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The value of fats, carbohydrates and minerals in human nutrition. The norms of these food components and their sources of entry into the human body

As already mentioned in the previous lecture, fats are substances that perform mainly an energy function in the body. In this regard, fats are superior to all other food components (carbohydrates and proteins), since when they are burned, 2 times more energy is released (1 g of fat forms 9.3 kcal, while 1 g of protein and the corresponding amount of carbohydrates are only 4, 3 kcal).

However, the biological significance of fats is not limited to their energy function. Fats participate in plastic functions, being a structural part of cells and their membrane systems. Inadequate intake of fat can lead to:

- violation of the central nervous system due to a violation of the direction of the flow of nerve signals;

- weakening of immunological mechanisms;

- skin changes, where they play a protective role, protecting from hypothermia, increase elasticity and prevent drying and cracking;

- violation of internal organs, in particular the kidneys, which protect against mechanical damage.

Fat improves the taste of food (acts as a flavoring substance) and increases its nutritional value (creates a high degree of saturation).
However, even more important is the fact that only along with food fats a number of biologically valuable substances enter the body: fat-soluble vitamins, phosphatides (lecithin), polyunsaturated fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and other substances with biological activity.

In the human body, fat is in two types: structural (protoplasmic) and reserve (in fat depots - in the subcutaneous fat layer, in the abdominal cavity - omentum, near the kidneys - perinephric fat).

The amount of protoplasmic fat is maintained in organs and tissues at a constant level and does not change even during fasting.

The degree of accumulation of reserve fat depends on the nature of the diet, the level of energy expenditure, age, gender, and the activity of the endocrine glands.

Heavy physical work, some diseases, malnutrition contribute to a decrease in the amount of reserve fat. And, on the contrary, excess nutrition, lack of exercise, decreased function of the sex glands, thyroid gland lead to an increase in reserve fat.

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The value of fats, carbohydrates and minerals in human nutrition. The norms of these food components and their sources of entry into the human body

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