, bacteria are found not only in the intestine, but also in the muscles. In the second case, seeding of meat and meat products takes place at meat processing plants and in slaughtering workshops in case of sanitary violations of the technological process of obtaining and selling meat.
The source of salmonella can be sick people or bacteria carriers that have had this infection.
Carriage in patients with illness can last from several days to several years. Flies that carry salmonella on the legs, as well as keeping them in the intestine, can also be significant in food contamination.
The causative agents of salmonella in the external environment are excreted in feces, urine, milk, and animal saliva.
Of great danger are products made from minced meat (minced meat), since during the grinding process, salmonella, which were in the lymph nodes, spread throughout the whole mass of minced meat, and if stored improperly, they multiply intensively.
Salmonellosis often occurs as a result of violations of the technology of cooking food, and especially meat; Of particular importance are infected products that have already undergone heat treatment. A favorable environment for the development of salmonella is jelly, meat fillings for pancakes, pies and offal products, since the conditions of their heat treatment in the case of salmonella content do not ensure their death.
Salmonella toxicoinfection can also occur with eggs and egg products. Infection of eggs is possible during their formation and the passage of the formed egg (with shell) through the cloacal opening of the bird-isolating bird. Penetration of salmonella is also possible through the shell. Favorable conditions are contamination, shell moistening, sharp fluctuations in temperature during the day (as a result of improper storage), the appearance of cracks, mold on the shell, etc. The occurrence of salmonella can be with the use of egg powder and melange, in the manufacture of which the sanitary regime was violated. Carriers (up to 30-40%) of salmonella are often waterfowl (ducks, geese), as well as chickens.
Often the transmission factor for salmonella is milk and dairy products. Also described are the diseases that occurred when consuming confectionery, salads, vinaigrettes, etc.
The incubation period for salmonellosis lasts from 10 to 48 hours (sometimes from 2 hours to 2 days). The disease begins acutely: body temperature rises to 38-40 ° C, headache, weakness, aching joints, sometimes chills, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loose stools. The disease lasts from 3 to 7 days and usually ends in recovery. However, fatal outcomes are possible for sick people, children, and the elderly.
General measures for the prevention of salmonella:
1) proper slaughter inspection of livestock;
2) veterinary control over the receipt of meat;
3) identification of bacillicarriers;
4) the fight against rodents, flies, cockroaches;
5) thorough mechanical processing of products (washing, cleaning, defrosting, soaking, etc.);
6) the use of cold to store perishable products;
7) compliance with the storage and sale periods;
8) thorough heat treatment of products.
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SALMONELLOSIS AND THEIR PREVENTION
Salmonellosis of birds (Latin, English - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid, infectious diarrhea of birds) is a disease characterized by an acute course of septicemia in young animals and latent infection in an adult bird. Historical background, distribution, hazard and damage. Salmonella is widespread. Salmonella was first isolated from pig organs by American veterinarians Salmon and Smith in 1885.
Salmonellosis (lat., English - Salmonellosis; paratyphoid) - a large group of zoonotic diseases of mainly farm animals, characterized in young animals with acute course of fever, septicemia, toxicosis and diarrhea, and with subacute and chronic - pneumonia and arthritis; in adult females, by abortion; in humans, it proceeds in the form of foodborne toxicoinfections (see color insert).
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Salmonellosis (salmonellosis) - an infectious disease of young animals, characterized by a violation of the digestive tract, the development of toxemia, sepsis, sometimes metritis and abortion. Etiology. The causative agent of the disease is a gram-negative movable rod with rounded ends, it does not form spores and capsules, it is relatively stable in the external environment. Disease in small animals
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- Salmonellosis of ostriches
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