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Functional system for maintaining the constancy of body cells

The functional system for maintaining the constancy of the cells of the body is the dynamic interaction of organs, tissues and non-cellular structures, maintaining the constancy of the cells of the body due to self-regulation.

A possible mechanism for maintaining the immunological “purity” of an individual’s individual internal environment is a hierarchically constructed special functional system. Estimated levels of its functioning are local, organ (regional) and the level of the whole organism.

The particular manifestations of the effects of various factors on the immune organs and their antibody derivatives described in the previous paragraph can be represented in general terms as a functional system whose components interact in such a way that a certain amount of each type of cell and its signs (absence of abnormal cells) are preserved.

This is due to self-regulation: an increase in the number of certain cells causes an increase in specific cytotoxic inhibitory effects, and vice versa, a decrease in the number of certain cells causes an increase in cytogenetic ones. influences.

Self-regulation of the cellular composition of the body is inertial. This is due to the fact that the life cycle of most eukaryotes of the human body lasts dozens of hours and days. The transition from one state of immune activity to another is completed due to humoral influences - equally slow and inertial. Also, the acquisition of immune competence by cells, their redistribution between the immune and other organs, the release of cells and plasma components into the tissue through histohematological barriers, etc., is slowly taking place. It can be assumed that under natural conditions, periods of oscillation of certain cell populations occur within hours and days. Under these conditions, the cumulative effect (accumulation of effects) of regulation acquires important regulatory significance.

A useful adaptive result, or a system-forming factor of this functional system, is the maintenance of the level of activity of cell clones characteristic of a particular environment, a certain age, gender, season and type of activity (behavior, nutrition and lifestyle) (Greek.klonos-movement, i.e. formed from one cell of a group of cells). This means maintaining a state of unstable equilibrium: the proper degree of activity of AT cells, tissues and body fluids, which on the one hand prevents the formation of enough abnormal cells for the development of tumors, and on the other, the development of microbial flora.

Thus, a useful adaptive result of a functional system for maintaining the constancy of the cellular composition of tissues and body fluids consists of antiseptic and antioncotic components.

The afferent part of the functional system, perceiving deviations of the cellular composition of a particular tissue from the "normal" state and transmitting signals to other cells and organs, is represented mainly by humoral signals.
These are predominantly special, not yet fully identified components of the internal environment.

In most cases, the selectivity of the influence of these humoral signaling depends on the presence of special receptors on cell membranes, which are transported by fluid-blood, lymph, intercellular, cerebrospinal, intraarticular, pleural, and other fluids — substances. Although the effects of mediators of cellular immunity on the central nervous system have been established, however, the nervous system plays the role of a higher-order regulation apparatus compared to peripheral humoral. Therefore, the afferent signaling in the central nervous system has a qualitatively different character: probably this impulse signals the state of the executive organs, the endocrine glands and the functioning of vital tissues.

The effector (executive) apparatuses of the functional system for maintaining the constancy of the body’s cells are both specific structures and substances — antibodies fixed on cell membranes and free, as well as lymphocytes, macrophages, specific factors of activation of AH binding, etc., as well as non-specific — expansion of capillaries, increase their permeability. wall, etc. under the influence of biologically active substances coming from destroyed cells (basophils, eosinophils, etc.). Ultimately, the immunity effector apparatuses carry out a gradually unfolding protective immune response. It depends on the ratio of properties and the amount of hypertension on the one hand and the initial state of immunity on the other.

The basic principles of operation of effector apparatus are reduced to the following:

1. The formation and entry of antibodies into a specific area of ​​the body is proportional to the amount and type of hypertension.

2 .. The nature and type of the immune response (local, regional, generalized, fast, slow) depends on the method and rate of entry of AH, its type, as well as the state of the immune system.

The devices for integrating afferent neurohumoral and effector influences are morphological structures in which there is a union, the interaction of a large number of factors. The most possible integration devices can be either brain structures with their huge number (1014) of interacting elements, or formations with abundant blood flow, which allows all blood components to easily contact their walls or their contents.

The devices for integrating the immune system are mainly the central and peripheral organs of the immune system. The immunoactive agents that circulate with liquids act on the organs of the immune system, providing enhanced synthesis of antibodies, activation of cell division, their migration from central immune organs to peripheral or specific areas of the body, etc.
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Functional system for maintaining the constancy of body cells

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