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The concept of "nosocomial infection"
Hospital-acquired infection (hospital, hospital, nosocomial) - any infectious disease that affects a patient who is on treatment in a health facility or who has turned to him for medical treatment, or the staff of that institution, is called a nosocomial infection.
The main pathogens of nosocomial infections are: • bacteria (staphylococcus, streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, spore-bearing nonclostridial and clostridial anaerobes, etc.); • viruses (viral hepatitis, influenza, herpes, HIV, etc.); • fungi (pathogens of candidiasis, aspergillosis, etc.); • mycoplasma; • protozoa (pneumocysts); • parasites (pinworms, scabies mites).
The entrance gate of the infection is any violation of the integrity of the skin and mucous membranes. Even slight damage to the skin (for example, a needle prick) or mucous membrane must necessarily be treated with an antiseptic.
Healthy skin and mucous membranes reliably protect the body from microbial infection. Weakened as a result of illness or surgery, the patient is more susceptible to infection.
There are two sources of surgical infection - exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal).
Endogenous infection is less common and comes from chronic sluggish foci of infection in the human body. The source of this infection can be carious teeth, chronic inflammation in the gums, tonsils (tonsillitis), pustular skin lesions, and other chronic inflammatory processes in the body. Endogenous infection can spread through the bloodstream (hematogenous pathway) and lymphatic vessels (lymphogenous pathway) and on contact (contact path) from organs or tissues affected by the infection. It is necessary to always remember the endogenous infection in the preoperative period and carefully prepare the patient - to identify and eliminate the foci of chronic infection in his body before the operation. There are four types of exogenous infection: • Contact infection is of the greatest practical importance, because in most cases, contamination of wounds occurs by contact.
Currently, the prevention of contact infection is the main task of operating sisters and surgeons. Still NI Pirogov, not knowing about the existence of microbes, expressed the idea that infection of wounds is caused by "miasma" and transmitted through the hands of surgeons, tools, through linens, bedding. • Implantation infection is introduced into the tissues at injection or with foreign bodies, prostheses, suture material. For prevention, you must carefully sterilize the suture material, prostheses, objects implanted in the tissues of the body. Implantation infection can manifest after a long time after surgery or injury, leaking by the type of "dormant" infection. • Air infection is the infection of the wound with germs from the air of the operating room. Such infection is prevented by strict adherence to the regime of the operating unit. • A drop infection is the contamination of a wound by an infection from getting into it droplets of saliva that fly through the air during a conversation. Prevention consists in wearing a mask, limiting conversations in the operating room and dressing.
More than 100 occupational infectious diseases of medical personnel are known in the world, including more than 30 forms of infections with the parenteral mechanism of infection. The most frequent forms of occupational disease are viral hepatitis B and C.
Modern principles of the fight against the causative agents of infectious diseases make it possible to build effective barriers to the protection of the patient in the operating room, dressing room and hospital ward. However, at present they must be reassessed through the prism of the possibility of protecting the attending physician, surgeon. In this case, the main importance is acquired by various viral infections due to the high incidence and mortality rate, as well as significant socio-economic damage caused by them. In our work we consider the prevention of such viral diseases as hepatitis and HIV infection.
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- Abstract. Methods of introduction of medicinal substances, 2010
Subcutaneous injections Intramuscular injections Intravenous injections Intraosseous injections Intraperitoneal injection Intra-hilar and intrapulmonary methods of drug administration Autohemotherapy The bleeding Intra-tracheal injections Rupture puncture and administration of drugs in
- Methods of administration
AEROSOL INHALATION An endobronchial injection usually allows a high local concentration of the drug without systemic side effects. Examples are bronchodilator P-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids and pentamidine. However, some inhaled solutions reaching the lung parenchyma are rapidly absorbed by the large surface of the capillary bed (for example,
- Intra-tracheal administration
In clinical practice, for lung diseases, drugs are administered intratracheally with a probe. Before the introduction, the probe is disinfected and lubricated with petroleum jelly. The large animal is injected through the nasal cavity to the pharynx and in the intervals between the swallowing movements move it further. With the correct introduction of the probe into the trachea, the animal has a cough that soon disappears. To
The International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the main tool for statistical development of information on public health and the functioning of health facilities. It provides methodological unity and comparability of the results of studying the incidence of the population, the causes of death and the causes of treatment in medical institutions, both within the country and between countries.
The timely introduction of properly selected complementary foods promotes health promotion, nutritional status and physical development of infants and young children during the accelerated growth period and should therefore be the focus of the health system. During the whole period of complementary feeding, mother's milk should remain the main kind of milk,
To date, one of the most popular professions is the profession of a psychologist. Currently, more than 150 universities in the country are training relevant specialists. The experience of their preparation in high school convincingly proves that the image of the future profession of the graduate should be the same object of formation as professional knowledge, skills, skills and ways of thinking. In connection with
- Introduction of vaccines intradermally
Intracutaneous administration of a vaccine for medical purposes cadets are mastered in the treatment of patients with toxoplasmosis or brucellosis. In the treatment room of the treatment department, the cadet must independently inject a toxoplasmidine into the patient with toxoplasmosis under the supervision of the instructor (intern). Previously, he makes dilutions of the vaccine at 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 times and produces a titration test on
Iron deficiency is one of the most common malnutrition in the world and, according to experts, affects more than three billion people. In terms of severity, it varies from the depletion of iron stores, which does not cause any decrease in physiological activity, to iron deficiency anemia and can affect mental development and motor development. Special
- INTRODUCTION AND DELETION OF THE IUD.
Since the methods of administration for different types of IUDs differ from each other, each time to get acquainted and adhere to the instructions for the introduction of IUD. The following instructions for the introduction of IUDs apply to all types of intrauterine contraceptives. 1. Explain to the patient what the procedure of IUD insertion is. 2. Carry out a thorough gynecological (bimanual) examination for
- Routes of drug administration
The choice of the route of drug administration depends on the severity of the patient's condition, the necessary duration of their continuous administration, the nature of the disease, the age of the patient and the manual capabilities of health workers. In terms of the rate of peak drug concentration in the blood stream, the following routes of administration of drugs are distinguished: | intraarterial; | Intravenous; Intradracheal; Sublingual (in
- I. INTRODUCTION
Before the introduction of aseptic and antiseptic methods, postoperative mortality reached 80%: patients died of purulent, putrefactive and gangrenous processes. Discovered in 1863 by Louis Pasteur, the nature of decay and fermentation, becoming an incentive for the development of microbiology and practical surgery, allowed us to assert that microorganisms are also the cause of many wound complications. In this essay will be
- Intraosseous injections
They are shown in the following cases: in the presence of injured large veins, intoxications, disorders of the function of the gastrointestinal tract; small animals - with a small diameter of the veins; with prolonged drip infusions; with shock, when the veins are in a collapsed condition; pigs - if intravenous infusion is difficult. Strong needles are used for intraosseous injections. In the olives of these needles
I would advise you to skip this introduction - it is much more complicated than other sections and can create a misconception about the book. I decided to include it to show some readers why our traditional way of thinking is wonderful, but still inadequate. The rear wheels of the car can be excellent, but in themselves they are inferior. Having developed one aspect of thinking, we are proud of this and