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Sanitary requirements for catering
At the end of work, all working parts of the machines are disassembled, washed thoroughly, scalded with boiling water, wiped dry or dried in an oven and covered with clean covers of gauze, linen, thin tarpaulin.
Production baths (for soaking salted fish, washing meat, washing vegetables, etc., and for washing kitchen and tableware) should be made of food-grade anti-corrosion material (stainless steel, aluminum, etc.).
In the cold workshop, it is recommended to install a bathtub for cooling drinks, jelly, stewed fruit and milk (with cold water supply).
Industrial tables designed for food processing and cooking, it is better to cover with marble slabs or whole sheets of metal (stainless steel, duralumin).
For cutting meat, fish, vegetables and other products, special cutting tables and cutting boards without gaps, smoothly planed, are made of hardwood (ash, beech, maple, oak, birch). Boards are marked on the side surface: SM (raw meat), SR (raw fish), CO (raw vegetables), VM (boiled meat), BP (boiled fish), VO (boiled vegetables), "Greens", KO (pickled vegetables ) The boards are fixed to a specific place and stored there. Every day, at the end of work, they are thoroughly cleaned, washed with hot water and soda, boiled and dried.
Kitchen utensils are allowed from stainless steel, aluminum, pans from cast iron, baking trays from tinned iron. For storage of dry products, storage and boiling water, containers made of galvanized iron can be used. Make sure that tableware and tea utensils (porcelain, earthenware, glass, etc.) do not have cracks and broken edges. Plastic dishes are prepared only from materials approved by the state sanitary inspection authorities (see below).
Sanitary requirements for washing dishes. Tableware can be washed manually and mechanically. For washing by hand, three-bay bathtubs are equipped. To wash glassware, a special two-socket bath (or one bath) is isolated, followed by washing with hot water using a syringe. Kitchen utensils are washed in a special two-seat bathtub. Washing baths provide the necessary amount of hot water. The dishwashing mode provides: a) mechanical removal of food debris; b) washing dishes in water at a temperature of 45-48 ° C with the addition of detergents; c) washing in water at a temperature of 50 ° C with the addition of a clarified 1% solution of bleach (10 g per 1 liter of water) or chloramine; g) rinsing with hot water in the third bath. After that, the dishes are dried in special ovens or counters with electric heating. Wiping plates is not recommended. Cutlery (spoons, knives and forks) is washed in the same way as tableware, and additionally subjected to boiling; dry with a towel.
Food intake requirements. Food products arriving at a public catering enterprise must comply with the requirements of current state standards, OSTs or technical specifications and be accompanied by documents certifying their quality. Food quality is checked by storekeepers and canteen managers. Acceptance of products begins with verification of supporting documents. If the quality of the products is in doubt, they are sent to the departmental laboratory; until the results of laboratory tests are obtained, products are not allowed into production. Products that do not meet the standards for sanitary indicators are presented to departmental sanitary supervision, and in the absence of such a sanitary-epidemiological station to decide on the procedure for their use.
Meat is allowed for acceptance only if there is a veterinary stamp and a document attesting to the examination and conclusion of veterinary supervision.
Meat with a veterinary certificate, but without a stigma, as well as conditionally suitable meat, is strictly prohibited.
It is forbidden to accept non-gutted waterfowl at public catering establishments; raw duck and goose eggs, as well as chicken from the incubator (mirage); bombing meat and fish preserves; cereals, flour damaged by barn pests; especially perishable products with expired sales. The opening of containers (barrels, boxes) should be carried out after its preliminary cleaning in order to avoid contamination of products. When weighing food products, do not place them directly on the scales. Products must be weighed in containers, on removable plates, on a clean plastic film or oilcloth. Food storage - see the section: “Food Storage in the Warehouses of Catering and Trade”.
Food Cooking Requirements. When processing meat, fish, vegetables, making cold snacks and cooking food, the production process is kept accurate. Food is prepared in small portions as it is sold. Raw materials and finished products are processed on different tables and on different cutting boards. Cutting and washing of raw materials in the kitchen, where food is cooked directly, is not allowed. Parts of meat carcasses before deboning are thoroughly cleaned and washed with running water. Marked, bruised and contaminated areas are cut off.
Thawing frozen meat is done in half-carcasses or quarters in limbo in a special room (defroster) or on tables in a meat workshop. Thawing meat in water or near the stove is prohibited.
Minced meat is made as needed and stored in refrigerators or cabinets at a temperature not exceeding 6 ° C for no more than 6 hours. When meat is delivered from harvesting workshops to pre-cooked dining rooms, it should be packed in metal or wooden special containers with a capacity of up to 10 kg lined inside with cellophane or parchment. Stuffing is allowed to be carried only in refrigerated transport under conditions that exclude the temperature rise of the product above 6 ° C.
Cooking and frying the meat should be done until fully prepared, when colorless juice begins to stand out from the piece when punctured with a cook fork. After heat treatment and cooling, the meat and poultry are stored in refrigerated containers from the moment of cooling and manufacturing for no more than 12 hours, and in uncooled form for no more than 3 hours. In the spring-summer period (May - September) use of meat trimmings and meat from the heads for cooking minced meat is prohibited.
In the manufacture of products from meat by-products and subjected to thorough heat treatment, with special attention they prepare jelly from meat offal (putty joint, ears, lips, etc.). Washed and peeled offal is cooked until cooked, i.e., free separation of meat from bone. Disassembled boiled jaw; meat is separated from bones, finely cut, chopped or passed through a meat grinder; pour in strained broth and be sure to boil again, after which it is poured into clean (previously scalded with boiling water) dry forms or baking sheets; after cooling, they are stored on shelves in refrigerators. Pouring into molds without re-boiling the broth and minced meat is strictly prohibited. The term for the sale of jelly in the presence of cold should not exceed 12 hours, in the absence of cold, the manufacture and sale of jelly is prohibited.
In the manufacture of the paste, the liver is cut, fried until fully cooked, then in a hot state it is passed through a meat grinder with a frequent grill. The resulting mass is wiped through a sieve and seasoned. The shelf life of the paste in the absence of cold is not more than 6 hours (in a chilled room - no more than 24 hours).
Cooking jelly and paste in the public catering facilities in the summer (May-September) is prohibited.
When making main dishes from cooked meat (pancakes with meat, pasta with meat, etc.) or when tempering cooked meat for the first dishes, chopped or portioned meat must be subjected to secondary thorough heat treatment (boiling in broth, frying). Meat portioned for the first courses can be stored for a short time in the broth at a temperature not lower than 70 ° C.
Raw and pasteurized flask milk is to be boiled before use. The supply of sour milk or yogurt (samokvass) to food is prohibited, such milk is allowed to be used only for the manufacture of dishes that are cooked (pancakes, pancakes, kulebyaki, etc.). Cottage cheese for direct use in kind can only be allowed if it is made from pasteurized milk (this is indicated on the invoice or certificate). Cottage cheese made from unpasteurized milk can be used at public catering enterprises only as raw materials for making cottage cheese pancakes, dumplings, cheesecakes and other dishes that are cooked at high temperatures.
Before use in a confectionery workshop, a chicken egg should be visible through an ovoscope and washed in a three-nested bath: with thermal water with 1 - 2% content of soda ash; 0.5% chloramine solution; rinse with clean water. Eggs with a high air chamber (“fright”) more than 1/3 of the height, eggs “fight”, but without signs of leakage, “wooded” - with an extinct volatilizing odor, “small spot” - with one or more fixed spots under an overall shell size no more than 1/3 of the surface of the whole egg; “Drying” - with the yolk that has dried to the shell (without mold) can only be used for baking small pieces of dough.
Cream confectionery products are allowed to be manufactured at public catering establishments in agreement with local sanitary authorities.
The calorie content of individual dishes or the entire diet is calculated according to official tables of the chemical composition and calorie content of food products. They contain data on the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates in 100 g of the product - net (in pure form without waste) or in 100 g of the product - gross (in natural unrefined form). When sending ready meals to the laboratory to verify compliance with their layout in the accompanying act (see the form), the layout used (gross or net) and the output of each product (see also "Materials for sampling food products to be studied in the sanitary epidemiological laboratories" should be indicated . - M .; M3 of the USSR, 1985).
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Sanitary requirements for catering
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