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At present, the regulatory and methodological base for the protection of atmospheric air continues to develop on the basis of the research and methodological activities of the Atmosphere Research Institute on the justification and development of methodological aspects of the protection of atmospheric air. This applies to a wide range of issues: the procedures for inventorying emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere using both instrumental and calculation methods, organizing and calculating atmospheric pollution, formulating proposals for MPE standards, and determining the frequency of production control over compliance with established standards emissions and volumes of regulation of emissions in the periods of NMU.
The relevance of further improvement of air protection activities is due to two main reasons:
- the mandatory introduction into practice of air protection activities of the provisions of the Federal Law “On the Protection of Atmospheric Air” , and since 2002, the Federal Law “On the Protection of the Environment” ;
- the need, on the one hand, for more substantiation of the requirements for nature users, and, on the other hand, the need to simplify the system of regulation of emissions.
The provisions of the Federal Law and by-laws [3, 4, 18, 54, etc.] specify the requirements for the regulation of emissions and provide for the establishment of MPE standards taking into account a number of criteria for the quality of atmospheric air: hygienic, environmental, extreme critical loads and other environmental requirements (including including raw materials, fuel), and also taking into account technical emission standards.
In close connection with the introduction of norming of environmental environmental quality criteria into practice, there is also the issue of the transition from the term “sanitary protection zone” (SPZ) to the term “environmental protection zone” (EZZ), i.e. the zone outside which compliance with relevant air quality standards is ensured.
In accordance with the Federal Law , for the purpose of state regulation of emissions, along with the generally accepted standard - MPE, the establishment of a technical emission standard (TNV) is provided.
The basic basis of work on the regulation of emissions, as well as all air protection activities, is the results of an inventory of emissions of harmful substances and their sources, the mandatory nature of which is legalized by Article 22 of the Federal Law . The quality of the inventory determines the validity of the established values of MPE (BC). However, to date, the methodological issues of both the inventory procedure and the requirements for its results have not been adequately defined in any methodological document. Naturally, this leads to errors both in the inventory itself and in the establishment of MPE standards.
Particular attention should be paid to taking into account the unsteadiness of emissions over time. The lack of information on the temporary operating conditions of workshops and sections of enterprises, the variability in time of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of emissions at the stages of large technological processes often leads to unjustified overstatement of emissions and MPE and ENE standards.
Art. 22 of the Federal Law  also prescribes the determination of sources and the list of harmful substances subject to state accounting and regulation based on data on the results of an inventory of emissions. The implementation of this provision of the Law will allow optimizing the scope of work on rationing emissions and air protection activities in general.
Another important aspect of the development of standardization principles is related to the organization of a system of summary calculations of air pollution in cities and the use of their results in the regulation of emissions. In the cities in which these systems operate, not only the emission rating system is noticeably streamlined, but the efficiency of the state examination units also improves, including through more rapid decision-making on the possibility of placing new industries (including foreign ones) investment).
To date, the Research Institute of Atmosphere has carried out the main methodological studies on the inventory and rationing of emissions, as well as production control over compliance with the established standards, which allow in practice to implement the provisions of the Federal Law in air protection activities.
In view of the foregoing, in this Manual, based on the results of practical testing of the main provisions of the “Methodological Manual for the Calculation, Standardization and Control of Air Pollutant Emissions” (St. Petersburg, 2002), the Research Institute of Atmosphere revised and supplemented a number of sections of the Manual , which will contribute to more efficient air protection activities in Russia.
A detailed description of the inventory procedure of emissions of pollutants into the atmospheric air is given, indicators regulating the significance of sources of air pollution and the need for their accounting and harmful substances entering the atmosphere are clarified and verified using examples of various production facilities with state accounting and regulation of air emissions.
The approaches to calculating emissions of motor vehicles and road-building equipment during their operation in various modes, during storage and transshipment of bulk materials, oil products, during mechanical processing of materials, etc.
Significant methodological explanations are given for calculating the emissions of pollutants into the air from large-capacity heat power facilities and for boilers with a capacity of less than 30 tons of steam per hour or less than 20 Gcal per hour, as well as from livestock complexes.
Based on the requirements of the new legislative framework for the protection of atmospheric air, conditions have been supplemented that determine the set of criteria for the quality of atmospheric air when setting standards for maximum emissions: hygienic, environmental, maximum permissible loads and other environmental requirements.
The main stages of calculating atmospheric pollution using computer programs are specified, the requirements for accounting for atmospheric background pollution and its accounting depending on the levels of surface concentrations formed by sources of atmospheric emissions are specified.
The requirements for the frequency of production control and the organization of control over the content of harmful substances in the atmospheric air at the border of residential buildings are improved.
The section on organizing and conducting summary calculations of atmospheric pollution from industrial and motor vehicles in cities (regions) and using the results of summary calculations to determine the background concentrations of a wide range of harmful substances emitted into the atmosphere and not monitored on the monitoring network, as well as to determine the allowable contributions of enterprises to the formation of levels of air pollution in cities and their use in the regulation of emissions and the establishment of emission standards in the atmosphere yer.
The recommendations on the structure and content of the “Report on the inventory of emissions of harmful (polluting) substances into the atmospheric air and their sources for the enterprise” and the “draft standards for maximum permissible emissions (MPE) of polluting substances into the atmosphere for the enterprise”, the introduction of which into the practice of air protection activities, have been clarified instead of those described in [11, 15], it will provide an increase in the validity of the results of the inventory and established emission standards.
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- Abstract. Methods of drug administration, 2010
Subcutaneous administration Intramuscular administration Intravenous administration Intraosseous administration Intraperitoneal administration Intrathoracic and intrapulmonary administration of drugs Autohemotherapy Bloodletting Intratracheal administration Scarring and drug administration
- Administration Methods
AEROSOL INHALATION Endobronchial administration usually results in a high local concentration of the drug without systemic side effects. Examples are bronchodilator P-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, and pentamidine. However, some inhaled solutions reaching the lung parenchyma are quickly absorbed by the large surface of the capillary bed (e.g.
- Intratracheal administration
In clinical practice for lung diseases, medicinal substances are administered intratracheally using a probe. Before administration, the probe is disinfected and lubricated with petroleum jelly. For large animals, the probe is inserted through the nasal cavity to the pharynx and in between the swallowing movements it is further advanced. With the correct insertion of the probe into the trachea, the animal develops a cough that soon disappears. To
The International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the main tool for statistical development of information on public health and the activities of health facilities. It provides methodological unity and comparability of the results of a study of the incidence of the population, causes of death, and reasons for contacting medical institutions, both within the country and between countries.
- INTRODUCTION OF FEEDING
The timely introduction of correctly selected foods for complementary foods contributes to improving health, improving nutritional status and physical development of infants and young children during the period of accelerated growth, and therefore should be the focus of the health care system. Throughout the period of complementary feeding, breast milk should remain the main type of milk,
Today, one of the most sought-after professions is the profession of a psychologist. Currently, more than 150 universities in the country are training relevant specialists. The existing experience of their preparation in higher education convincingly proves that the image of the future graduate profession should be the same object of formation as professional knowledge, skills, and ways of thinking. In connection with
- Intradermal vaccine
The intradermal administration of the vaccine for therapeutic purposes is used by cadets in the treatment of patients with toxoplasmosis or brucellosis. In the treatment room of the treatment department, a cadet should independently administer toxoplasmin toxoplasmosis patients intradermally under the supervision of a teacher (intern). Previously, he makes dilutions of the vaccine 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 times and produces a titration test
Iron deficiency is one of the most common malnutrition in the world and, according to experts, affects more than three billion people. In terms of severity, it ranges from depletion of iron reserves, which does not cause any decrease in physiological activity, to iron deficiency anemia and can affect the mental development and development of motor skills. Special
- INTRODUCTION AND REMOVAL OF IUDS.
Since the methods of administration for different types of IUDs are different from each other, you should get acquainted each time and follow the instructions for the technique of introducing IUDs. The following IUD instructions apply to all types of intrauterine devices. 1. Explain to the patient what the procedure for administering the IUD is. 2. Conduct a thorough gynecological (bimanual) examination for
- Routes of administration of drugs
The choice of the route of administration of drugs depends on the severity of the patient’s condition, the necessary duration of their continuous administration, the nature of the disease, the age of the patient and the manual capabilities of medical personnel. According to the speed of reaching a peak concentration of drugs in the bloodstream, the following routes of drug administration are distinguished: ¦ intra-arterial; ¦ intravenous; ¦ intratracheal; ¦ sublingual (in
- I. INTRODUCTION
Before the introduction of aseptic and antiseptic methods, postoperative mortality reached 80%: patients died from purulent, putrefactive and gangrenous processes. The nature of rotting and fermentation, discovered in 1863 by Louis Pasteur, became an incentive for the development of microbiology and practical surgery, and it has been argued that microorganisms are also the cause of many wound complications. In this essay will be
- Intraosseous injections
They are shown in the following cases: in the presence of injured large veins, intoxication, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract; small animals - with a small diameter of veins; with prolonged drip infusions; in shock, when the veins are in a collapsed state; pigs - if intravenous infusion is difficult. For intraosseous injections, strong needles are used. In the olives of these needles
I would advise you to skip this introduction - it is much more complicated than other sections and can create a misconception about the book. I decided to include it in order to show some readers why our traditional way of thinking is wonderful, but still inadequate. The rear wheels of the car can be excellent, but they themselves are inferior. Having developed one aspect of thinking, we are proud of it and
- Subcutaneous administration
In the treatment of animals, parenteral administration of liquid dosage forms into the body is widely used, that is, bypassing the digestive canal. For these purposes, injection needles, syringes, special devices, various devices are used, strictly observing the rules of asepsis and antiseptics. At the place chosen for the injection, the hair is cut off, the skin is cleaned with alcohol or twice moistened with alcohol