Licensed books on medicine
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HIV infection, like a fire, has now spread to almost all continents. In an unusually short time, it has become the number one problem for the World Health Organization and the UN, pushing cancer and cardiovascular diseases into second place.
Perhaps no disease has asked scientists such serious mysteries for such a short period of time. The war on the AIDS virus is being waged on the planet with increasing efforts. Every month, new information about HIV infection and its causative agent is published in the world scientific press, which often force to radically change the point of view on the pathology of this disease.
While more puzzles ...
First of all - the sudden appearance and rapidity of the spread of HIV. The question of the reasons for its occurrence has not yet been resolved. It is established that there are several varieties of the causative agent of AIDS. Its variability is unique, so there is every reason to expect that the next variants of the pathogen will be found in different regions of the world, and this may sharply complicate the diagnosis.
Another mystery: what is the connection between AIDS in a person with AIDS-like diseases in animals (monkeys, cats, sheep, cattle) and what is the possibility of embedding the genes of the causative agent of AIDS into the hereditary apparatus of germ cells?
Is the name right? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In other words, the main symptom of the disease is damage to the immune system. But every year, more and more data is accumulating, proving that the AIDS pathogen affects not only the immune, but also the nervous system.
Faced with unforeseen difficulties in developing a vaccine against the AIDS virus.
The peculiarities of AIDS include the fact that it appears to be the first acquired immunodeficiency in the history of medicine, associated with a specific pathogen and characterized by epidemic spread. Its second feature is the almost “sighting” defeat of the T-helper cells. The third feature is the first human epidemic disease caused by retroviruses. Fourth, AIDS, by clinical and laboratory features, is unlike any other acquired immunodeficiency.
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- Tactics of management of patients with AF
At the initial stage, management of patients with AF involves mainly the use of the tactics of controlling the frequency of ventricular contractions and sinus rhythm. With the tactics of controlling the frequency of ventricular contractions, the ventricular rhythm is controlled without the intention to restore and maintain sinus rhythm. With the tactics of control of sinus rhythm, they try to restore it and / or maintain it. When applying the latter
- Conducting childbirth
It has long been believed that labor management in a narrow pelvis requires a lot of art from the doctor. In the past, when a narrow pelvis was allowed "trial labor" in nulliparians, that is, despite the narrowing of the pelvis size and a certain disproportion of the head, they tried to give birth through the birth canal. Often, there were serious injuries to both the mother and the child. In the history of obstetrics
- "Specificity of negotiating with the enemy"
Study questions: 1. Preparation and negotiation with an adversary 2. Psychological features of negotiation Question 1. Preparation and negotiation with an adversary Negotiations are not a panacea for all ills. There are a number of cases where it is more profitable to use the regulatory framework. What do the negotiations give us? Negotiation classification: 1)
- ORGANIZATION OF CHILDBIRTH
Childbirth, as a rule, is carried out in the hospital, where all conditions are created for the provision of skilled care. Obstetric care is provided in maternity hospitals and maternity wards of urban and rural hospitals. Childbirth is conducted by the doctor together with the midwife. Only in small institutions the management of a normal birth is allowed by a midwife, which causes the doctor if any complications occur. AT
- COURSE AND MAINTENANCE
With prolonged pregnancy or a slight delay, labor often proceeds normally, but requires special attention (cardiomonitor control over the state of the fetus and contractile activity of the uterus, functional assessment of the pelvis). Late delivery is often accompanied by complications: a long pathological preliminary period, prenatal or early rupture of amniotic fluid, weakness or
- POSTBREAKING PERIOD
The main task of maintaining the postpartum period is the prevention of purulent-septic diseases in the puerperal and the newborn. In this regard, the organization of care for the puerperal is especially important compliance with the rules of asepsis and antisepsis. Penetration of infection in the genital tract and mammary glands represents a great danger to the health of the puerperal and the newborn. Puerperal with
- Patient management
Obligatory treatment is subject to: • the first time in life the arisen paroxysm of any arrhythmia; • arrhythmia with risk of transformation into ventricular fibrillation (ventricular paroxysmal tachycardia, ventricular alorhythmia, early type R ventricular extrasystoles on T, frequent ventricular extrasystoles); • arrhythmias combined with heart failure (causing heart failure and
- Maintaining patients with heart diseases
It is advisable intensive cardiac therapy before childbirth or surgery carried out in conditions of the intensive care unit and intensive care. Indications for transfer to the intensive care unit are signs of circulatory decompensation (NK1] A B according to V. X. Vasilenko, ND Strazhesko, 1953). Intensive observation involves maintaining a card of intensive observation, monitoring of ECG, blood pressure and CVP, frequency
- Patient management
The goal of treatment: slowing the progression of CRF with a satisfactory quality of life of the patient. Objectives: • elimination of factors contributing to the defeat of the remaining intact nephrons: the use of nephrotoxic drugs is prohibited, infections and intoxication are minimized; • reduction of azotemia by optimizing the dietary regime; • control of renal hypertension; • correction
- Patient management
The goal of treatment: the creation of sustainable clinical and hematological remission in the absence of hemolysis. Objectives: • stop the process of hemolysis with the help of drugs. If necessary, splenectomy; • restoration of normal blood formation, normal indicators of red blood; • development and use of a maintenance regimen to prevent
- MANAGEMENT OF PREGNANCY
Conducting pregnancy during replanting has features. With a gestational age of 41 weeks, no signs of labor, insufficient readiness of the pregnant woman's body for childbirth (immature or insufficiently mature cervix, hypotonia and reduction of uterine excitability), hospitalization is indicated in the maternity hospital due to the need for detailed examination, constant monitoring of
When a woman enters the maternity ward, it is necessary to clarify complaints, anamnestic data on the presence of somatic pathology, obstetric and gynecological history, the course of this pregnancy, to assess her general condition. It is mandatory to conduct an external obstetric study with the definition of the expected mass of the fetus and the specification of the gestational age. Pregnant with full-term
- ORGANIZATION OF CHILDBIRTH
Conducting childbirth in multiple pregnancies has its own characteristics. During childbirth, you need to be prepared for the need to strengthen labor activity, make adequate anesthesia and exercise careful control over the cardiac activity of both fetuses (cardiomonitoring observation), careful observation of the condition of the woman. In identifying the weakness of labor forces, intravenous administration is indicated.
- Guidelines. Maintaining patients with severe injuries, 2009
Recommendations for the management of patients with severe polytrauma, head injury. Transferable
- Management and treatment of patients with diabetes during pregnancy
The management of pregnant women with diabetes in the conditions of antenatal clinic includes the following activities: Identification of pregnant women with a high degree of risk of developing diabetes. The probability of occurrence is determined by a number of signs: information obtained in the study of history: aggravated in relation to diabetes or other endocrinopathies, aggravated during the previous pregnancy, increased
- Organizational basis for negotiating with criminals
The organizational conditions for preparing and conducting negotiations are associated with the creation of appropriate forces and means and ensuring their effective use. Foreign and domestic experience of negotiating with terrorists confirms the need to form special groups of negotiators, including: 1) the actual negotiators - persons with the skills of psychological and pedagogical influence
- Follow up period
The follow-up period begins after the birth of the fetus. Being the shortest of all periods of childbirth, it is most dangerous because of the possibility of bleeding from the uterus in the process of separation of the placenta and the birth of the placenta. These complications occur most often from untimely interventions that violate the physiological course of the follow-up period. Most obstetricians have adopted a waiting tactic.
- Record keeping on FAP
It is very important in the work of a midwife of the FAP to maintain thorough documentation. For each pregnant woman who applies to the FAP, an “Individual card of the pregnant woman” is filled out. When obstetric complications or extragenital diseases are detected, a duplicate of this card is filled in, which is transmitted to the district obstetrician-gynecologist. There are many options for storing individual cards. One of
- Further management of the patient
The management of patients with JRA in an outpatient setting should be carried out by a pediatric rheumatologist, pediatric cardio-rheumatologist or pediatrician who has completed a cycle of thematic improvement in pediatric rheumatology, taking into account the recommendations of the specialized rheumatological department. Hospitalization is indicated to all children with a first-time diagnosis, to confirm it and develop tactics.