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Sanitary requirements for catering.

I Location Requirements

1.1. Placing organizations, providing land, approving project documentation for construction and reconstruction, putting into operation is allowed if there is a sanitary and epidemiological conclusion on their compliance with sanitary rules and norms.

1.2. Organizations can be located both in a separate building, and in an annex, built-in - annexed to residential and public buildings, in non-residential floors of residential buildings, in public buildings, as well as on the territory of industrial and other facilities for servicing working personnel. At the same time, living conditions, recreation, treatment, work of people should not worsen.

Production departments of organizations are not recommended to be located in basement and semi-basement rooms.

In non-residential premises of residential buildings (except dormitories) it is allowed to place organizations with a total area of ​​not more than 700 m2 with the number of seats not more than 50.

1.3. Orientation, placement of production and storage facilities, their layout and equipment must ensure compliance with the requirements of sanitary legislation, technological production regulations, quality and safety of finished products, as well as working conditions of workers.

1.4. When designing, building new and reconstructing existing organizations, taking into account the range of products being developed, one should be guided by the current building standards, the norms of technological design of public catering organizations, and also the requirements of these Rules.

1.5. The organizations do not accommodate premises for housing, do not carry out work and services not related to the activities of public catering organizations, and also do not contain pets and birds.

1.6. To collect garbage and food waste in the territory, separate containers with lids should be provided, installed on paved grounds, the dimensions of which exceed the base area of ​​the containers by 1 m in all directions.

Garbage bins are cleaned when not more than 2/3 of their volume is filled, after that they are cleaned and disinfected using means authorized by the bodies and institutions of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service in the prescribed manner.

The garbage collection site is located at a distance of at least 25 m from residential buildings, playgrounds for games and recreation.

1.7. On the territory of organizations, it is recommended to provide sites for temporary parking of personnel and visitors.

Sites should be located on the side of the carriageway of roads and not be located in the courtyards of residential buildings.

II Requirements for water supply and sewerage

2.1. Organizations, regardless of ownership, capacity, location, are equipped with internal water supply and sewage systems.

Organizations are supplied with water by connecting to a centralized water supply system; if it is absent, an internal water supply system with water intake from an artesian well, wells, and cottages is equipped.

2.2. The water quality in the organization's water supply systems must meet the hygienic requirements for water quality of centralized drinking water supply systems and non-centralized water supply.

2.3. The amount of water used by the organization should fully meet its needs.

2.4. It is forbidden to use hot water from the water heating system for technological, household and household purposes, as well as the processing of technological equipment, containers, implements and premises.

It is forbidden to use imported water in organizations.

2.5. In the absence of hot or cold water, the organization suspends its work.

2.6. Discharge into open water bodies and into the adjacent territory of untreated wastewater, as well as the construction of absorbing wells, is not allowed.

2.7. All production workshops, washing, defroster, loading, food waste storage chamber should be equipped with drain ladders with a slope of the floor to them.

A separate faucet with a mixer at a level of 0.5 m from the floor for water intake for floor cleaning, as well as a drain ladder with a slope to it, should be provided in the vestibule for personnel.

2.8. All stationary organizations are equipped with toilets and sinks for washing the hands of visitors. Combining toilets for staff and visitors is not allowed.

III Requirements for working conditions

in industrial premises

3.1. Industrial, auxiliary and sanitary facilities are equipped with supply and exhaust mechanical ventilation in accordance with the requirements of current norms and rules.

In the confectionery decoration rooms, the ventilation system is supplied with a dust and bactericidal filter, which provides fresh air in this room.

3.2. Equipment and washing baths, which are sources of increased emissions of moisture, heat, gases, are equipped with local exhaust systems with a primary exhaust in the zone of maximum pollution.

3.3. Permissible values ​​of the intensity of thermal radiation at workplaces from production equipment should not exceed 70 W / m2 with an irradiated surface of the human body of 25 - 50%. To prevent the adverse effects of infrared radiation on the body of cooks, confectioners should:

- apply sectional - modular equipment;

- as much as possible fill the working surface of the plates with dishes;

- timely turn off sections of electric stoves or switch to lower power;

- at workplaces near furnaces, stoves, ovens and other equipment that works with heating, apply air-to-shower;

- to regulate intra-shift work and rest of workers.

3.4. Natural and artificial lighting in all production, storage, sanitary - household and administrative - economic premises must comply with the requirements for natural and artificial lighting, as well as the requirements of these Rules. At the same time, natural lighting is used to the maximum.

3.5. In the workshop for the preparation of cold dishes and snacks, confectionery workshops, where cream is prepared and cakes and pastries are trimmed, the project is planned for northwestern orientation, as well as the use of devices for protection against insolation (blinds, special glasses and other devices that reflect thermal radiation).

3.6. Pregnant women working at stoves, pastry ovens, ovens should be transferred at the conclusion of a doctor to work not related to intense heat and carrying heavy loads by hand.

I V. Requirements for the design and maintenance of premises

4.1. The walls of production rooms to a height of at least 1.7 m are finished with tiles or other materials that can withstand wet cleaning and disinfection. The ceilings are plastered and bleached or finished with other materials. The floors are made of impact-resistant materials that prevent slipping and have slopes to the drain ladders.

The ceilings and walls of the production and auxiliary rooms of the confectionery shops are painted as necessary, but at least once a year.

4.2. The walls and ceilings of storage rooms are plastered and whitened. Walls to a height of at least 1.7 m are painted with moisture-resistant paints for interior decoration.

The floors are made of moisture-resistant materials of increased mechanical strength (shockproof) with termination of the joints of building structures with a fine-mesh metal mesh, steel sheet or cement-sand mortar with long metal shavings. Floors along the paths of loading raw materials and food products in warehouses and industrial premises should not have thresholds. The boot is equipped with a platform, a canopy.

4.3. Separate equipment is allocated for cleaning production, storage, auxiliary rooms, and toilets, which are stored in specially designated places, as close as possible to the cleaning places. Equipment for washing toilets has a signal color and is stored separately.

4.4. In order to prevent the occurrence and spread of infectious diseases, cleaning of industrial, auxiliary, warehouse and household premises is carried out by cleaners, and cleaning of workplaces by workers at the workplace. Special staff is provided for cleaning the toilets.

Cleaners should be provided in sufficient quantities with cleaning equipment, rags, detergents and disinfectants.

V. Requirements for equipment, implements, utensils and containers

5.1 Production tables at the end of work are thoroughly washed with detergents and disinfectants, washed with hot water at a temperature of 40 - 50 degrees. C and wipe dry with a clean, dry cloth.

5.2. In order to prevent infectious diseases, cutting equipment is assigned to each workshop and has a special marking.

Cutting boards and knives are marked in accordance with the product processed on them: "SM" - raw meat, "CP" - raw fish, "SB" - raw vegetables, "VM" - boiled meat, "BP" - boiled fish, "VO "- boiled vegetables," MG "- meat gastronomy," Greens "," KO "- pickled vegetables," Herring "," X "- bread," RG "- fish gastronomy.

5.3. The deck for cutting meat is installed on a cross or a special stand, fastened with metal hoops, daily after work is cleaned with a knife and sprinkled with salt. Periodically, as necessary, the deck is cut down and planed.

Store inventory in a designated place.

5.4. For the preparation and storage of ready-made food, it is recommended to use stainless steel utensils. Aluminum and dural utensils are used only for cooking and short-term storage of food.

5.5. Dishes with cracks, chips, chipped edges, deformed, with damaged enamel are not used.

5.6. In beer bars, mugs, glasses, glasses are washed with hot water at least 45-50 degrees. C using detergents and disinfectants.

For rinsing glasses, glasses, mugs, syringe sets are additionally equipped.

5.7. In case of failure of the dishwasher, the absence of conditions for manual washing of dishes, as well as disposable tableware and appliances, the organization does not work.

5.8. Washing tableware manually is carried out in the following order:

- mechanical removal of food debris;

- washing in water with the addition of detergents in the first section of the bath;

- washing in the second section of the bath in water with a temperature of at least 40 degrees. C and the addition of detergents in an amount two times less than in the first section of the bath;

- rinsing dishes in a metal mesh with handles in the third section of the bathtub with hot running water with a temperature of at least 65 degrees. C using a flexible hose with shower head;

- drying dishes on trellised shelves, racks.

5.9. At the end of the working day, disinfection of all tableware and devices is carried out by means in accordance with the instructions for their use.

5.10. Washing the dishes is done in two-section bathtubs in the following order:

- mechanical cleaning of food debris;

- washing with brushes in water with a temperature of at least 40 degrees. C with the addition of detergents;

- rinsing with running water with a temperature of at least 65 degrees. C;

- overturned drying on trellised shelves, racks.

5.11. When processing manually, cutlery is washed with detergents, then rinsed in running water and calcined in ovens, bakeries, dry heat ovens for 10 minutes.

5.12.
Clean kitchen utensils and equipment are stored on racks at least 0.5 m above the floor.

Clean tableware is stored in closed cabinets or on racks.

Clean cutlery is stored in the hall in special drawers - cassettes, handles up. Storage on trays in bulk is not permitted. Cutlery cassettes are sanitized daily.

5.13. After completing work, the dishwashing brushes are cleaned and soaked in hot water at a temperature of at least 45 degrees. C with the addition of detergents, disinfect (or boil), rinse with running water, then dry and store in a specially allocated place.

VI. Requirements for transportation, reception

and storage of raw materials and food products

6.1. The body of vehicles inside is upholstered with material that can be easily sanitized, and equipped with shelving.

6.2. Persons accompanying food raw materials and foodstuffs along the route and loading and unloading them, use sanitary clothing (bathrobe, mittens, etc.), have a personal medical record book of a standard form with notes on medical examinations, laboratory tests and professional hygiene training and certification

6.3. To prevent the occurrence and spread of infectious diseases and mass non-infectious diseases (poisoning) in the organization it is forbidden to accept:

- food raw materials and food products without documents confirming their quality and safety;

- meat and offal of all types of farm animals without stigma and veterinary certificate;

- fish, crayfish, poultry without veterinary certification;

- unbroken bird (except game);

- eggs with contaminated shells, with a notch, “tech”, “fight”, as well as eggs from farms unsuccessful for salmonellosis, duck and goose eggs;

- canned goods with violation of the tightness of cans, bombing cans, “crackers”, cans with rust, deformed, without labels;

- cereals, flour, dried fruits and other products infected with barn pests;

- vegetables and fruits with mold and signs of rot;

- inedible mushrooms, uncultivated edible, worms, wrinkled;

- foods with expired shelf life and signs of poor quality;

- home-made products.

6.4. Products should be stored in the manufacturer’s packaging (barrels, boxes, flasks, cans, etc.), if necessary, transferred to a clean production container labeled in accordance with the type of product.

6.5. Products without packaging are weighed in containers or on clean paper.

6.6. Products should be stored according to the accepted classification by type of product: dry (flour, sugar, cereal, pasta, etc.); bread; meat, fish; milk fat; gastronomic; vegetables and fruits.

Raw materials and finished products should be stored in separate refrigerators. In small organizations that have one refrigerator compartment, as well as in the daily food supply chamber, their joint short-term storage is allowed subject to the conditions of commodity neighborhood (on separate shelves, racks).

VII. Raw Material Processing Requirements

and production

7.1. Products are prepared in batches as they demand and are sold.

7.2. Processing of raw and finished products is carried out separately in specially equipped workshops. In organizations that do not have a workshop division, with a limited assortment of manufactured dishes, processing of raw materials and finished products in one room on different tables is allowed.

7.3. Meat is defrosted in two ways. Slow defrosting is carried out in a defroster at a temperature of 0 to +6 degrees. C, in the absence of defroster - in the meat shop on production tables. Meat in water or near the stove is not thawed. Repeated freezing of defrosted meat is not allowed.

7.4. The meat in carcasses, halves and quarters is carefully cleaned before deboning, the stigma is cut off, blood clots are removed, then washed with running water with a brush.

At the end of the work, the brushes are cleaned, washed with hot solutions of detergents at a temperature of 45 - 50 degrees. C, rinse, soak in a disinfectant for 10 - 15 minutes, rinse with running water and dry.

7.5. Minced meat is stored for no more than 6 hours at a temperature of +2 to +4 degrees. C. In the absence of cold, storage of minced meat is prohibited.

7.6. By-products (brains, kidneys, scars) defrost in air or in water. Before heat treatment, brains, udders, kidneys, scars are soaked in cold water.

7.7. Poultry carcasses are thawed in air, then washed with running water and laid down cut to drain. For processing raw poultry, separate tables, cutting and production equipment are allocated.

7.8. The fish is thawed in air or in cold water with a temperature not exceeding +12 degrees. C at the rate of 2 liters per 1 kg of fish. To reduce the loss of minerals in water, it is recommended to add salt at the rate of 7 - 10 g per 1 liter. It is not recommended to thaw fish fillet and sturgeon fish in water.

7.9. Salads, vinaigrettes in non-seasoned form are stored at a temperature of 4 +/- 2 degrees. C no more than 6 hours. Salads and vinaigrettes should be seasoned immediately before vacation.

Storage conditions for salads with extended expiration dates must meet the requirements of the technical conditions for which the sanitary and epidemiological conclusion of bodies and institutions of the state sanitary and epidemiological service is issued in the prescribed manner.

Salads of fresh vegetables, fruits and greens are prepared in batches as required.

7.10. When cooking jelly, boiled meat products and other components are poured with strained broth and subjected to repeated boiling. Hot jelly is poured into pre-scalded forms (baking sheets) and left to cool to a temperature of 25 degrees. C on production tables. Subsequent post-cooling and storage at a temperature of 4 +/- 2 degrees. C is carried out in a refrigerator in a cold workshop. The implementation of jelly without refrigeration equipment is not allowed.

7.11. Готовность изделий из мяса и птицы определяется выделением бесцветного сока в месте прокола и серым цветом на разрезе продукта, а также температурой в толще продукта. Для натуральных рубленых изделий - не ниже 85 град. C, для изделий из котлетной массы - не ниже 90 град. C. Указанная температура выдерживается в течение 5 мин.

7.12. Готовность изделий из рыбного фарша и рыбы определяется образованием поджаристой корочки и легким отделением мяса от кости в порционных кусках.

7.13. Приготовление кулинарных изделий в грилях осуществляют в соответствии с инструкциями по их эксплуатации, при этом температура в толще готового продукта должна быть не ниже 85 град. C.

7.14. При жарке изделий во фритюре рекомендуется использовать специализированное оборудование, не требующее дополнительного добавления фритюрных жиров.

7.15. Отварное мясо, птицу и субпродукты для первых и вторых блюд нарезают на порции, заливают бульоном, кипятят в течение 5 - 7 мин. и хранят в этом же бульоне при температуре +75 град. C до отпуска не более 1 ч.

7.16. При приготовлении начинки для пирожков и блинчиков фарш из предварительно отваренного мяса или ливера жарят на противне не менее 5 - 7 мин., периодически помешивая.

Готовую начинку следует использовать в течение 2 ч после жарки.

7.17. Обработка яйца, используемого для приготовления блюд, осуществляется в отведенном месте в специальных промаркированных емкостях в следующей последовательности: теплым 1 - 2-процентным раствором кальцинированной соды, 0,5-процентным раствором хлорамина или другими разрешенными для этих целей моющими и дезинфицирующими средствами, после чего ополаскивают холодной проточной водой. Чистое яйцо выкладывают в чистую промаркированную посуду.

Яичный порошок после просеивания, разведения водой и набухания в течение 30 - 40 мин. сразу же подвергают кулинарной обработке.

7.18. Для предотвращения возникновения и распространения инфекционных заболеваний и массовых неинфекционных заболеваний (отравлений) в организациях запрещается:

- изготовление и продажа изделий из мясной обрези, свиных баков, диафрагмы, крови, рулетов из мякоти голов;

- изготовление макарон по-флотски;

- использование творога из непастеризованного молока;

- приготовление блинчиков с творогом из непастеризованного молока;

- использование сырого и пастеризованного фляжного молока в натуральном виде без предварительного кипячения;

- переливание кисломолочных напитков (кефир, ряженка, простокваша, ацидофилин и др.) из потребительской тары в котлы - их порционируют непосредственно из бутылок, пакетов в стаканы или подают на раздачу в заводской упаковке;

- использование простокваши - самокваса в качестве напитка, приготовление из него творога;

- приготовление консервов овощных, мясных, рыбных, грибных в герметичной таре;

- приготовление кисломолочных напитков, производство пива, алкогольных и безалкогольных напитков;

- приготовление сушеной и вяленой рыбы;

- изготовление сухих грибов.

7.19. При наличии санитарно - эпидемиологического заключения органов и учреждений госсанэпидслужбы в организациях допускается приготовление и реализация полуфабрикатов, копченых мясных изделий, кур и уток, соленой и копченой рыбы, соленых и квашеных овощей без герметической упаковки, кваса, хлеба, а также других пищевых продуктов.

7.20. Приготовление блюд на мангалах, жаровнях, решетках, котлах в местах отдыха и на улицах разрешается при условии изготовления полуфабрикатов в стационарных организациях и наличии санитарно - эпидемиологического заключения органов и учреждений госсанэпидслужбы. При этом необходимо соблюдение следующих условий:

- наличие павильона, подключенного к сетям водопровода и канализации, а также холодильного оборудования для хранения полуфабрикатов;

- наличие в базовой организации условий для обработки инвентаря, тары;

- использование для жарки древесины или готового древесного угля, металлических шампуров, а для отпуска - одноразовой посуды и столовых приборов;

- осуществление жарки непосредственно перед реализацией;

- наличие у работников личной медицинской книжки установленного образца с отметками о прохождении необходимых обследований, результатов лабораторных исследований, прохождении профессиональной гигиенической подготовки и аттестации;

- наличие условий для соблюдения работниками правил личной гигиены.

7.21. Приготовление и реализация студней и паштетов, заливных из мяса, птицы, рыбы, блинчиков и пирожков с мясным и ливерным фаршем и других изделий повышенного эпидемического риска допускаются при наличии санитарно - эпидемиологического заключения органов и учреждений госсанэпидслужбы.



Вопросы для самоконтроля

1. Требования к размещению предприятий общественного питания.

2 Требования к водоснабжению и канализации.

3 Требования к условиям работы в производственных помещениях.

4 Требования к устройству и содержанию помещений.

5 Требования к оборудованию, инвентарю, таре, посуде.

6 Требования к транспортировке, приёму, хранению сырья, пищевых продуктов.

7 Требования к обработке сырья и производству продукции.
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    Акт санитарного обследования составляется по определенной схеме: 1. Общие сведения. Наименование, номер и адрес предприятия, ведомственная принадлежность предприятия (форма собственности), тип предприятия, место расположения (отдельно стоящее или встроенное), окружающие объекты. 2. Мощность предприятия: проектная и фактическая, количество посадочных мест и число отпускаемых за день блюд,
  13. «САНИТПРНЫЕ ТРЕБОВАНИЯ К СОДЕРЖАНИЮ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЙ ОБЩЕСТВЕННОГО ПИТАНИЯ»
    «САНИТПРНЫЕ ТРЕБОВАНИЯ К СОДЕРЖАНИЮ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЙ ОБЩЕСТВЕННОГО
  14. COMMUNITY HYGIENE
    Catering enterprises are called upon to provide the population with prepared food, convenience foods and culinary products at the place of their residence, work or study. From the first years of Soviet power, the party and the government paid attention to the development of a catering network for children and industrial workers. V.I. Lenin pointed out that in the exemplary formulation of work, public
  15. Types of catering facilities
    Public catering enterprises can conditionally be divided into the following types: 1) working on raw materials - with a full cycle of processing of raw materials, producing semi-finished products (kitchen factories, procurement factories, specialized procurement workshops, etc.); 2) working in semi-finished products, producing finished products (canteens, culinary factories and workshops, dining cars, cafes, snack bars,
  16. Classification of catering facilities
    The design of public catering enterprises takes into account the following characteristics underlying the classification: type of enterprise, functional purpose, technological stage of processing of raw materials, method of production of culinary products, assortment, nature of service and provided services, type of food, location of the enterprise, serviced visitors, seasonality
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