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The concept of "nosocomial infection"
Nosocomial infection (hospital, hospital, nosocomial) - any infectious disease that affects a patient undergoing treatment or who has applied to medical facilities, or employees of this institution, is called an nosocomial infection.
The main causative agents of nosocomial infections are: • bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, sporiferous non-clostridial and clostridial anaerobes, etc.); • viruses (viral hepatitis, influenza, herpes, HIV, etc.); • mushrooms (causative agents of candidiasis, aspergillosis, etc.); • mycoplasma; • protozoa (pneumocysts); • parasites (pinworms, scabies).
The entrance gate of an infection is any violation of the integrity of the skin and mucous membranes. Even minor damage to the skin (for example, a needle prick) or mucous membrane must be treated with an antiseptic.
Healthy skin and mucous membranes reliably protect the body from microbial infection. Weakened by the disease or surgery, the patient is more susceptible to infection.
There are two sources of surgical infection - exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal).
Endogenous infection is less common and comes from chronic sluggish foci of infection in the human body. The source of this infection can be carious teeth, chronic inflammation in the gums, tonsils (tonsillitis), pustular skin lesions, and other chronic inflammatory processes in the body. Endogenous infection can spread through the bloodstream (hematogenous pathway) and lymphatic vessels (lymphogenous pathway) and upon contact (contact pathway) from organs or tissues affected by the infection. You must always remember about the endogenous infection in the preoperative period and carefully prepare the patient - to identify and eliminate foci of chronic infection in his body before the operation. There are four types of exogenous infection: • Contact infection is of the greatest practical importance, since in most cases contamination of wounds occurs through contact.
Currently, the prevention of contact infection is the main task of operating nurses and surgeons. Even NI Pirogov, not knowing about the existence of microbes, expressed the idea that infection of wounds is caused by “miasms” and is transmitted through the hands of surgeons, instruments, linen, bedding. • Implant infection is introduced into the tissue with injections or with foreign bodies, prostheses, suture material. For prevention, it is necessary to thoroughly sterilize the suture material, prostheses, objects implanted in the tissues of the body. An implant infection can manifest itself after a long period after surgery or injury, proceeding in the manner of a “dormant” infection. • Airborne infection is infection of a wound by germs from the air of an operating room. Such an infection is prevented by strict adherence to the operating unit. • Drip infection is the contamination of a wound by an infection from droplets of saliva falling into the wound, flying through the air during a conversation. Prevention consists in wearing a mask, restricting conversations in the operating room and dressing room.
More than 100 occupational infectious diseases of medical personnel are known in the world, including more than 30 forms of infections with the parenteral mechanism of infection. The most common forms of occupational disease are viral hepatitis B and C.
Modern principles of the fight against pathogens of infectious diseases allow us to build effective barriers to protect the patient in the operating room, dressing room and hospital ward. However, at present they should be reevaluated through the prism of the possibility of protecting the attending physician, the surgeon. At the same time, various viral infections are of primary importance due to the high level of morbidity and mortality, as well as significant socio-economic damage caused by them. In our work, we consider the prevention of such viral diseases as hepatitis and HIV infection.
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- Abstract. Methods for introducing drugs, 2010
Subcutaneous injections Intramuscular injections Intravenous injections Intraosseous injections Intraperitoneal administration Intraoral and intrapulmonary methods of administering drugs Autohemotherapy Bleeding Intratracheal administrations Scar puncture and administration of drugs into
- Methods of administration
AEROSOL INHALATION Endobronchial administration usually allows a high local concentration of the drug to be obtained without systemic side effects. Examples include bronchodilatory P-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids and pentamidine. However, some respirable solutions reaching the lung parenchyma are quickly absorbed by the large surface of the capillary bed (for example,
- Intratracheal administration
In clinical practice, for lung diseases, medicinal substances are administered intratracheally with a probe. Before the introduction of the probe is disinfected and lubricated with vaseline. A large animal probe is introduced through the nasal cavity to the pharynx and in the intervals between the pharyngeal movements promote it further. With the proper insertion of the probe into the trachea, the animal develops a cough, which soon disappears. To
The International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the main tool for statistical development of information on public health and health institutions. It provides methodological unity and comparability of the results of studying the incidence of the population, causes of death and the reasons for applying to medical institutions, both within the country and between countries.
- INTRODUCTION PRICORMS
The timely introduction of properly-chosen complementary foods helps to improve health, improve nutritional status and the physical development of infants and young children during the period of accelerated growth and therefore should be the focus of the health care system. During the entire period of complementary feeding, mother's milk should remain the main type of milk,
Today, one of the most sought-after professions is the profession of psychologist. Currently, more than 150 universities in the country are preparing relevant specialists. The experience of their training in higher school convincingly proves that the image of the future profession of a graduate should be the same object of formation as professional knowledge, skills, abilities and ways of thinking. In connection with
- Intracutaneous Vaccine Administration
Intracutaneous administration of the vaccine with a medical purpose cadets master the treatment of patients with toxoplasmosis or brucellosis. In the treatment room of the medical department, the cadet, under the supervision of a teacher (intern), should intracutaneously inject toxoplasmin in patients with toxoplasmosis. Previously it makes dilution of the vaccine 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 times and produces a titration test for
Iron deficiency is one of the most common eating disorders in the world and, according to expert estimates, affects more than three billion people. In severity, it ranges from the depletion of iron stores, which does not cause any reduction in physiological activity, to iron deficiency anemia and can affect mental development and motor development. Special
- INTRODUCTION AND REMOVAL OF THE Navy.
Since the methods of introduction for different types of IUDs differ from each other, each time one should get acquainted and follow the instructions on the technique of introducing the IUD. The following instructions for the introduction of the IUD apply to all types of intrauterine contraceptives. 1. Explain to the patient what the procedure for inserting an IUD is. 2. Conduct a thorough gynecological (bimanual) examination for
- The route of administration of drugs
The choice of the route of administration of drugs depends on the severity of the patient's condition, the required duration of their continuous administration, the nature of the disease, the age of the patient, and the manual capabilities of medical professionals. According to the speed of reaching the peak concentration of drugs in the bloodstream, the following routes of drug administration are distinguished: ¦ intra-arterial; ¦ intravenous; ¦ intratracheal; ¦ sublingual (in
- I. INTRODUCTION
Before the introduction of aseptic and antiseptic methods, postoperative mortality reached 80%: patients died from purulent, putrid, and gangrenous processes. The nature of decay and fermentation, discovered in 1863 by Louis Pasteur, became the impetus for the development of microbiology and practical surgery, and made it possible to assert that microorganisms are also the cause of many wound complications. In this abstract will be
- Intraosseous administration
They are shown in the following cases: in the presence of injured large veins, intoxication, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract; small animals - with a small diameter of the veins; with prolonged drip infusions; in shock, when the veins are in a collapsed state; swine - if intravenous infusion is difficult. Strong needles are used for intraosseous injections. In the olive of these needles
I would advise you to skip this introduction - it is much more difficult than other sections and may create a misconception about the book. I decided to turn it on to show some readers why our traditional way of thinking is wonderful, but still inadequate. The rear wheels of the car can be excellent, but they are inferior in themselves. Having developed one aspect of thinking, we are proud of it and