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aaaEducation of a scientist, skill of a surgeon

According to contemporaries, Pirogov was a brilliant, virtuoso surgeon. He operated equally well on the limbs, on the orbit, the bladder, with traumatic brain injuries and wounds of blood vessels. In other words, using the modern classification of medical specialties, we can say that he successfully acted as a traumatologist and neurosurgeon, a urologist and otolaryngologist, an ophthalmologist and an angiosurgeon. About surgical skill N.I. Pirogov, his abilities as an excellent diagnostician and an excellent doctor, legends circulated during his lifetime.

Even before the appearance of the fundamental works on microbiology, antiseptics and aseptics, under the dominance of the so-called miasmatic representations in clinical medicine and surgery, Pirogov came close to a scientific understanding of the nature of infected wounds and widespread "hospital infections." He wrote that “the miasm, by infecting, is itself reproduced by the infected organism. "Miasm is not, like poison, a passive aggregate of chemically acting particles, it is something organic, capable of developing and renewing."

Based on these theoretical ideas, N.I. Pirogov proposed and implemented a number of important practical measures. He managed to transfer patients to the special buildings suffering from erysipelas, gangrene, piumemia, and thereby laid the foundation for the organization of special departments of purulent surgery, isolating them from the departments of "pure" surgery. A similar organization of surgical departments played an important role in both civilian and military medicine. “My opinion, based on the bitter experience of hospital infections, isolation, hospital quarantine and the need to disperse the seriously wounded,” he recalled in 1880, “was expressed 30 years ago, and, vigorously confirmed by me over 16 years, is now shared by almost everyone ".

All his life Pirogov worked hard, selflessly. It took almost 10 years of hard work to prepare preparations for a four-volume atlas on topographic anatomy. At night, he worked tirelessly in the anatomical theater to study the human body, and then, having rested only a few hours, gave morning lectures to students and proceeded to operations in his surgical clinic. He operated on many, and, moreover, the most difficult patients, and often achieved success where others gave up.
His patients were members of the royal family, ordinary soldiers, and poor peasants. Despite the huge number of cases, frequent business trips to war zones, Pirogov did not stop doing science.

Pirogov’s works were well known and highly valued in Europe. “When I came to Velpo (a famous French surgeon. - M.M.) for the first time,” Pirogov recalled, “I found him reading the first two editions of my surgical anatomy of arteries and fascia. When I recommended him deafly: Je suis un medessin russe (I am a Russian doctor), he immediately asked me if I was familiar with je professeur de Dorpat mr Pirogov (with a professor from Derpt, Mr. Pirogov) and when I explained to him that I myself am Pirogov, then Velpo began to praise my direction in surgery, my studies of fascia, drawings, etc. It’s not for you to learn from me, but for me, said Velpo. ”

Due to hostility in court circles and government spheres (and not at all because of the inanimate nature, as some claimed, Pirogov's strong and independent character did not tolerate adaptation) in 1856, at the age of 46, Pirogov had to leave his studies in medical science. His activity as a trustee of educational districts in Odessa and Kiev did not last long. Although during these years he wrote a number of excellent pedagogical essays (they were highly appreciated by advanced Russian public figures and scientists), in 1861 he had to resign. "N.I. Pirogov was dismissed - a link, even voluntary, to the village of Vishnyu, - wrote the medical historian B.D. Petrov, without living affairs, without students, without science, without social activity, i.e. without all that N.I. Pirogov has given such fervor over the past decades. ” Since then, he almost always lived on his estate in the small village of Cherry near Vinnitsa.

“One cannot help but ponder over the mighty phenomenon of a happy combination of mind, talent, knowledge, passionate and impetuous love of truth and impeccable honesty,” - assessed the personality of the brilliant Russian surgeon N.I. Pirogov, his younger contemporary, a well-known therapist S.P. Botkin.
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aaaEducation of a scientist, skill of a surgeon

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    One of the problems, on the successful solution of which depends on the depth of mankind's penetration into the laws of the development of nature, society and man, not yet known to it, the fundamentality of the generalizations made at the same time, as well as the effectiveness of developments based on them, is the problem of the professionalism of people who devote their lives to science. This problem
  2. Pupils and followers of the great scientist
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    Domestic surgeons made a significant contribution to the development of modern scientific surgery. A feature of Russian surgery continued to be the anatomical and physiological direction traditionally associated with Pirogov, which was already widespread in many European countries. In clinical surgery, they began to use the achievements of pathology much more and more deeply, also following the example of Pirogov,
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