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REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CONTENT OF FOOD COMPANIES
2.1. Territory requirements. To maintain cleanliness at the enterprise, timely and proper cleaning of its territory, collection and removal of food waste, household garbage, cleaning and disinfection of waste bins are of great importance. Littering of the territory, accumulation of garbage on it, empty containers contribute to the pollution of the premises of enterprises and create conditions for breeding flies and nesting rodents that are carriers of infectious diseases. For garbage in the enterprise, on sites made of cement, asphalt or brick, waste bins are installed (concrete, metal, upholstered with iron), which must be cleaned and disinfected in a timely manner.
2.2. Requirements for water supply, sewerage, lighting and heating. Water supply to public catering facilities should be provided from a centralized drinking water supply system, and in the absence of it, from artesian wells, mine wells with a mandatory internal water supply system, regardless of the capacity of the enterprise and the source of water supply. Drinking water must meet the requirements of SanPiN 188.8.131.524-01 (for a centralized water supply system) or SanPiN 21.4.544-96 (for non-centralized water supply).
Hot and cold water should be supplied to all washing bathtubs and sinks with the installation of faucets, and, where necessary, to technological equipment.
Regardless of the capacity and availability of treatment facilities, catering facilities are equipped with domestic domestic and industrial sewers.
The premises of the enterprise should have natural light, with the exception of some storage and domestic premises, which at the same time must be provided with supply and exhaust mechanical ventilation.
All rooms should have artificial lighting (fluorescent lamps or incandescent lamps). From a hygienic point of view, fluorescent fluorescent lamps are better.
Public catering enterprises are equipped with central heating and supply and exhaust mechanical ventilation in accordance with the requirements of the current SNiP “Public catering enterprises. Design Standards ”and“ Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ”.
It is necessary to maintain the following air temperature in the premises: in billet and cold shops, in dining rooms and wardrobes 16? C, in washing rooms, as well as in washbasins for visitors 18? C, in showers 25? C.
2.3. Requirements for the premises. To ensure proper sanitary conditions at the enterprise, the correct layout of production and storage facilities is of great importance. Particular attention should be paid to strict observance of the process flow and the general sanitary regime at the enterprise. While ensuring the flow of the technological process, conditions are created for observing the main hygiene principle - separate processing of products before and after heat treatment. The layout of the premises should ensure the consistency and the possibility of a shorter length of the technological lines for processing products, the elimination of oncoming and intersecting flows of raw materials and semi-finished products with finished products, food products with waste, prepared food with dirty dishes, clean dishes with dirty dishes, etc.
The structure of the catering includes production, warehouse, retail and office buildings.
Production facilities are designed for the processing of raw materials, the preparation of convenience foods and ready meals, dishwashing. These premises include procurement workshops for meat, fish, vegetables; workshops for the preparation of ready-made food - a kitchen (a cooking workshop with a distributor), cold, confectionery, etc .; washing dishes and kitchen utensils.
Production facilities must, as a rule, be located in aboveground floors. Their location in the basement of the building is less acceptable, since in these cases it is difficult to provide the necessary natural light.
To ensure the flow of the process, vegetable and meat-and-meat shops at enterprises working on raw materials should be located between the warehouses and the cooking shop, and it is recommended that vegetable shops be placed closer to the pantry for storing vegetables and to the exit to the production corridor. It is strictly forbidden to make production facilities walk-through.
Warehouses are used to store food and containers. This group includes refrigerated chambers (for meat, fish, dairy products and fats, fruits and greens, canned goods, pickles, eggs; separate ones for food waste) and uncooled pantries (for vegetables, dry foods and bread). To reduce the contamination of the chambers and pantries, it is necessary to provide an additional loading and loading platform for unpacking, sorting and rejecting (hygienic examination) of incoming products.
The number of storage facilities depends on the capacity of the enterprise. However, even at the smallest enterprise there should be at least three of them - for storing dry products, perishable (meat, fish, dairy) and vegetables. The most suitable refrigerated chambers for storage of perishable products with machine cooling, operating on freon. Cooled chambers are usually designed in one common unit.
Trading premises are used for serving food. This group includes a trading (dining) hall with a handout, including separate halls, departments, sections for dietary and medical and preventive nutrition, a buffet, a lobby, a wardrobe and a toilet for visitors, as well as a room for vacation meals at home and in the store cooking. The handout is directly connected with the trading floor, the cooking (hot) workshop and the washing utensils.
The number of seats in the dressing room should correspond to the number of seats in the trading floor.
In each lobby of the enterprise, washbasins for visitors are installed with hot and cold water supply with faucets. The administrative premises include the offices of the director, production manager, medical worker; food warehouses, dressing rooms, showers, toilets, staff lounge, linen, storage rooms for cleaning equipment, detergents, etc.
Every day it is necessary to carry out thorough wet cleaning of all premises of the enterprise. Weekly, with the use of detergents, it is necessary to wash the walls, lighting equipment, clean the glass from dust and soot, etc. For all catering establishments, one sanitary day is set per month for general cleaning followed by disinfection of all premises, equipment and inventory. To disinfect rooms (floors, walls, doors, etc.), a 1% clarified bleach solution is used (1 liter of a 10% bleach solution is diluted in 10 liters of water) or a 0.5% chloramine solution.
To prepare a 10% solution of bleach, 1 kg of it is dissolved in 10 l of water, the carefully mixed solution is left to lighten for 1 day. Then the settled solid solution is poured into a bottle of dark glass, corked with a wooden or cork stopper and stored in a cool place. The resulting 10% clarified bleach solution can be used for 5 days. Methods for preparing other disinfectants are given in table 1.
Methods for preparing disinfectants
Cleaning equipment of production, storage, shower and toilet facilities (basins, buckets, brushes, mops, etc.) must be marked with oil paint and assigned to separate rooms. Buckets for washing toilets should have a signal color (red and orange).
After finishing work, the cleaning equipment is thoroughly washed, disinfected with a 2% solution of bleach, and stored separately in closed cabinets or wall niches.
2.4. Measures to control insects and rodents. The presence of flies, cockroaches and rodents at the catering facility indicates an unsatisfactory sanitary condition at this facility. To combat them, the following preventive measures should be constantly taken:
1) food waste is collected in collectors (tanks and buckets) with tight-fitting lids, garbage is removed daily, after which the walls and bottom of the collector are cleaned, washed and disinfected;
2) to prevent egg laying and flies, all products must be protected with nets, caps, gauze, stored in closed cabinets, thoroughly cleaned;
3) with the onset of scales, all windows of production rooms, pantries, dining rooms, cupboards that are opened must be tightened with metal mesh or gauze;
4) to exterminate flies flying into the room, apply sticky paper, aerosols, etc .;
5) periodically conduct preventive pest control.
Disinfection should be carried out after the end of the enterprise or on a sanitary day according to special instructions, subject to safety regulations. After disinfestation, before starting work, it is necessary to carry out thorough cleaning, ventilation,
If cockroaches are found, thorough cleaning of the premises and scalding of insects with boiling water should be carried out immediately, the gaps in the walls, floors, closets, etc. should be closed. To control cockroaches, modern insecticides allowed by the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision are used in liquid or dry form.
In the presence of insects or rodents at the catering facility, the employees of the Center for Central Health and Safety have the right to prohibit the operation of the enterprise until complete disinsection and disinfestation.
Responsibility for the general sanitary condition of the catering enterprise and compliance with the sanitary regime in it lies with the director (manager) of the canteen.
1. What are the sanitary requirements for the site for the construction of public catering facilities?
2. Why is it necessary to strictly maintain cleanliness in the territory of public catering enterprises?
3. What are the requirements for water supply, sewerage, lighting and heating of premises of catering facilities?
4. What are the sanitary and hygienic requirements for the layout of the premises of public catering establishments?
5. What is disinfection and disinfestation?
6. What are the general preventive measures in the fight against flies, cockroaches and rodents?
7. How to prepare the stock solution of bleach?
1. Water supply of public catering enterprises can be carried out:
a) from a centralized drinking water supply system;
b) from an artesian well;
c) on imported tap water?
2. Warehouse premises of public catering facilities shall be provided with:
a) natural light;
b) supply and exhaust ventilation;
3. Where should her cleaning equipment be stored:
a) in closed cabinets;
b) in wall niches;
c) in the lobby of catering?
4. The deratization of public catering enterprises is a set of measures to combat:
a) with cockroaches, ants, flies;
b) with microbes (pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic);
c) with mice, rats?
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