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Urbanization


Urbanization is the process of concentration of industry and population in large cities. The population from the private sector moves to comfortable apartments in multi-storey buildings (only in 1984, 113.7 million m2 of living space was commissioned in our country, which improved housing conditions for more than 10 million people). This eliminates household plots, the soil of which is often contaminated with helminth eggs when uninfected sewage, manure is used to fertilize it; restrooms contained in unsatisfactory sanitary condition due to irregular cleaning and removal of the contents of cesspools; free range pets (pigs, cats, dogs); scheduled regular cleaning of territories from municipal solid waste is introduced; the risk of helminthiasis infection is largely excluded when eating vegetables, table greens, berries, fruits grown on soil contaminated with helminth eggs. All this creates the conditions for the termination of the circulation of eggs and helminth larvae in the environment (soil, crops, hands, etc.) and the elimination of foci of ascariasis, trichocephalosis.
As an example of the well-known influence of urbanization on the recovery from ascariasis, Moscow data for 1965-1975 should be cited when, in a number of rural populated areas closest to the city, included in it when borders were expanded, they began to replace manors without sewage with comfortable houses. Over the indicated period, the percentage of the population living in modern comfortable apartments with all kinds of amenities in Moscow increased sharply, while the prevalence of ascariasis decreased from 4.2 to 0.6%, i.e. 7 times, and soil contamination with roundworm eggs - 9-14 times.
The experience of fighting ascariasis in the Moscow, Bryansk and Dnepropetrovsk regions shows that invaded people who moved to the sewer sectors of cities and urban-type settlements are released after 2 years from ascaridosis even without treatment. The rate of decline in the invasion of the population by roundworms during recreational activities, taking into account the impact of urbanization in the Moscow region increased by 2.7 times, in Bryansk - by 3.5 times, in Dnipropetrovsk - by 3.6 times compared to the period when medical treatment was carried out -preventive actions. Urbanization and demographic changes contributed to a decrease in the number of microcenters of ascariasis in the Oryol region by more than 5 times and a significant decrease in the intensity of invasion.
The growth of the urban population, especially in the last decade, turned out to be so rapid, and the concentration and intensification of production and non-production activities are so high that the environment of many cities in the world is no longer able to satisfy many of the biological and social requirements of man. The modern city has long ceased to be just a place where many people live. This is a powerful system that changes the entire world in its possessions. A large city changes almost all components of the natural environment - the atmosphere, soil, topography, hydrographic network, groundwater, soil and even climate. Differences in temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation between the city and its environs are sometimes commensurate with movement in natural conditions at 20 ° in latitude. In cities, the gravitational, thermal, electric, magnetic and other physical fields of the Earth are disturbed. Big cities receive 15% less solar radiation (and 30% less ultraviolet rays in winter), 10% more rain, hail, snow, cloudy days; in them more often 30% fog is observed in summer and 100% in winter, which creates favorable conditions for the development and long-term survival of eggs and larvae of geohelminths (ascaris, whipworms, etc.), and lengthens the time for soil self-cleaning from them. It is in large cities that the most disturbed is the balance between human life and nature. The large-scale relocation from private households to urban apartments is accompanied by a refusal to take cats and dogs with them, and they turn into the category of neglected, stray.

The official, domestic and amateur dog breeding, the presence of stray dogs in cities, which has become widespread in recent years, leads to the pollution of the soil with toxocar eggs, as already mentioned. Toxocariasis in dogs is almost universal. Researchers are unanimous in the opinion that the nature of the appointment of dogs affects the invasion of their toxocariasis. Hunting dogs are reported to be affected by toxocariasis in 75% of cases, indoor dogs in 42% of cases, and stray dogs in 65% of cases. The highest toxocara infection of stray dogs.
O. Goronenkova et al. (1994) indicate that in 1993 in Moscow the number of dogs (registered and stray) was at least 200 thousand. Every day, 54 tons of feces are left on the streets, lawns, squares, and playgrounds. Toxocar eggs were seeded in 8.6% of samples. The intensity of pollution is 2 eggs per 100 g of soil, which increases the risk of infection of people, especially children. Permanent migration in the human body of toxocar larvae leads to a severe parasitic disease, which is described as a symptom complex “Larva migrans visceralis” or larval toxocariasis.
The relevance of the described helminthiasis in human pathology is explained by the ability of toxocar larvae to migrate to vital organs (eye, brain, liver, lungs, etc.) and affect them. Diseases often end in disability and even death.
It is indicated that in recent years the ratio of detected helminth eggs has changed dramatically in the soil of Armenian cities. Thus, in the study of 98 soil and sand samples from 25 urban courtyards of communal households, 127 toxocar eggs and 5 human roundworm eggs were revealed, i.e. toxocar eggs were detected 25.4 times more often. This indicator is also confirmed by the fact that the number of toxocar eggs in 1 kg of soil was 6.47, and ascaris was 0.25, i.e.
the soil is seeded with toxocar eggs 25.9 times more than ascaris eggs. This frequency of detection of toxocar eggs in the soil is explained by the regular walking of domestic dogs, as well as night raids of stray dogs in the yards of residential buildings in search of food.
In Chisinau, on average, every 5th object inspected (toddlers, communal and individual households and places of public recreation - parks, squares) was toxin-planted with toxocar eggs; in every 10th soil sample, toxocar eggs were found. At the same time, the seeding of soil in different areas of the city was not the same. So, in a densely populated central region, where there are many preschool institutions, and the territory of public places is limited, the greatest potential danger in relation to infection with toxocaras is represented by sandboxes and playgrounds, often visited by dogs and cats, in an area characterized by individual development, small the number of kindergartens and the absence of stray dogs (guard dogs, yard dogs are kept on a leash), the greatest potential danger is S THE soil courtyards and gardens.
The most favorable in relation to the possibility of the spread of toxocariasis are new and large areas of the city. The soil in children's institutions in these regions is seeded with eggs in 5.1% of cases, in residential buildings - in 12.5% ​​of cases, in public places - in 14.3% of cases.
Of interest are sanitary-helminthological studies of the soil, conducted by R.E. Chobanov et al. (1986) in different settlements that are part of the Baku city agglomeration (Table 9). The highest extensive and intensive indicators of soil pollution are found in the village of rural type. There is no sewage system, many estates contain dogs, and many stray animals.
Table 9. Seed soil by eggs and zoogelminthes oncospheres in the settlements of the Baku city agglomeration
Settlements Number
research
bathrooms
samples
the soil
The number of samples containing eggs and oncospheres The average number of eggs and oncospheres in 1 kg of soil
Total % toxo
punishment
teniids
Hoja Hasan 174 58 33.3 10.5 6.6
Kirov 166 44 26.5 7.7 3,7
New Ahmedli 137 21 15.3 3,5, 1.7
Baku (center) 149 19 12.8 3.0 0.8


There is a direct correlation between the presence of dogs and the seeding of soil with invasive material, it is especially noticeable in settlements of rural and mixed types. So, 264 soil samples were studied from the estate territories, 85 (32.2%) were seeded. Eggs and oncospheres were found throughout the estate, both in the places of keeping and feeding dogs, and in gardens, around dwellings, etc. However, soil samples from areas where dogs were constantly kept were the most seeded (50%), then soil samples from households in which dogs were not kept, but entry into the territory of foreign dogs was noted (21.9%). In 1 kg of soil of these estates, toxocara eggs were found to be 14.6 and 6.6, respectively, and tenciidae oncospheres 7.8 and 2.2.

28 out of 316 samples of herbs, vegetables, fruits and berries were also seeded, 1 kg of which on average accounted for 2.6 toxocar eggs and 0.8 teniid oncospheres. At the same time, 106 out of 297 detected toxocar eggs were invasive, and 19 out of 85 detected oncospheres were viable. This indicates a high risk of infection of the population with zohelminthes.
The above data clearly indicate that a large number of dogs, their neglected content and accessibility to various objects lead to intensive contamination of the environment with zoogelmintosis pathogens and creates a real risk of infection of the population with these diseases in urban agglomerations.
Thus, a large city as a single urban focus of ascariasis is characterized by significant differences in the degree of toxocari egg contamination of soil in different regions and different types of objects.
From the soil of the territories of cities, eggs and larvae of helminths, together with flood, melt or rain runoff, fall into open water bodies, with dust, shoes, into houses, airports, railway and river stations, especially with a large concentration of passengers in the summer. All this creates conditions in cities for intensive circulation of helminth eggs and an increased risk of infection of the population by them. The latter can happen when vegetables, fruits, berries, table greens from other parts of the country that are unsuccessful for helminth infections enter the cities.
The development around cities irrigated by urban wastewater, manure from the so-called agricultural irrigation fields creates special conditions for the circulation of helminth eggs between the city and these fields, on which vegetables, table greens, and berries are often grown, thus supporting the invasion cycle.
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Urbanization

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