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Ascaridosis is a human helminthiasis caused by the round helminth Ascaris lumbricoides. It is characterized by an allergic syndrome in the early phase of the disease and a violation of the gastrointestinal tract in the late phase.
Drugs of choice: pyrantel, 10 mg / kg once.
Alternative drugs: levamisole, mebendazole, albendazole.
Ankylostomidosis is a helminthiosis caused by parasitization in the human body of nematodes of the Ancylostomatidae family: Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. It is characterized by impaired gastrointestinal function and the development of iron deficiency anemia.
Drugs of choice: pyrantel.
Alternative drugs: levamisole, mebendazole, albendazole.
If there are signs of anemia, specific treatment is supplemented by the appointment of iron preparations, and if necessary - folic acid.
Trichocephalosis is a human helminthiasis caused by a whipworm - Trichocephalus trichiuris. It is characterized by a chronic course with a predominant violation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Drugs of choice: mebendazole.
Alternative drugs: albendazole.
Enterobiosis (oxyurosis) - human helminthiasis caused by pinworms - Enterobius (Oxyuris) vermicularis. It is characterized by intestinal disorders and perianal itching.
Drugs of choice: pyrantel.
Alternative drugs: mebendazole, albendazole.
Typically, the selected drug is prescribed in two doses with an interval of 7-10 days, since a single dose may not have the desired effect due to frequent reinvasions and superinvasions. An indispensable condition for successful deworming during enterobiosis is the simultaneous treatment of all family members (staff) and strict adherence to a hygienic regime to exclude the possibility of re-infection.
Strongyloidosis is a chronically occurring helminthiosis with a predominant lesion of the gastrointestinal tract and general allergic manifestations. The causative agent is intestinal acne (Strongyloides stercoralis).
Drugs of choice: albendazole, 3 days course.
Alternative drugs: ivermectin once.
Trichinosis - helminthiasis caused by parasitization in the human body of nematodes of the genus Trichinella. It is characterized by acute course, fever, muscle pain, edema, hypersosinophilia and other allergic manifestations.
The treatment of trichinosis is largely individualized and includes specific (etiotropic) and pathogenetic therapy.
Etiotropic therapy is aimed at destroying intestinal trichinella, stopping their production of larvae (larvae), disrupting the encapsulation process and increasing death of muscle trichinella.
In Russia and abroad, mebendazole is mainly used for these purposes, however, a single treatment regimen for these drugs does not exist.
In Russia, it is customary to prescribe a drug in a dose of 0.1 g every 8 hours for 7-14 days; higher doses are used abroad - in the first 3 days, 0.2-0.4 g every 8 hours, then 0.4-0.5 g every 8 hours for the next 10 days. In recent years, albendazole is used at a dose of 10 mg / kg / day in 3 divided doses for 7-14 days. The most effective etiotropic therapy in the incubation period, when it is possible to prevent clinical manifestations, or in the early days of the disease, when there are still intestinal trichinella. During the muscle stage of the disease and encapsulation, the effectiveness of etiotropic therapy is significantly reduced and its use during this period can contribute to the exacerbation of the disease.
Symptomatic therapy includes the appointment of antihistamines, NSAIDs, etc. For severe invasion with neurological disorders, myocarditis, pulmonary insufficiency, glucocorticoids are used: prednisolone orally at a dose of 20-80 mg / day for 5-7 days, followed by a dose reduction and drug withdrawal after 1 -1.5 weeks Due to the fact that glucocorticoids can prolong the period and amount of larvoproductions in the intestine, it is recommended to use anthelmintic drugs (mebendazole or albendazole) during the entire period of glucocorticoid use and several days after their withdrawal.
Toxocariasis is a disease that develops as a result of human invasion by the larvae of round dog helminths, Toxocara canis (less commonly, parasites of cats, T.cati).
The clinical symptoms of toxocariasis are polymorphic and are determined by the localization of the larvae: asthma, fever, urticaria, skin impairment, visual impairment, hepatomegaly, epileptiform symptoms, eosinophilia.
Drugs of choice: albendazole 10 mg / kg / day for 10-20 days.
Alternative drugs: diethylcarbamazine 3 mg / kg / day for 3 weeks.
Filariasis is a group of tropical helminthiases caused by nematodes of the family Filariidae, characterized by a transmissible transmission path, extremely slow development and a long course. The most common are lymphatic filariasis (vuchereriosis and brugiosis), onchocerciasis and loiasis.
Lymphatic filariasis includes vuchereriosis and brugiosis, the causative agents of which are filiform round helminths of Wuchereria bancroffti and Brugia malayi. These helminthiases are characterized by a primary lesion of the lymphatic system.
Drug of choice: diethylcarbamazine. The course is 12-14 days. To determine individual tolerance and prevent severe HP in the first days of treatment, the drug is used fractionally in gradually increasing doses, starting 1/3 of the daily dose on the first day, from the 3-4th day - the full dose. If after 3-6 months, microfilariae are again detected in the peripheral blood, repeated courses of treatment are carried out.
Alternative drugs: ivermectin as monotherapy or in combination with diethylcarbamazine or albendazole.
With the development of complications (lymphadenitis, lymphangitis, etc.), specific treatment should be combined with the use of antibacterial therapy and surgical intervention. In the obstructive stage of the disease with the development of elephantiasis, the effectiveness of conservative treatment is small.
Loiasis - filariasis, characterized by swelling of the soft tissues, lesions of the conjunctiva, serous membranes and genitals. The causative agent is a nematode of the species Loa loa.
Drugs of choice: diethylcarbamazine, course - 2-3 weeks. To begin treatment with a small dose of the drug and, gradually increasing, within 3-5 days to bring to therapeutic.
In the treatment of loiasis, diethylcarbamazine often causes severe allergic reactions due to the death of helminths, with intensive invasion, up to the development of meningoencephalitis. Therefore, therapy is recommended to be carried out in a hospital with the mandatory appointment of antihistamines. With intense invasion, glucocorticoids are prescribed. With microfilariaemia greater than 1000 in 20 mm3, prior to the appointment of diethylcarbamazine, exchange blood transfusion is recommended to reduce the intensity of invasion.
Onchocerciasis ("river blindness") is filariasis caused by the filamentous nematode Onchocersa volvulus, characterized by damage to the skin, subcutaneous tissue, lymph nodes and eyes, up to the development of blindness.
Drugs of choice: ivermectin once. As the most effective and safe drug, it is widely used for mass chemotherapy in the foci of onchocerciasis. This prevents severe eye damage and blindness, however, in some patients, filaria's reproductive ability resumes. Treatment regimens and intervals of ivermectin are being developed. It has been established that for effective action on adult helminths, large doses of the drug are needed - only for a course of up to 0.8 mg / kg. Onchocercic nodes are removed surgically.
Alternative drugs: diethylcarbamazine, initially used in small doses, which gradually increase to standard and continue treatment for 10 days. The drug has an effect only on helminth larvae - microfilariae, therefore it is combined with the use of suramin. Instead of diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin can be used once at the beginning and at the end of the course of treatment with suramin.
As a result of the mass death of microfilariae during chemotherapy, severe NR are possible, including optic neuritis, up to blindness, therefore, antihistamines are used at the same time, and glucocorticoids are indicated.
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Dog nematodoses are diseases caused by helminths from the class of round parasitic worms Nematoda. Toxocarosis (Toxocarosis) The causative agent is the Toxosagus nematode canis from the suborder Ascandata, which parasitizes in a mature stage in the small intestine of dogs. Dogs of all ages are susceptible, but the parasite is more common in puppies aged 2-3 months. The disease is recorded in foxes, arctic foxes,
Helminthiasis caused by nematodes, or helminths round in cross section (toxocariasis, toxascaridosis, uncinariosis, hookworm infection, etc.) are the most common helminth infestations among cats. Nematodes are fairly small parasites whose sizes rarely exceed a few centimeters. Outside, helminths are covered with cuticles, on which there may be spikes, papillae and other outgrowths,
- INTESTINAL NEMATODOSIS
James J. Plorde Enterobiosis Definition. Enterobiosis is a human intestinal helminthiasis caused by pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis), a characteristic feature of which is perianal pruritus. Pinworm eggs were found in a 10,000-year-old coprolite (intestinal stone), which allows us to consider them the oldest of the discovered human parasites. Enterobiosis affects about
Roundworms. Morphology and anatomy. Some features of the nutrition and metabolism of nematodes. Reproduction and life cycles. Parasitic roundworms are causative agents of many dangerous diseases (nematodes) in humans and domestic animals. The economic damage caused by nematodes in agriculture is very large. They pose a serious threat to human health. Nematodoses. Ascariasis
- LECTURE No. 15. Helminthiasis in children. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment, prevention
Helminthiasis - diseases that develop when localized in the body of parasitic helminth worms and their larvae. Classification of helminthiases: 1) on the biological principle: nematodoses (roundworms), cestodoses (tape), trematodoses (flukes); 2) according to the epidemiological: geohelminthoses, biohelminthoses,
- HELMINTHOSIS (HELMINTHOSES)
Helminthiasis in dogs is widespread and detrimental to dog breeding. In dogs, several types of helminths can parasitize at the same time. The intensity of invasion (the number of helminths in one dog) can be different - from units to hundreds or more specimens. Helminths of dogs of most species in the mature stage parasitize in the gastrointestinal tract, but some species have adapted to
- Parascariosis of horses
Parascariosis (parascariosis) is a nematode disease with signs of emaciation, stunted growth and development, disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, and nervous phenomena. Etiology. The nematode Ráscaris equorum, the suborder of Acaridata, is localized mainly in the small intestine. The length of the male reaches 15-28 cm, the females - 37 cm. In the intestines of horses, parascaris parasitize for 6-10 months.
+++ alkaline reserve of blood, reserve alkalinity, a value expressing the amount of carbon dioxide contained in the blood in the form of bicarbonates. S. r. K., determined by the Van Slyke method, is equal (in volume%): in a cow, 52–85; horses 56–80; pigs 68-72.5. See also Blood, Van Slyke methods. +++ Shcherbovich method (named after the Soviet helminthologist A.I. Shcherbovich), helminthovoscopy method
- pathogenesis, clinic, treatment
Trichinosis is an acute invasive (nematodosis) disease of a person, accompanied by fever and severe allergic manifestations. Etiology: 3 types of trichinella - Trichinella spiralis - circulate in synanthropic biocenoses, Trichinella nativa, Trichinella nelsoni - circulate in natural biocenoses. Epidemiology: Trichinella hosts are predominantly predatory mammals, often
- Vizer V.A .. Lectures on therapy, 2011
On the subject - almost completely cover the difficulties in the course of hospital therapy, the issues of diagnosis, treatment, as stated, are concise and quite affordable. Allergic lung diseases Joint diseases Reiter's disease Sjogren's disease Bronchial asthma Bronchiectasis Hypertension Glomerulonephrosafasdit Esophageal hernia Destructive lung diseases