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Year-round allergic rhinitis.

For year-round allergic rhinitis, frequent exacerbations, regardless of the time of the year, or a constant course are characteristic. Despite the similarity of clinical manifestations with seasonal allergic rhinitis, year-round allergic rhinitis is considered as an independent form of rhinitis.

A. Pathogenesis. Changes in the nasal mucosa with year-round allergic rhinitis are less pronounced, but are more persistent than with seasonal allergic rhinitis, and often lead to the development of complications. In the late stages of the disease, marked hyperplasia and infiltration by lymphocytes and monocytes of the nasal mucosa, proliferation of fibroblasts, periosteum hyperplasia are noted. The pronounced infiltration by lymphocytes and monocytes indicates that delayed-type allergic reactions play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Exacerbations of perennial allergic rhinitis often occur under the influence of nonspecific factors, such as tobacco smoke, smell of perfume, printing ink, ethanol. This makes year-round allergic rhinitis similar to vasomotor rhinitis. In the supine position, nasal congestion increases, with physical activity it decreases.

B. The clinical picture. With rhinoscopy, a variety of changes are detected. In some patients, the mucosa is almost unchanged, in others there is pronounced swelling of the mucosa, copious discharge and polyps. There are no pathognomonic signs of year-round allergic rhinitis. The bluish-gray edematous nasal concha and copious watery discharge characteristic of seasonal allergic rhinitis are very rare with year-round allergic rhinitis. Among other manifestations of the disease, one can note constant breathing through the mouth, snoring in a dream, sniffling, nasal, decrease in smell, taste and appetite. Due to constant nasal congestion, sleep is disturbed. Since chronic edema can spread to the mucosa of the sinuses and auditory tubes, dull pain in the forehead, hearing loss, stuffiness and tinnitus are possible. Due to damage to the mucosa, nosebleeds often occur, due to the drainage of the discharge along the back of the pharynx - dry cough and hoarseness.
If the disease develops at an early age, gothic palate and malocclusion may form.

B. Diagnostics. Year-round allergic rhinitis is differentiated with recurrent upper respiratory tract infection and vasomotor rhinitis. Diagnostic signs of year-round allergic rhinitis are given in table. 5.1.

G. Treatment

1. Avoid contact with allergens and irritating substances that can cause an exacerbation of the disease - pets, mites, fungi, insects, tobacco smoke (see chap. 4, paragraphs I-III). The reactivity of the nasal mucosa and blood vessels can be reduced by maintaining optimal humidity and air temperature.

2. Drug treatment

a. To reduce the viscosity of the mucus, moisturize the mucosa and remove allergens with a rubber bulb or spray, irrigate the nasal mucosa with saline.

b. As with seasonal allergic rhinitis, drug treatment begins with drugs that do not have pronounced side effects. The patient is informed about the possible positive and negative consequences of drug treatment. Drugs are prescribed in minimum effective doses.

3. Exercise helps to reduce swelling of the nasal mucosa due to stimulation of the sympathetic nerves, leading to narrowing of blood vessels. The effect occurs quickly and lasts 15-30 minutes.

4. Desensitization with year-round allergic rhinitis is not as effective as with seasonal. It is indicated for persistent nasal congestion, sleep disturbance, complications of drug treatment.

5. Surgical treatment is indicated for significant curvature of the nasal septum, especially in patients over 16 years of age. Curvature of the nasal septum of one degree or another is observed in approximately 30% of patients with perennial allergic rhinitis.
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Year-round allergic rhinitis.

  1. Allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, urticaria, Quincke edema
    Acute allergic diseases are caused by increased sensitivity of the immune system to various exogenous antigens (allergens). They are characterized by a sudden onset, an unpredictable course, a high risk of developing life-threatening conditions. ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS The most common allergens: ¦ food (fish, seafood, nuts, honey, milk, eggs, fruits, legumes, etc.); ¦
  2. ALLERGIC RHINITIS
    Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disease, manifested by a complex of symptoms in the form of a runny nose with stuffy nose, sneezing, itching, rhinorrhea, swelling of the nasal mucosa. ICD-10: J30.1 Allergic rhinitis caused by plant pollen; J30.2 Other seasonal allergic rhinitis; J30.3 Other allergic rhinitis; J30.4 Allergic rhinitis, unspecified Abbreviations: RAST -
  3. Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis
    A. Pathogenesis. Contact with the allergen leads to the production of IgE, which are fixed on the mast cells of the nasal mucosa. When allergens re-enter the nasal mucosa, mast cells degranulate and release inflammatory mediators - histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, kinins, hydrolases (see Chap. 2). These substances cause vasodilation and increase their permeability, which
  4. Allergic rhinitis
    Physical blockage This is a runny nose of an allergic nature caused by inhalation of plant pollen. As a rule, it occurs in mid-May and can last a maximum until mid-July. Emotional blocking This runny nose, which occurs at the same time every year, suggests that a person has some kind of old spiritual wound, received in the year when he first showed this
  5. Other allergic rhinitis. U-30.1
    {foto23} Treatment outcome: Clinical criteria for improving the patient's condition: 1. Normalization of temperature. 2. Normalization of laboratory parameters. 3. Improving the clinical symptoms of the disease (difficulty breathing, discharge from
  6. Allergic rhinitis caused by plant pollen. U-30.1
    {foto22} Treatment outcome: Clinical criteria for improving the patient's condition: 1. Normalization of temperature. 2. Normalization of laboratory parameters. 3. Improving the clinical symptoms of the disease (difficulty breathing, discharge from
  7. Allergic diseases of the paranasal sinuses (allergic sinusitis)
    Acute and chronic allergic diseases of the paranasal sinuses represent a special category of pathological conditions of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract resulting from an increased sensitivity of the patient's body to a foreign protein (antigen or allergen) and due to neurogenic and endocrine disorders. In the pathology of the disease a large role belongs
  8. Vasomotor rhinitis
    There are two forms of vasomotor rhinitis: allergic and neurovegetative (L.B.Dainyak). In etiology about the allergic form, the allergen plays a decisive role - a substance to which there is an increased sensitivity (sensitization) of the body. The ingress of such a substance on the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract and its absorption immediately cause an attack of rhinitis. In occurrence
  9. Eosinophilic non-allergic rhinitis
    Its prevalence among adult patients with chronic non-infectious rhinitis is 15%, among children - less than 5%. In some patients with eosinophilic non-allergic rhinitis, an aspirin triad is observed. Although clinically eosinophilic non-allergic rhinitis resembles allergic rhinitis, skin tests and determination of the level of specific IgE give negative results. In the study
  10. Chronic rhinitis
    To date, there is no single classification of chronic rhinitis. Numerous attempts to create an acceptable classification of chronic rhinitis, taking into account the features of etiology, pathogenesis, morphological and typical variants, have not yet been fully completed and continue to this day. Meanwhile, the classification of LB.Dainyak (1987), which takes into account a number of positions of other classifications,
  11. Vasomotor rhinitis
    Vasomotor rhinitis is a disease of unknown etiology associated with a violation of the autonomic regulation of vascular tone and manifested by chronic swelling of the nasal mucosa. Mucosal edema and increased secretion of mucus can be triggered by various factors: changes in atmospheric pressure, temperature and humidity, smells, smoke, drugs, emotional stimuli.
  12. Other forms of rhinitis
    A. Infectious rhinitis. The most common cause is viral infections of the upper respiratory tract. In most cases, sneezing and transparent, watery discharge from the nose appear first, which after a few days become purulent. Neutrophils predominate in the smear. The mucous membrane is hyperemic, patients often complain of burning in the nose. Infectious rhinitis in patients with allergic rhinitis
  13. Allergic diseases of the nose and ear
    M. Lierl Allergic rhinitis is a disease caused by allergic reactions that occur in the nasal mucosa. Distinguish between seasonal and year-round allergic rhinitis. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is caused by allergens that are present in the air only at a certain time of the year: plant pollen, fungal spores, insect particles, year-round - allergens with which the patient
  14. Atrophic rhinitis
    Simple atrophic rhinitis. This form of chronic rhinitis is basically not an inflammatory, but a dystrophic process, which captures mainly the mucous membrane. It can be a particular manifestation of a systemic disease in which trophic disorders (atrophy) spread to the pharynx, larynx, and other organs and systems (Voyachek V.I., 1953). This is the so-called
  15. Acute rhinitis
    Acute catarrhal (nonspecific rhinitis). Acute rhinitis, or a runny nose, is one of the most common diseases, which, apparently, not a single person reached adulthood. This term refers to an acute nasal disorder of the nose, accompanied by inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane. Acute rhinitis may be independent (non-specific)
  16. RHINITIS
    Rhinitis is an inflammation of the nasal mucosa due to the common cold, severe hypothermia, trauma or inhalation of irritating gases or fumes of chemicals. Sometimes the cause of the common cold can also be parasites that have penetrated the nose. Rhinitis can be a symptom of such dangerous diseases as calicivirus, rhinotracheitis, cat flu, mycoplasmosis, etc., therefore, at the slightest sign, you should consult
  17. Runny nose (rhinitis)
    The most common pathology in children, especially young children, is rhinitis (runny nose). It can be acute and chronic. Acute rhinitis is an acute nonspecific inflammation of the nasal mucosa. The causes of the disease. Of great importance for the occurrence of acute rhinitis is a decrease in local and general reactivity of the body and activation of microflora in the nasal cavity. it
  18. ATROPHIC PIG RHINITIS
    Atrophic rhinitis (Latin - Rhinitis atrophica infectiosa suum; infectious atrophic rhinitis, IAR, porcine bordetelliosis) is a chronic disease of piglets characterized by serous-purulent rhinitis, atrophy of the nasal concha, ethmoid bones with deformation of the front of the head, bronchopneumonia and growth retardation (see. color paste). Historical background, distribution, hazard and damage.
  19. ATROPHIC PIG RHINITIS
    Chronic respiratory disease characterized by serous-purulent rhinitis, atrophy of shells, deformation of the bones of the skull. Under natural conditions, only pigs are susceptible to the disease. Most susceptible to suckling pigs. Pre-slaughter diagnostics. In the initial stage of the disease, mild rhinitis is detected in piglets, accompanied by sneezing and snorting, often conjunctivitis,
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