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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a viral, slow-moving infection caused by the human immunodeficiency retrovirus, transmitted sexually, parenterally and vertically, characterized by a specific predominant lesion of helper T-lymphocytes, leading to the development of a secondary immunodeficiency state.

Clinical diagnosis

The incubation period is from 2-4 weeks to 5 years.

In the acute febrile phase, the “mononucleosis" syndrome: tonsillitis, fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly; flu-like syndrome; asthenic serous meningitis or meningoencephalitis; transient exanthema.

In the asymptomatic phase, seroconversion appears (antiviral antibodies in the serum).

Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy: an increase in cervical, occipital, behind the ear, elbow, and other groups of lymph nodes; vegetovascular disorders; an imbalance appears in the immune system.

PRESID - weight loss up to 10%; fungal, viral, bacterial lesions of the skin and mucous membranes; exacerbation of chronic foci of infection: sweating, prolonged diarrhea, fever, signs of immunodeficiency.

AIDS - weight loss of more than 10%, hairy leukoplakia, pulmonary tuberculosis, persistent bacterial, fungal, viral, protozoal lesions of the skin and internal organs, localized Kaposi's sarcoma. Generalization of all infections, disseminated Kaposi’s sarcoma, damage to the nervous system, AIDS marker diseases.

Laboratory diagnostics

1. The serological method. Numerous diagnostic test systems are available for detecting antibodies to HIV antigens by enzyme immunoassay. A primary positive result requires mandatory confirmation using the immunoblot technique.

2. Immunoinduction. Using a set of poly- and monoclonal antibodies in the blood of patients and HIV-infected patients, both complexes and individual antigenic determinants of HIV can be detected.

3.
Virological research. Isolation of HIV is carried out only in specialized centers.

4. Genetic methods. In the DNA from the blood cells of patients and HIV-infected can detect the nucleotide sequence of the virus.

Activities for patients and contacts

Hospitalization. The issues of isolation and hospitalization of AIDS patients and HIV-infected people are addressed collectively by epidemiologists, clinicians, and AIDS center staff.

Isolation contact. Not carried out. For contact from the foci of HIV infection, a follow-up observation is established in the AIDS center and the infection room for 1 year with 1-quarterly blood tests for HIV by ELISA.

Admission to the team. Admission to the collective of AIDS patients and HIV-infected people will be decided collectively by epidemiologists, clinicians, and employees of the AIDS center.

Clinical examination: It is carried out in the center of AIDS, terms are not regulated

Specific prophylaxis

Not developed.

Nonspecific Prevention

Prevention of the genital tract of HIV infection:

- use of condoms during sexual intercourse.

Parenteral infection:

- disinfection and sterilization of medical instruments, widespread use of single-use medical instruments.

Personal Prevention Measures:

- Work in overalls, the use of gloves.

In case of contamination of the hands with blood (blood serum), it is necessary to “pinch” the skin with a cotton ball moistened with a disinfectant (chloramine, bleach, alcohol), then wash your hands with soap.
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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

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