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aaaEducation of a scientist, skill of a surgeon
According to contemporaries, Pirogov was a brilliant, virtuoso surgeon. He operated equally well on the limbs, on the orbit, the bladder, with traumatic brain injuries and wounds of blood vessels. In other words, using the modern classification of medical specialties, we can say that he successfully acted as a traumatologist and neurosurgeon, a urologist and otolaryngologist, an ophthalmologist and an angiosurgeon. About surgical skill N.I. Pirogov, his abilities as an excellent diagnostician and an excellent doctor, legends circulated during his lifetime.
Even before the appearance of the fundamental works on microbiology, antiseptics and aseptics, under the dominance of the so-called miasmatic representations in clinical medicine and surgery, Pirogov came close to a scientific understanding of the nature of infected wounds and widespread "hospital infections." He wrote that “the miasm, by infecting, is itself reproduced by the infected organism. "Miasm is not, like poison, a passive aggregate of chemically acting particles, it is something organic, capable of developing and renewing."
Based on these theoretical ideas, N.I. Pirogov proposed and implemented a number of important practical measures. He managed to transfer patients to the special buildings suffering from erysipelas, gangrene, piumemia, and thereby laid the foundation for the organization of special departments of purulent surgery, isolating them from the departments of "pure" surgery. A similar organization of surgical departments played an important role in both civilian and military medicine. “My opinion, based on the bitter experience of hospital infections, isolation, hospital quarantine and the need to disperse the seriously wounded,” he recalled in 1880, “was expressed 30 years ago, and, vigorously confirmed by me over 16 years, is now shared by almost everyone ".
All his life Pirogov worked hard, selflessly. It took almost 10 years of hard work to prepare preparations for a four-volume atlas on topographic anatomy. At night, he worked tirelessly in the anatomical theater to study the human body, and then, having rested only a few hours, gave morning lectures to students and proceeded to operations in his surgical clinic. He operated on many, and, moreover, the most difficult patients, and often achieved success where others gave up.
His patients were members of the royal family, ordinary soldiers, and poor peasants. Despite the huge number of cases, frequent business trips to war zones, Pirogov did not stop doing science.
Pirogov’s works were well known and highly valued in Europe. “When I came to Velpo (a famous French surgeon. - M.M.) for the first time,” Pirogov recalled, “I found him reading the first two editions of my surgical anatomy of arteries and fascia. When I recommended him deafly: Je suis un medessin russe (I am a Russian doctor), he immediately asked me if I was familiar with je professeur de Dorpat mr Pirogov (with a professor from Derpt, Mr. Pirogov) and when I explained to him that I myself am Pirogov, then Velpo began to praise my direction in surgery, my studies of fascia, drawings, etc. It’s not for you to learn from me, but for me, said Velpo. ”
Due to hostility in court circles and government spheres (and not at all because of the inanimate nature, as some claimed, Pirogov's strong and independent character did not tolerate adaptation) in 1856, at the age of 46, Pirogov had to leave his studies in medical science. His activity as a trustee of educational districts in Odessa and Kiev did not last long. Although during these years he wrote a number of excellent pedagogical essays (they were highly appreciated by advanced Russian public figures and scientists), in 1861 he had to resign. "N.I. Pirogov was dismissed - a link, even voluntary, to the village of Vishnyu, - wrote the medical historian B.D. Petrov, without living affairs, without students, without science, without social activity, i.e. without all that N.I. Pirogov has given such fervor over the past decades. ” Since then, he almost always lived on his estate in the small village of Cherry near Vinnitsa.
“One cannot help but ponder over the mighty phenomenon of a happy combination of mind, talent, knowledge, passionate and impetuous love of truth and impeccable honesty,” - assessed the personality of the brilliant Russian surgeon N.I. Pirogov, his younger contemporary, a well-known therapist S.P. Botkin.
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aaaEducation of a scientist, skill of a surgeon
- PROFESSIONALISM OF PSYCHOLOGIST AS A SCIENTIST: CHARACTERISTICS AND TYPOLOGY
One of the problems, on the successful solution of which depends on the depth of mankind's penetration into the laws of the development of nature, society and man, not yet known to it, the fundamentality of the generalizations made at the same time, as well as the effectiveness of developments based on them, is the problem of the professionalism of people who devote their lives to science. This problem
- Pupils and followers of the great scientist
After the theory of the microbial origin of diseases got a solid foundation, new discoveries rained down on all sides. The student of Koch Kitazato (1856-1931), who is called the "Japanese Koch", identified the causative agents of tetanus and bubonic plague. The Norwegian G. Hansen (1841-1912) discovered the stick of leprosy in 1874; G. Gaffky (1850-1918) - typhoid bacillus; F. Loeffler (1852-1915) - the causative agents of glanders and
- RELIGION - OPIUM FOR THE SCIENTIST
The main aspects of religion — faith, ritual, religious experience, and ways of organizing religious communities — have been the subject of much research. The study of religion is carried out by philosophers, sociologists, anthropologists, psychologists. A special area of research is the expression of religious feelings in art. Ethnographers from different countries embarked on dangerous trips to describe religious customs and artifacts
- Contribution of Russian surgeons. Zemsky surgery
Domestic surgeons made a significant contribution to the development of modern scientific surgery. A feature of Russian surgery continued to be the anatomical and physiological direction traditionally associated with Pirogov, which was already widespread in many European countries. In clinical surgery, they began to use the achievements of pathology much more and more deeply, also following the example of Pirogov,
- Cardiovascular surgery, thoracic surgery
Cardiac surgery (microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus golden and epidermal, gram-negative bacteria). Operations on heart valves with cardiopulmonary bypass, coronary artery bypass grafting. Antibiotic prophylaxis: cefuroxime - 3 doses per day (1.5 g before surgery, subsequent 750 mg at 8 hour intervals), due to the high cost of treating complications, it is recommended to continue
- Pedagogical skill
The enormous social significance of pedagogical work, which was mentioned at the beginning of the section, determines another feature of pedagogical professions: it leaves a mark in the soul of a small person, only a good teacher, a capital letter, determines his future. Dullness, routine, dishonesty are incompatible with pedagogical activity. Everyone who sets a goal to become
- The essence and structure of the pedagogical skill of the teacher
One of the most important factors and conditions that determine the effectiveness and quality of educational work is the high level of pedagogical skill of the officer-educator. The problem of professional mastery of a teacher relates to those issues of pedagogical theory and practice, which are always among the ever-relevant. Human history has left us many facts, examples, ideas,
- PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MILITARY SKILL OF A SHIP SPECIALIST AND TEAM
Whether the ship goes on the attack, breaks through the anti-submarine line or makes long-distance ocean voyages, one of the foundations for successfully solving the assigned task is the high professional training of personnel, their combat skills and their constant improvement. Combat skills are such professional training of a military sailor, crew, crew, which allows
- PSYCHOLOGICAL COMPONENTS OF MILITARY SKILLS AND REQUIREMENTS FOR THEM
All activities in psychological terms are characterized not only by visible movements, actions, actions, but also by those mental phenomena that perform a programming, controlling and regulating role in relation to them. For the training of sailors is characterized by its own set of mental phenomena. They are not the same for an individual and a collective. therefore
- Anthropotechnical means of professional development
The role of such a system of training professionals, which would be aimed at reproducing the integral phenomenon of professional mastery, would include the reconstruction of its substantive and technological component, as related to the level of action, i.e. to professional knowledge and skills, as well as to the level of professionally important personal qualities, by creating