Licensed books on medicine
<< Ahead || Next >> |
The value of vitamins and minerals for the growth and development of the child
For the normal development of the body, children should have enough vitamins in their diet. They not only protect the body from diseases associated with them, but also are components of the tissues. Without vitamins, enzymes are not formed, and, consequently, all reactions occurring in the body are delayed, the normal metabolism is disturbed, digestion and blood formation are affected, the efficiency and endurance decrease. Vitamins play an important role in maintaining the body's immunobiological properties, high resistance to adverse environmental factors, including infections.
The complete absence of any vitamin for a long time can lead to the development of beriberi. If the body lacks several vitamins, polyavitaminosis occurs. A lack of certain vitamins leads to hypovitaminosis, accompanied by a slowing down of growth, and then a drop in weight, general lethargy, increased fatigue, loss of appetite, and in some cases visual impairment, excessive nervousness, and impaired normal function of the gastrointestinal tract.
Vitamins are widely distributed in nature. They are found in many foods and most of all products of plant origin: vegetables, fruits, cereals, roots, berries. Some vitamins (vitamins of group B, PP and vitamin K) are formed in humans and animals under the influence of the intestinal microflora.
Functional disorders and damage to the digestive organs can therefore lead to some disorders of vitamin metabolism with subsequent violations of the vitamin balance.
Minerals are part of the cells and tissues, they are necessary for adequate growth and development of tissues, as well as for the proper functioning of the digestive organs. The vital components of human nutrition are minerals: macro elements - sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, chlorine, sulfur - and trace elements - iodine, fluorine, copper, zinc, manganese, etc.
For a growing child's body, it is especially important to supply such minerals as calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium. In addition, the child needs magnesium, copper, bromine, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluorine, and others. They are an integral part of many enzymes, hormones, vitamins and have a great influence on the metabolism, growth and development of the body. The lack of one or another of them in the body often leads to a specific disease: endemic goiter in the absence of iodine, severe anemia in the absence of cobalt or copper, tooth decay with a lack of fluoride, etc. The need of children for minerals, including trace elements, up to 2 months of life is satisfied by breast milk of the mother. From 2 months they should be administered with juices of berries, fruits and vegetables, and from 5–6 months - with supplements.
| << Ahead || Next >> |
| = Go to tutorial content = |
The value of vitamins and minerals for the growth and development of the child
- Hygienic importance of minerals and vitamins in the diet of the population
Minerals and vitamins play a very important and at the same time peculiar role in the vital activity of the organism. First of all, they are not used as energy materials, which is a specific feature for proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Another distinctive feature of these nutrients is the relatively very insignificant quantitative need for them in the body. Enough
- Absorption of vitamins and minerals
Folic acid. Biologically active form of folic acid - tetrahydrofolic - the most important component in the reactions of "one-carbon" transfer in the synthesis of thymidine nucleic acid from deoxyuridine. A deficiency of folic acid leads to the development of macrocytic anemia. Folate is found in green vegetables and fruits and comes in the form of pteroyl polyglutamate. Suction occurs mostly in skinny
- Importance of vitamins for children's health and development
Vitamins have a pronounced effect on the physiological state of the organism, often being a component of enzyme molecules. Sources of vitamins for humans are food products of plant and animal origin - in them they are either in finished form or in the form of provitamins, from which vitamins are formed in the body. Some vitamins are synthesized by intestinal microflora. With
- Critical periods of child development, their importance for speech and psychomotor development
There are 3 critical periods in the development of speech: 1. 1-2 years of life, when the prerequisites of speech are formed and the foundations of communicative behavior are formed, the driving force of which is the need for communication. There is an intensive development of cortical speech zones, in particular, the Broca zone, a critical period of its development is the age of 14-18 months. Any adverse factors acting in this
- Newborn Unconditioned reflexes and their importance for the development of the child.
Birth is a great shock to the body of the child. From a vegetative, plant life in a relatively constant environment (mother's organism), he suddenly turns into completely new air conditions with an infinite number of frequently changing stimuli, into that world where he is to become a rational person. The life of a child in new conditions is provided by congenital
- The value of fats, carbohydrates and minerals in human nutrition. The norms of these components of food and the sources of their entry into the human body
As mentioned in the previous lecture, fats are substances that perform in the body mainly energy function. In this regard, fats are superior to all other components of food (carbohydrates and proteins), since their combustion releases 2 times more energy (1 g of fat forms 9.3 kcal, while 1 g of protein and the corresponding amount of carbohydrates is only 4, 3 kcal). However biological
- The value of vitamins in human nutrition. Food - sources of vitamins
For a long time, mankind has noticed that with a long monotonous diet, in cases of exclusion of some products from the diet, especially during long expeditions, quite often various diseases occurred. At first glance, there was no first cause. However, with the accumulation of this experience, it became clear that in food there are some specific components in very small quantities,
Mineral substances are essential nutrients that must be ingested. The value of minerals in human nutrition is very diverse: 1. Mineral substances in the body are included in the complex of substances that make up the living protoplasm of cells, in which the main substance is protein. 2. Mineral substances are part of all the extracellular and interstitial
- Diseases associated with a lack of vitamins and minerals
Hypovitaminosis A (A hypovitaminosis) occurs when there is a lack of vitamin A in the body (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid), it is clinically manifested by growth retardation, development, reduction of natural resistance and local immune protection, increased peeling of the epidermis and dermatitis, metaplasia and keratinization of the mucous membranes and glands. More often the disease is registered in
- Minerals and trace elements (minerals)
Minerals are inorganic constituents of food. Many of them play an important role in the body, and their constant intake with food is necessary. The mineral composition of food includes more than 60 macro-and micronutrients. ___________ __ conduction of nervous excitement to muscles Iron hematopoiesis (composed of hemoglobin, 60% of total Fe in the body), anemia, rapid fatigue
- MINERAL ELEMENTS AND THEIR VALUE IN FOOD
Modern research confirms the vital importance of mineral elements. New aspects of their biological action have been revealed, which made it possible to isolate a large group of biologically active substances - biomicroelements. The study of mineral substances as a necessary part of nutrition is closely connected with the prevention of the spread and elimination of a number of endemic diseases; endemic
- The exchange of water and minerals
The human body is 60% water. Adipose tissue contains 20% of water (from its mass), bones - 25, liver - 70, skeletal muscles - 75, blood - 80, brain - 85%. For the normal functioning of the body, which lives in a changing environment, it is very important the constancy of the internal environment of the body. It is created by blood plasma, tissue fluid, lymph, the main part of which is water, proteins and
- DETERMINATION OF THE GENERAL CONTENT OF MINERAL SUBSTANCES (ASH)
The total content of mineral substances in the material under study is determined by its ashing, that is, organic substances are burned with free access of air. During combustion, carbon, hydrogen, and partially oxygen evaporate in the form of carbon dioxide and water vapor, and mineral elements in the form of oxide compounds remain in the so-called raw ash. Course of determination
- ROLE OF VITAMINS IN THE EXCHANGE OF SUBSTANCES
Vitamins are not drugs or metabolic stimulants, but they are always needed, and often their lack causes some diseases. The secret is that vitamins are part of enzymes, and a decrease in the content of vitamins in the body leads to disruption of normal enzymatic activity. Normally, the animals are not able to produce some vitamins on their own,
- VITAMINS AND THEIR VALUE IN FOOD
Vitamins are low molecular weight organic compounds that differ in their chemical nature. In the body, vitamins are not synthesized or synthesized in small quantities. They take part in the metabolism, have a great impact on health, adaptive abilities, and ability to work. Prolonged absence in the food of a vitamin causes disease,
- "The value of acmeology for the development of the theory of psychology of the elites"
The sixth chapter consists of four sections, which reveal the meaning of “acme” (in the professional development of a person, in the life course of an individual, in personal and individual development), self-development of an individual (including self-actualization, self-improvement and self-realization), human potential (personal, personal) professional, creative), the most important properties of the achievement of the subject
- Patterns of growth of the fetus and newborn. The need for nutrients and energy.
BALANCE OF ENERGY AND ITS CHANGES IN PERINATAL PATHOLOGY ENERGY BALANCE OF PRESENTED CHILDREN The need for energy is determined by the energy consumption of the body in these conditions. Energy consumption can be represented in the form of several components (Fig. 17-1): Еп = Еэ + Ем = Еэ + (Ес + Ер), where Еп is the total energy consumption; Еe - energy excreted (mainly with urine and feces); EH -
- Transmitters in the regulation of the growth of neurites, the mobility of growth cones and in synaptogenesis
There are specific features of the reactions of various neurons to external factors affecting the expression of these features, leading to discrete, unequal morphological characteristics of the connections of each of the cells. Individual growth cones strongly influence the final shape of a neuron (D.Bray, 1973). The growth cones of different neurons differ in their structural features no less than
- The value of school hygiene to promote student health. The main stages of the development of hygiene of children and adolescents
School hygiene is a medical science that studies the influence of natural and sociological factors on a growing organism and develops hygienic recommendations on the formation of a healthy organism of children and adolescents. Principles of school hygiene: * A mandatory condition for any hygienic standard is the functional readiness of the child's body to maintain this standard. * Standards SHG are constant, they
- Biological growth mechanisms. The role of genetic and environmental factors in ensuring growth.
It is safe to say that the genetic factor is crucial in determining physical development. As is known, a person inherits a set of genetic traits equally from his father and mother. On a large statistical material revealed a pattern that establishes the expected growth of the descendant, depending on the growth of parents. Using simple formulas, you can calculate the expected