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The concept of acute respiratory disease (ARI)

Acute respiratory infections (ARI) is a large group of acute infectious diseases whose pathogens (viruses, bacteria, chlamydia, mycoplasmas) enter the body through the respiratory tract, colonize and reproduce mainly in the cells of the mucous membranes of the respiratory system, damage them, thereby determining the occurrence the main symptom of the disease is the respiratory tract syndrome.

Annually (according to WHO), 40 million people become infected with infectious diseases in the world, of which 90% are influenza and acute respiratory infections. Each adult, on average, suffers from influenza or other acute respiratory infections 2 times a year, a schoolchild 3 times, a child of preschool age 6 times. In most cases, the source of infection is a sick person, the main route of transmission is airborne. The seasonality of colds with a pronounced peak incidence in the autumn-winter period is characteristic. Inhalation of moist cold air, immune and metabolic disorders in the human body, adverse occupational factors, alcoholism and smoking, and malnutrition increase the likelihood of the disease.
They suggest the presence of an institutional institutional predisposition to colds. Each of the acute respiratory viral infections has distinctive features in accordance with the tropism of various viruses to the respiratory system. Influenza viruses, RS viruses, adenoviruses can affect the epithelium of both the upper and lower respiratory tract with the development of bronchitis, bronchiolitis and lower respiratory tract obstruction syndrome, while rhinovirus infection mainly affects the epithelium of the nasal cavity, and parainfluenza - the larynx.

Since up to 90% of acute respiratory infections are caused by respiratory viruses, in the absence of signs of a bacterial infection, the term “acute respiratory viral infection” and the appointment of antiviral therapy are justified.
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The concept of acute respiratory disease (ARI)

  1. Acute Respiratory Disease
    ARI is the most common reason for seeking emergency care, which is associated with the severity of the development of symptoms and their potential "menacing", although of these, only a few conditions can be considered unconditionally threatening. In this regard, the main task of the first contact medical worker is to identify threatening conditions and provide the necessary assistance with them (along with the appointment of an adequate
  2. Flu and other acute respiratory infections
    Training target: using diagnostic algorithms, establish the diagnosis of influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus, rhinovirus or undifferentiated acute respiratory disease, as well as determine the clinical form, complications and prescribe adequate treatment. task for self-study of the topic. Using a textbook and lecture material to purchase the necessary
  3. Acute Respiratory Viral Diseases
    Scope of examination 1. Acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) are characterized by damage to various parts of the respiratory tract and intoxication. 2. Transferred acute respiratory viral infections often do not leave behind a long and lasting immunity, therefore, repeated illnesses or relapses are possible. 3. The source of infection is a sick person or a virus carrier, the transmission route is
  4. Acute Respiratory Disease
    Acute respiratory
  5. Acute respiratory infections
    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) is a polyetiological group of infectious diseases accompanied by respiratory tract damage and characterized by symptoms of intoxication against the background of catarrhal phenomena in the form of cough, runny nose and hyperemia of the mucous membranes. E p i d e m and o logue. In the structure of infectious diseases in children, ARI occupy 95-97%. Epidemics affect 20% of children annually
  6. Acute viral infections of the respiratory tract (code J 06.9; J11)
    Statistics. In the structure of the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) are 250-450 visits to the doctor per 1000 people per year. Every year, 20-40 million Russians get the flu and SARS. Fatal outcomes are a sad fate for elderly people and children under 7 years old (50-200 deaths per year per 100,000 population). Children often suffer from influenza and SARS (up to 40% of all infections, up to 80% of diseases
  7. Acute viral respiratory infections
    Flu Influenza is an acute viral infectious disease that occurs in the form of epidemics and pandemics. Etiology. • Pneumotropic RNA virus from the family Orthomyxoviridae; Three types of virus are known: A (pandemics and major epidemics are associated with it), B (causes outbreaks of the disease between major epidemics) and C (low-virulence). • The virus has a tropism (ability to specifically
    Acute pneumonia is a group of acute etiological, pathogenesis and morphological characteristics of acute infectious inflammatory diseases of the lungs with a primary lesion of the respiratory departments and the presence of intra-alveolar exudate. Most commonly caused by bacteria, mycoplasmas and viruses. According to clinical and morphological features, croupous (lobar) pneumonia is distinguished,
  9. Acute lung disease
    These include pulmonary edema (including adult respiratory distress syndrome), pneumonia, and aspiration pneumonitis. General information A decrease in lung extensibility occurs due to an increase in the content of extravascular fluid in them, which in turn is caused either by an increase in pressure in the pulmonary artery or by an increase in the permeability of the pulmonary capillaries (Ch. 50). Increase
    Acute childhood infectious diseases are highly contagious, cyclical, and leave a strong immunity. The source of infection is a sick person or a carrier of virulent microbial strains. The most common mechanism of infection is airborne, but with some infections, indirect contact (through infected items), alimentary, through
  11. Aerosol therapy for patients with acute respiratory infections
    Aerosol therapy techniques for infectious patients cadets learn in the inhalation room of the respiratory infections department. Each of them should independently, under the control of the resident, inhalate a patient with acute respiratory disease of the alkaline, oily, oil-alkaline, bronchodilator and wet-fluidizing agents prescribed to him. Students must first study
  12. Differential diagnosis of acute respiratory diseases
    Influenza, parainfluenza, adenoviral and rhinovirus diseases have many common features that impede their differentiation [Ivanova VV, 2002; 2003; Drinevsky V.P., 2001, 2004; Romantsov M.G., 2004]. Parainfluenza is differentiated from influenza, which is characterized by an acute onset with symptoms of toxicosis, the addition of a catarrhal syndrome, the phenomenon of tracheitis. With the development of laryngeal stenosis, it is necessary
  13. Acute infectious diseases
    Emergency conditions for acute infectious diseases are associated with the development or threat of developing toxic toxic shock, hypovolemic shock, acute respiratory failure, multiple organ failure and exacerbation of the course of concomitant diseases. At the prehospital stage, patients with meningococcal infection, acute
    For children who often suffer from respiratory diseases, it is necessary to search for individual methods of healing, taking into account the etiological and pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease, as well as environmental factors. The main attention, according to V.V. Careful, you need to pay attention to the issues of endogenous predisposition of the child, the immune deficiency of the body. Both infectious agents and forms
  15. Acute mental illness
    Epilepsy (epilepsy). Signs sudden loss of consciousness, cramps in hands, legs, foam from the mouth, tongue bitten, pupils dilated. First aid. You can not forcibly interrupt convulsions or bring the patient to life. A person is laid in the shade, raising his head. Unfasten clothes on the neck and chest. A stick with a diameter of 1-1.5 cm is inserted between the teeth so that the tongue does not bite (Fig.
  16. Acute surgical diseases
    Peritonitis. Peritonitis is understood as a process of inflammation of the peritoneum, accompanied by a severe general condition with symptoms of dysfunction of vital organs and systems. Spilled purulent peritonitis is the most common cause of death in patients with acute surgical diseases of the abdominal organs. As a rule, they complete gangrenous forms of appendicitis, cholecystitis and
  17. Acute diseases of the eyelids
    Abscess of the century Abscess of the century - acute purulent inflammation of the soft tissues of the eyelid. It develops after improper treatment of barley, abrasions, wounds, suppurating hematomas, an eyebrow furuncle and purulent processes of the periorbital region. CLINICAL PICTURE Complaints: ¦ pain in the eyelid, often throbbing; ¦ difficulty opening the eye; ¦ phenomena of general intoxication (headache, fever,
  19. Etiological and epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in Russia
    The Federal Center for Influenza and ARI (St. Petersburg, Research Institute of Influenza, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences) conducts a great deal of research on the etiological structure and control of the spread of acute respiratory infections in the country. The Center provides methodological guidance to more than 50 republican, regional and regional centers for influenza and acute respiratory infections, where serological diagnosis of acute respiratory infections, and the isolation of pathogens from
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