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The set of measures to comply with the sanitary regime at a public catering enterprise includes measures to destroy microflora in the environment. It is known that some pathogenic microbes (pathogenic), when ingested, can multiply and produce toxins (poisons) that can cause various diseases of a microbial nature. It should be emphasized that thorough cleaning using warm water, detergents, ventilation, shaking, etc. slightly reduces the surface contamination of various objects. However, for the complete destruction of pathogenic microorganisms in the human environment, it is necessary to carry out a special method of control, which is called disinfection. Therefore, disinfection is the doctrine of the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms in the environment in order to prevent infectious diseases and microbial food poisoning.

At catering enterprises, disinfection is carried out, as a rule, with a preventive purpose and its main purpose is to prevent the accumulation of microbes at various objects (equipment, utensils, dishes, etc.) in order to exclude the possibility of infection (contamination) of food products and prepared culinary products. As indicated above, mandatory disinfection in catering. held monthly on a sanitary day. However, for certain epidemiological indications, disinfection can be carried out at other times. Of the currently known three methods of disinfection (physical, chemical and biological) in public catering, two methods are used: physical and chemical.

The physical method of disinfection is based on the use of hot water, boiling water, steam, hot air, as well as ultraviolet radiation, etc. Mechanical methods also include physical methods of disinfection: shaking, sweeping, vacuuming, wet cleaning, etc. However, the mechanical method of disinfection is ineffective and does not allow to completely get rid of pathogens, therefore, it is used as an auxiliary and can only be used in combination with other methods.

The bactericidal effect of high temperatures during disinfection is due to the fact that microbial cell protein is denatured at elevated temperatures. Therefore, the temperature of hot water for disinfection should not be lower than 75 ° C.

Physical methods of disinfection, unlike chemical ones, are harmless to food products, for maintenance personnel and do not have a negative side effect on the treated surfaces. A good bactericidal effect is also observed when using ultraviolet radiation for disinfection. In this case, the coagulation of microbial cell proteins occurs most intensively under the action of ultraviolet rays with a wavelength of about 293 nm. Ultraviolet rays have a high bactericidal activity against various microorganisms, they also do not have a toxic effect, do not alter the organoleptic properties of food products and do not spoil the equipment. In the practice of catering. ultraviolet irradiation is used to disinfect air in the most important sanitary facilities (cold, confectionery, etc.), as well as to disinfect equipment (especially metal), tools, and hands. The source of ultraviolet radiation can be bactericidal lamps of the BUV-15, BUV-30 system and mercury-quartz lamps of various capacities.

The chemical method of disinfection is carried out by using various chemicals (solutions of bleach, chloramine, hydrogen peroxide). The mechanism of the bactericidal action of chemicals on microorganisms has not yet been fully studied. However, it is known that when exposed to microorganisms, some of them cause coagulation of the protein of the microbial cell, others deactivate the enzyme systems, etc. In this case, in both cases, the death of microorganisms occurs. The bactericidal effect when using chemicals depends on the concentration and duration of the action of the disinfectant, as well as on the nature of the surface being treated. An increased concentration of a chemical and an increase in the contact time of this substance increase the bactericidal effect; a greater bactericidal effect is observed when disinfecting a smooth surface (metal, marble) in contrast to rough surfaces.

From chemicals to disinfection in catering. chlorine-containing preparations and mainly solutions of bleach and chloramine are widely used. This is explained by their high bactericidal activity under certain conditions to destroy not only vegetative, but also spore forms of microorganisms.

Chlorine - a dry white powder (sometimes yellowish) with a pungent smell of chlorine.
It is an inorganic compound and is formed by the action of gaseous chlorine on slaked lime according to the formula:

2Ca (OH) 2 + 2Cl2 = Ca (OCl) 2 + CaCl2 + 2H2O

The active part of bleach is calcium hypochloride (Ca (OSl) 2), which, as a result of hydrolysis, forms hypochlorous acid according to the formula:

Ca (OCl) 2 + H2O = Ca (OH) 2 + 2HClO

Hypochlorous acid (HClO) quickly decomposes with the formation of active chlorine and atomic oxygen, which have a detrimental effect on microbes and mold:

HClO-H + ClO-

Raising the temperature of a solution of bleach to 50 ° C and above increases the bactericidal effect of the drug.

Currently produced bleach [Ca (OSl) 2] contains from 28 to 38% active chlorine. However, during storage (especially in the light), bleach decomposes and loses active chlorine. Chlorine lime containing less than 15% active chlorine is not suitable for disinfection.

To reduce the loss of active chlorine, bleach must be stored in a well-closed container in a dry, dark, cool place. However, even with proper storage, bleach loses monthly from 1 to 3% of active chlorine, so you should periodically, but at least 1 time per quarter, check in the laboratory the percentage of active chlorine in bleach.

Disinfection of premises, equipment, inventory, etc. in public catering facilities. spend clarified bleach solution. Usually, for the needs of public catering establishments, a 10% clarified solution of bleach is prepared, which is prepared at the rate of 10 l of water per 1 kg of Ca (OSl) 2 in the following sequence:

1. Bleach is normally poured with a small amount of water and thoroughly mixed until a homogeneous mass is obtained;

2. add the rest of the water as normal, stir again and tightly close the lid;

3. the solution is defended in a dark place for 1 day;

4. The settled transparent solution is poured into a container of dark glass, covered with a wooden or cork stopper and stored in a cool place.

The resulting 10% clarified bleach solution can be used for 5 days. To obtain a lower concentration of working solutions, the required amount of water is added immediately before disinfection.

Table 2 - Obtaining working solutions from a 10% clarified bleach solution with 25% active chlorine in it

When using solutions of bleach, it should be borne in mind that active chlorine causes corrosion of metals and discolors paints. Therefore, it is advisable to disinfect metal equipment, utensils and equipment with physical methods or chloramine.

Chloramine (monochloramine B) contains 28.4% of active chlorine and has more active bactericidal properties than bleach. It is highly soluble in water, more stable during storage than bleach. When stored dry, in the absence of light and moisture, chloramine does not lose its activity for a long time (loss of active chlorine does not exceed 0.1% per year).

Aqueous solutions of chloramine have almost no specific smell characteristic of bleach, in low concentrations they almost do not corrode metals and do not discolor paints. You can store aqueous solutions of chloramine for 10-15 days.

The preparation of aqueous solutions of chloramine is less time consuming. Their solutions are prepared by dissolving the corresponding powder in a certain amount of water.

So, to obtain a 0.2% concentration of chloramine, 20 g of powder is dissolved in 10 l of water.

In conclusion, it should be noted that for catering, a special worker should be allocated for disinfection, who prepares solutions and carries out disinfection under the supervision of a production manager or an employee of the departmental sanitary service.

Recommended concentrations and methods for preparing solutions of bleach and chloramine for treating various surfaces with them are indicated in the “Sanitary Rules ...” (Appendix 6). So the main 10% clarified solution of bleach is intended for processing containers for food waste, 5% solution for the treatment of sinks, wash basins, toilets, 2% solution for disinfection of equipment and inventory of the confectionery shop, 1% mortar - for processing rooms (floors, walls, doors, etc.), 0.5% solution for processing equipment, 0.2% solution for disinfection of tableware, etc.
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