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According to a survey of nosocomial infections in the United States, gastroenteritis develops in approximately 10.5 people per 10 thousand received in medical institutions. The etiology of gastrointestinal infections can be established in approximately 97% of cases; of which bacteria account for 93%. The predominant bacterial pathogen is C. difficile - 91%, viruses (rotaviruses) account for 5.3%.

Allocate internal and external risk factors for the development of nosocomial gastrointestinal infections. Internal risk factors include the presence of immunodeficiency states, decreased acidity of gastric juice and impaired intestinal motility, and external ones include the use of nasogastric tubes and antacids.

The main route of transmission of pathogens is intestinal-oral, and often from patient to patient through the hands of medical personnel.
The role of contaminated medical equipment or environmental objects has been proven in the development of nosocomial gastrointestinal infections caused by C. difficile and Salmonella spp., And food products in the transmission of Salmonella spp., Y.enterocolitica, E. coli, Norwalk viruses and Cryptosporidium spp.
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    CLASSIFICATION Gastrointestinal infections are classified according to their primary location, etiology, and clinical presentation. Among the diseases of bacterial etiology, there are infections of the orocervical region (not considered in this chapter), infections of the stomach (gastritis, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer), intestinal infections - acute diarrhea (enteritis and
  2. Infections affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract
    This section covers only those infections that are the main cause of diarrhea. {foto70} Viral enteritis and diarrhea. Acute self-stopping infectious diarrhea (diarrhea) - the main cause of infant mortality - is most often caused by intestinal viruses (rotaviruses); pathogens like Norvok viruses; coronaviruses; adeno- and astroviruses. In infants, infectious diarrhea may be accompanied
  3. Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a problem that is often encountered by doctors in the United States (300 thousand hospitalizations annually). The degree of hemorrhage varies from small slow bleeding to life-threatening conditions that contribute to the development of iron deficiency anemia. Mortality from upper gastrointestinal tract in the USA is 8%. This indicator has not changed much.
  4. Gastrointestinal Lymphoma
    In systemic dissemination of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (see chapter 13), any segment of the gastrointestinal tract may be involved again. However, up to 40% of lymphomas develop not in the lymph nodes, but in other organs, among which the intestine is the most frequent localization. By the time of recognition of the primary lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract, the tumor process does not affect either the liver or
  5. Gastrointestinal metabolism
    Liquid and electrolytes are excreted in large quantities with digestive secretions in the gastrointestinal tract, but under normal conditions they are mostly reabsorbed (Fig. 20). Fig. 20. Secretion of water and electrolyte (meq / l of the amount of secretion indicated in the table) (Geigy). Potassium is excreted in the intestines (especially in the large intestine), and it is replaced during the exchange process with sodium (Gooptu with
  6. Gastrointestinal Tumors
    In the organs of the gastrointestinal tract (hollow organs, pancreas, liver, biliary tree), various types of tumors are much more common than in other body systems, and such patients have a much higher degree of probability of death. However, there is no single simple explanation for the etiology of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. International studies
  7. Gastrointestinal diseases
    Conditions leading to dysphagia Causes: • tumor esophageal stricture; • ???? achalasia; • ???? diffuse spasm of the esophagus; • ???? medicinal esophagitis; • ???? hiatal hernia; • ???? collagenoses; • ???? chemical burn of the esophagus; • ???? diverticulum of the esophagus; • ???? esophageal infections (candidiasis). Features of anesthesia: • preoperative preparation is needed
  8. Gastrointestinal tract
    More than half of pregnant women have an increase in appetite, weight gain can reach 400 g per week, and by the end of pregnancy is 12 kg. Such a change in the regulation of feelings of hunger and satiety provides increased needs of the mother's body for energy and plastic materials. Often there are taste perversions and whims associated with a change in the secretory function of the gastrointestinal tract.
  9. Gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and liver.
    Changes in the gastrointestinal tract during pregnancy are associated mainly with its anatomical displacement by an increasing uterus. The axis of the stomach changes its position from vertical to horizontal, which leads to an increase in intragastric pressure and a change in the angle of connection of the stomach with the esophagus. This in turn leads to relative insufficiency of the esophageal sphincter. If
  10. Gastrointestinal diseases
    ANATOMICAL FEATURES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT Features of the gastrointestinal tract determine the specifics of the clinical picture in pathological conditions. The oral cavity in the newborn is poorly developed, the mucous membrane is well vascularized, but relatively dry due to a small amount of saliva. The saliva of the newborn does not play a significant role in digestion, since it practically does not contain enzymes and
  11. Gastrointestinal Disorder Syndrome
    The leading symptom is loose stools (diarrhea). Etiology. The cause of the gastrointestinal tract upset syndrome in children is most often acute intestinal infections (AEI), AEI is a large group of diseases, the main clinical manifestations of which are loose stools, dyspeptic disorders, symptoms of intoxication and dehydration. Most acute respiratory infections in children have
    SURVEY ALGORITHM {foto29} Fig. 16. Algorithm for examination of the gastrointestinal tract. Examination of the gastrointestinal tract consists of examination, palpation, percussion and auscultation (Fig. 16). From the anamnesis we learn about the nature of food intake, diet, dependence of pain on the time of eating, etc. The main manifestations are bitterness in the mouth, bad breath. Swallowing (free,
  13. Acute and chronic bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract
    There are many causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding develops according to one of two primary mechanisms: 1. Violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane, leading to exposure of deep vessels, their erosion. For example, bleeding from a stomach ulcer, bleeding from the intestines during infectious or idiopathic processes, from the small and large intestines during ischemia. 2.
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