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Bronchial asthma

G. Lolor Jr., D. Teshkin

Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic lung diseases. It most often occurs in children, although it can begin at any age. Among children with bronchial asthma, there are 30% more boys than girls, and in boys the disease is more severe. In adolescence and in adults, the disease is more common in women. Bronchial asthma is more common among urban populations with low living standards, as well as among people living in countries with cold climates and in industrial areas. There is a hereditary predisposition to bronchial asthma. This is evidenced by the increased incidence of bronchial asthma of close relatives of patients. However, despite this, it is impossible to calculate the risk of this disease.

If bronchial asthma begins in early childhood, then the prognosis is usually favorable: by the time of puberty in 80% of patients, all manifestations of the disease disappear or become less pronounced. About 20% of them after 45 years have a relapse of the disease. Cases of recovery among adult patients with bronchial asthma are less common. In children, bronchial asthma is more severe if it is combined with allergic diseases of the respiratory tract or diffuse neurodermatitis. The prognosis of bronchial asthma is especially unfavorable in patients with the aspirin triad. Aspirin intolerance is usually observed in adults, more often in women, there is no previous history of allergic diseases.
Mortality of bronchial asthma increases with age: in children it is no more than 1%, in adults - 2-4%. Risk factors for death in bronchial asthma include frequent, prolonged and poorly treatable conditions, as well as severe seizures in history, cases of a sharp deterioration in the condition during the day, a low level of knowledge of the patient about his illness, a lack of understanding between the patient and the doctor, and a low standard of living for the patient , unavailability of medical care, uncontrolled use of beta-adrenostimulants, low effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment. In 1978-1987 mortality of bronchial asthma has increased, especially among young children and representatives of colored races.

A variety of manifestations of bronchial asthma complicates its classification. To date, the most common etiological classification of bronchial asthma, according to which there are three forms of the disease: exogenous, endogenous and mixed. The main cause of exogenous bronchial asthma is allergens. Exogenous bronchial asthma occurs, as a rule, in people under 20 years of age. With this form of the disease, skin and provocative tests with allergens are usually positive. Endogenous bronchial asthma is caused not by allergens, but by infection, physical or emotional stress, a sharp change in temperature, air humidity, etc. A mixed form of the disease combines signs of exogenous and endogenous bronchial asthma, more common in children.
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Bronchial asthma

  1. SESSION 3 Acute respiratory failure. Laryngeal stenosis, cardiac asthma, bronchial asthma: symptoms, differential diagnosis, first aid. The principles of tracheostomy. The technique of artificial ventilation.
    Objective: To teach students to identify the clinical symptoms of acute respiratory failure in patients (victims), to conduct diffdiagnosis, assess the severity of the condition and effectively provide first aid in these conditions. Test questions 1. What are the causes of acute obstruction of the respiratory tract and its clinical manifestations. Features of first aid. 2.
  2. Bronchial asthma
    Bronchial asthma in children is a disease that develops on the basis of chronic inflammation of the bronchi, characterized by periodic attacks of difficulty breathing or choking as a result of widespread bronchial obstruction due to narrowing of the bronchi, hypersecretion of mucus, and swelling of the bronchial wall. Bronchial asthma is recorded in 5-10% of the child population. In the last
  3. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA.
    The last decade is characterized by an increase in the incidence and severity of bronchial asthma (BA). In terms of social significance, this condition confidently goes to one of the first places among respiratory diseases. According to DJ Lane (1979), bronchial asthma is a disease that is relatively easy to recognize but difficult to define. From a vast array of definitions,
  4. Bronchial asthma
    The article “Bronchial asthma in children” is located in section 14 “Emergency conditions in pediatrics”. Bronchial asthma is a respiratory disease based on chronic inflammation and hyperresponsiveness of the bronchi with bronchial obstruction that changes over time. The cause of the call of the NSR is an acute attack of suffocation due to fully or partially reversible bronchial obstruction.
  5. Bronchial asthma.
    Bronchial asthma is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disease characterized by increased excitability of the tracheobronchial tree in response to various stimuli and leading to paroxysmal constriction of the airways (see lecture on immunopathology). There are two main types of disease: 1) exogenous, atopic (allergic, reagin-mediated) bronchial asthma;
  6. "Bronchial asthma"
    BRONCHIAL ASTHMA — a chronic recurrent disease with a primary lesion of the respiratory tract. It is characterized by altered reactivity of the bronchi. A mandatory sign of the disease is an asthma attack and / or asthmatic status. There are two forms of bronchial asthma - immunological and non-immunological - and a number of clinical and pathogenetic options: atonic,
  7. Bronchial asthma in children
    The article “Bronchial asthma” is located in section 4 “Emergency conditions for respiratory diseases”. Bronchial asthma in children develops on the basis of chronic allergic inflammation of the bronchi and their hyperreactivity. It is characterized by periodically occurring attacks of difficulty breathing or suffocation as a result of widespread bronchial obstruction due to
  8. Bronchial asthma
    Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract, characterized by asthma attacks due to their obstruction. The pathogenesis of bronchial asthma is based on the complex interaction of inflammatory cells (eosinophils, mast cells), mediators and bronchial cells and tissues, due to a change in bronchial reactivity - primary (congenital or acquired under
  9. Bronchial asthma
    In the vast majority of cases, bronchial asthma is an allergic disease. More often it develops before pregnancy, but may first occur during pregnancy. Attacks of suffocation in some women develop at the beginning of pregnancy, in others in the second half. The occurrence of asthma in pregnant women is associated with changes in the body of a woman, in particular with a change in synthesis
  10. Bronchial asthma
    Bronchial asthma is a disease that is based on chronic inflammation of the airways with an autoimmune component, accompanied by a change in the sensitivity and reactivity of the bronchi, manifested by an attack or status of suffocation, with constant symptoms of respiratory discomfort, against the background of a hereditary predisposition to allergic diseases. Classification
  11. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
    The reason is genetically determined internal defects that have formed in the prenatal period, during childbirth or in later life. But the necessarily changed sensitivity of the bronchial mucosa with a pathological reaction to acetylcholine, even if there are no clinical manifestations, + changes at the preclinical stage and other systems, for example, an increase in IG E, there may be changes
  12. Bronchial asthma
    Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease characterized by repeated attacks of expiratory dyspnea or suffocation caused by allergic reactions occurring in the tissues of the bronchi (mainly small bronchi and bronchioles). The urgency of the problem of bronchial asthma is currently determined by the increase in its prevalence and severity, up to a fatal outcome at altitude
  13. Bronchial asthma
    Currently, bronchial asthma (BA) takes a leading place in the structure of respiratory allergies in children. This disease attracts attention in connection with interesting hypotheses of pathogenesis, the lack of clear diagnostic criteria and the not always predicted effectiveness of therapy. A lot of controversy arises when defining AD as an independent nosological form. Currently under
  14. BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
    Bronchial asthma (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract, which is manifested by: complete or partial reversible obstruction of the airways resulting from spasm of the smooth muscles of the bronchi, swelling of the mucous membrane, infiltration of the submucosa by inflammatory cells, mucus hypersecretion, thickening of the basement membrane; episodes of coughing, wheezing,
  15. Bronchial asthma
    Bronchial asthma is characterized by increased reactivity of the mucous membrane of the airways, leading to reversible attacks of strong and inadequate contraction of the bronchi in response to the effects of various irritants. Patients with asthma experience unpredictable attacks of severe shortness of breath, coughing and stridor (wheezing). In some patients, chronic bronchitis or
  16. Bronchial asthma
    Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease that occurs with relapses, with a primary lesion of the respiratory tract, which is based on chronic allergic inflammation of the bronchi, accompanied by their hyperreactivity and periodically occurring attacks of shortness of breath and suffocation as a result of widespread bronchial obstruction, which is caused by bronchospasm,
  17. Bronchial asthma
    Bronchial asthma is an allergic disease that manifests itself periodically with attacks of suffocation. Asthmatic status is a protracted asthma attack. • Etiology: polyetiological disease. Exogenous factors: - smells (herbs, flowers, mowing hay, cologne, fungus, dust, pets); - individual products (eggs, crabs, strawberries, chickens); - climatic conditions
  18. Bronchial asthma
    Bronchial asthma is a severe allergic disease, manifested by attacks of suffocation with sharply difficult exhalation, wheezing wheezing as a result of narrowing of the lumen of the small bronchi. Depending on the causes of the disease, there are two forms of bronchial asthma: non-infectious-allergic and infectious-allergic. Non-infectious-allergic form of bronchial asthma more often
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