Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
PURPOSE, METHODS AND MEANS OF DISINFECTION IN FOOD ENTERPRISES.
The set of measures to comply with the sanitary regime at a public catering enterprise includes measures to destroy microflora in the environment. It is known that some pathogenic microbes (pathogenic), when ingested, can multiply and produce toxins (poisons) that can cause various diseases of a microbial nature. It should be emphasized that thorough cleaning using warm water, detergents, ventilation, shaking, etc. slightly reduces the surface contamination of various objects. However, for the complete destruction of pathogenic microorganisms in the human environment, it is necessary to carry out a special method of control, which is called disinfection. Therefore, disinfection is the doctrine of the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms in the environment in order to prevent infectious diseases and microbial food poisoning.
At catering enterprises, disinfection is carried out, as a rule, with a preventive purpose and its main purpose is to prevent the accumulation of microbes at various objects (equipment, utensils, dishes, etc.) in order to exclude the possibility of infection (contamination) of food products and prepared culinary products. As indicated above, mandatory disinfection in catering. held monthly on a sanitary day. However, for certain epidemiological indications, disinfection can be carried out at other times. Of the currently known three methods of disinfection (physical, chemical and biological) in public catering, two methods are used: physical and chemical.
The physical method of disinfection is based on the use of hot water, boiling water, steam, hot air, as well as ultraviolet radiation, etc. Mechanical methods also include physical methods of disinfection: shaking, sweeping, vacuuming, wet cleaning, etc. However, the mechanical method of disinfection is ineffective and does not allow to completely get rid of pathogens, therefore, it is used as an auxiliary and can only be used in combination with other methods.
The bactericidal effect of high temperatures during disinfection is due to the fact that microbial cell protein is denatured at elevated temperatures. Therefore, the temperature of hot water for disinfection should not be lower than 75 ° C.
Physical methods of disinfection, unlike chemical ones, are harmless to food products, for maintenance personnel and do not have a negative side effect on the treated surfaces. A good bactericidal effect is also observed when using ultraviolet radiation for disinfection. In this case, the coagulation of microbial cell proteins occurs most intensively under the action of ultraviolet rays with a wavelength of about 293 nm. Ultraviolet rays have a high bactericidal activity against various microorganisms, they also do not have a toxic effect, do not alter the organoleptic properties of food products and do not spoil the equipment. In the practice of catering. ultraviolet irradiation is used to disinfect air in the most important sanitary facilities (cold, confectionery, etc.), as well as to disinfect equipment (especially metal), tools, and hands. The source of ultraviolet radiation can be bactericidal lamps of the BUV-15, BUV-30 system and mercury-quartz lamps of various capacities.
The chemical method of disinfection is carried out by using various chemicals (solutions of bleach, chloramine, hydrogen peroxide). The mechanism of the bactericidal action of chemicals on microorganisms has not yet been fully studied. However, it is known that when exposed to microorganisms, some of them cause coagulation of the protein of the microbial cell, others deactivate the enzyme systems, etc. In this case, in both cases, the death of microorganisms occurs. The bactericidal effect when using chemicals depends on the concentration and duration of the action of the disinfectant, as well as on the nature of the surface being treated. An increased concentration of a chemical and an increase in the contact time of this substance increase the bactericidal effect; a greater bactericidal effect is observed when disinfecting a smooth surface (metal, marble) in contrast to rough surfaces.
From chemicals to disinfection in catering. chlorine-containing preparations and mainly solutions of bleach and chloramine are widely used. This is explained by their high bactericidal activity under certain conditions to destroy not only vegetative, but also spore forms of microorganisms.
Chlorine - a dry white powder (sometimes yellowish) with a pungent smell of chlorine.
It is an inorganic compound and is formed by the action of gaseous chlorine on slaked lime according to the formula:
2Ca (OH) 2 + 2Cl2 = Ca (OCl) 2 + CaCl2 + 2H2O
The active part of bleach is calcium hypochloride (Ca (OSl) 2), which, as a result of hydrolysis, forms hypochlorous acid according to the formula:
Ca (OCl) 2 + H2O = Ca (OH) 2 + 2HClO
Hypochlorous acid (HClO) quickly decomposes with the formation of active chlorine and atomic oxygen, which have a detrimental effect on microbes and mold:
HClO-H + ClO-
Raising the temperature of a solution of bleach to 50 ° C and above increases the bactericidal effect of the drug.
Currently produced bleach [Ca (OSl) 2] contains from 28 to 38% active chlorine. However, during storage (especially in the light), bleach decomposes and loses active chlorine. Chlorine lime containing less than 15% active chlorine is not suitable for disinfection.
To reduce the loss of active chlorine, bleach must be stored in a well-closed container in a dry, dark, cool place. However, even with proper storage, bleach loses monthly from 1 to 3% of active chlorine, so you should periodically, but at least 1 time per quarter, check in the laboratory the percentage of active chlorine in bleach.
Disinfection of premises, equipment, inventory, etc. in public catering facilities. spend clarified bleach solution. Usually, for the needs of public catering establishments, a 10% clarified solution of bleach is prepared, which is prepared at the rate of 10 l of water per 1 kg of Ca (OSl) 2 in the following sequence:
1. Bleach is normally poured with a small amount of water and thoroughly mixed until a homogeneous mass is obtained;
2. add the rest of the water as normal, stir again and tightly close the lid;
3. the solution is defended in a dark place for 1 day;
4. The settled transparent solution is poured into a container of dark glass, covered with a wooden or cork stopper and stored in a cool place.
The resulting 10% clarified bleach solution can be used for 5 days. To obtain a lower concentration of working solutions, the required amount of water is added immediately before disinfection.
Table 2 - Obtaining working solutions from a 10% clarified bleach solution with 25% active chlorine in it
When using solutions of bleach, it should be borne in mind that active chlorine causes corrosion of metals and discolors paints. Therefore, it is advisable to disinfect metal equipment, utensils and equipment with physical methods or chloramine.
Chloramine (monochloramine B) contains 28.4% of active chlorine and has more active bactericidal properties than bleach. It is highly soluble in water, more stable during storage than bleach. When stored dry, in the absence of light and moisture, chloramine does not lose its activity for a long time (loss of active chlorine does not exceed 0.1% per year).
Aqueous solutions of chloramine have almost no specific smell characteristic of bleach, in low concentrations they almost do not corrode metals and do not discolor paints. You can store aqueous solutions of chloramine for 10-15 days.
The preparation of aqueous solutions of chloramine is less time consuming. Their solutions are prepared by dissolving the corresponding powder in a certain amount of water.
So, to obtain a 0.2% concentration of chloramine, 20 g of powder is dissolved in 10 l of water.
In conclusion, it should be noted that for catering, a special worker should be allocated for disinfection, who prepares solutions and carries out disinfection under the supervision of a production manager or an employee of the departmental sanitary service.
Recommended concentrations and methods for preparing solutions of bleach and chloramine for treating various surfaces with them are indicated in the “Sanitary Rules ...” (Appendix 6). So the main 10% clarified solution of bleach is intended for processing containers for food waste, 5% solution for the treatment of sinks, wash basins, toilets, 2% solution for disinfection of equipment and inventory of the confectionery shop, 1% mortar - for processing rooms (floors, walls, doors, etc.), 0.5% solution for processing equipment, 0.2% solution for disinfection of tableware, etc.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
PURPOSE, METHODS AND MEANS OF DISINFECTION IN FOOD ENTERPRISES.
- THE CONCEPT OF A SANITARY MODE OF A PUBLIC FOOD SERVICE. SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL "RISK FACTORS" IN PUBLIC FOOD.
One of the most important requirements for the work of public catering enterprises is the release of benign, epidemically flawless products. This can only be achieved if certain requirements for the operation of the catering business are fully met. These requirements are set forth in various regulatory documents,
- Sanitary and epidemiological examination of public catering establishments
Purpose of the lesson: To get acquainted with the methodology of the sanitary-epidemiological examination of public catering enterprises. Work content: 1. Acquaintance with the goals and objectives of the sanitary-epidemiological survey of public catering enterprises. 2. Preparation for the examination. 3. The main issues to be studied in the survey of catering.
- Classification of catering facilities
The design of public catering enterprises takes into account the following characteristics underlying the classification: type of enterprise, functional purpose, technological stage of processing of raw materials, method of production of culinary products, assortment, nature of service and provided services, type of food, location of the enterprise, serviced visitors, seasonality
- COMMUNITY HYGIENE
Catering enterprises are called upon to provide the population with prepared food, convenience foods and culinary products at the place of their residence, work or study. From the first years of Soviet power, the party and the government paid attention to the development of a catering network for children and industrial workers. V.I. Lenin pointed out that in the exemplary formulation of work, public
- Types of catering facilities
Public catering enterprises can conditionally be divided into the following types: 1) working on raw materials - with a full cycle of processing of raw materials, producing semi-finished products (kitchen factories, procurement factories, specialized procurement workshops, etc.); 2) working in semi-finished products, producing finished products (canteens, culinary factories and workshops, dining cars, cafes, snack bars,
- REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CONTENT OF FOOD COMPANIES
2.1. Territory requirements. To maintain cleanliness at the enterprise, timely and proper cleaning of its territory, collection and removal of food waste, household garbage, cleaning and disinfection of waste bins are of great importance. Littering of the territory, accumulation of garbage on it, empty containers contribute to the pollution of the premises of enterprises and create conditions for the breeding of flies and nesting rodents,
- Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of catering projects
Purpose: to get acquainted with the sanitary and epidemiological expertise of catering projects. Work content: 1. Consider and give a sanitary and epidemiological assessment: the type of the enterprise; territory and master plan of the site; building layout; the recruitment and placement of commercial, industrial, warehouse, administrative and technical premises; accommodation
- Sanitary requirements for catering
The device and equipment of public catering facilities (canteens, restaurants, snack bars, cafes, kitchens, buffets, etc.) are regulated by the current construction and sanitary standards. The range of products manufactured by the catering company is approved by the relevant trade bodies according to the assortment minimum in strict accordance with the type of enterprise,
- Occupational health in catering
Public catering enterprises are equipped with a large amount of equipment, the operation of which can have an adverse effect on the body of the worker - by increasing the volume of noise, temperature and humidity. Therefore, certain technical requirements are presented to the device and the operating mode of the equipment and instructions for its operation are developed, with which
- Catering Procurement
The composition of the procurement catering facilities includes the following groups of premises: storage, production, household, service, utility - an expedition. Warehouses include: refrigerated chambers for storing raw materials and food waste; pantries for vegetables and dry products; containers, packaging materials and inventory; unloading platform with boxes and the storeroom.
- Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for public catering establishments
The production of high-quality products at public catering enterprises and the health status of consumers largely depend on compliance with the requirements of the sanitary and epidemiological rules of SP 18.104.22.1689-01 “Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for public catering organizations, the manufacture and turnover of food products and food raw materials in them”. Quality and
- MAIN DIRECTIONS OF PREVENTIVE AND CURRENT STATE SUPERVISION OF FOOD ENTERPRISES.
According to functions, decisions and specific tasks, state sanitary supervision is usually divided into preventive and current. Preventive sanitary supervision includes monitoring compliance with sanitary and hygienic norms and rules when: 1. Planning for the development of a network of catering establishments; 2. The development of design standards for public catering enterprises (SNiP);
- The sanitary regime of public catering enterprises and methods of its control
Purpose: To study the sanitary requirements for the maintenance of public catering enterprises and methods for monitoring its sanitary regime. Work content: 1. Acquaintance with detergents and disinfectants. 2. Determining the effectiveness of chlorine-based disinfectants. 3. Laboratory control of the sanitary regime of public catering enterprises. Equipment: I. Equipment
- SANITARY REQUIREMENTS FOR THE CONTENT OF THE TERRITORY AND PREMISES OF FOOD ENTERPRISES.
Keeping the territory and premises of a catering facility clean is essential for its impeccable sanitation. At the same time, timely and proper cleaning of the territory contributes to less pollution of the premises of public catering establishments. The content of the territory of public catering enterprises depends, first of all, on the full compliance with sanitary
- General assessment of the sanitary-epidemiological state of public catering enterprises
The overall assessment of the sanitary-epidemiological state is scored by 5 main factors of the sanitary-epidemiological risk of food poisoning and infectious diseases (Table 17). The condition of the catering enterprise is evaluated in points: • subject to all sanitary and hygienic rules - 100 points; • satisfactory condition of the enterprise - 91-100
- The main goals and objectives of the sanitary-epidemiological survey of public catering establishments
The EPP survey is an important section of the work of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance and other regulatory organizations. Основная цель обследования - выявление потенциальных санитарно-эпидемиологических нарушений, способных неблагоприятно влиять на качество выпускаемой продукции и состояние здоровья потребителей и персонала. Главные задачи санитарно-эпидемиологического
- Санитарные требования, предъявляемые к предприятиям общественного питания.
I Требования к размещению 1.1. Размещение организаций, предоставление земельных участков, утверждение проектной документации на строительство и реконструкцию, ввод в эксплуатацию допускается при наличии санитарно - эпидемиологического заключения об их соответствии санитарным правилам и нормам. 1.2. Организации могут размещаться как в отдельно стоящем здании, так и в пристроенном, встроенно
- Санитарные требования к предприятиям общественного питания, расположенным на строительных площадках
В районе массовой жилои застройки или на строительствах крупных заводских, гостиничных и других комплексов для питания строительных рабочих оборудуются временные сооружения из типовых сборных конструкций типа «Березка», «Елочка» для размещения в них столовых-доготовочных или буфетов-раздаточных. К выбору земельного участка, оборудованию санитарно-технических систем, планировке, расстановке
- Хранение пищевых продуктов в складских помещениях предприятий общественного питания и торговли
Продукты, поступающие на склады, предприятия общественного питания и торговли, по качеству должны соответствовать действующим стандартам и техническим условиям (в том числе гигиеническим требованиям), находиться в исправной таре, сопровождаться сертификатами. Состав и размеры складских помещений регламентируются типовыми проектами данного пищевого объекта (столовая, магазин и т. п.); for