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Methods to help judge the condition of the liver

General reasoning

The conditions of the liver are sometimes judged by touching: and feeling; so sometimes they conclude about [the presence of] a tumor in it. The conclusion is also drawn for pains that are especially characteristic of the liver, or for the actions inherent to it, or for the complicity [in the disease] of organs close to it, for example, the stomach, chest-abdomen, intestines, kidneys, gall bladder. They also judge [the state of the liver] by the complicity of organs located farther away from it, for example, [according to] the area of ​​the head or region of the spleen, or by the general condition of the whole body, [that is] by the color of the face, appearance and [by] feeling . Sometimes the conclusion is drawn on the hair growing [on the body] in the liver, on the veins growing from the liver, on the form of other organs, on the [juices] that originate in the liver and spread from it, according to the correspondence or mismatch of various things, by age and the [patient's] habits and what is connected with it.

A detailed statement of these features.

As for the example related to palpation, the heated area of ​​the liver to the touch indicates hot nature, and coldness indicates cold nature. Rigidity indicates hardening of the liver or solid tumor in it, bloating - swelling or bloating in the liver. The sickle-shaped form of perceived bloating is a sign of bloating in the liver itself, and an oblong or some other form indicates that the bloating is outside the liver and has formed in the muscles of the abdomen. An example of a conclusion on pain [may be the following]: if tension and heaviness are [felt], then there is a blockage or swelling; if there is no gravity, then the winds are evident. If this severity is without tingling, then the matter in the body of the liver has formed a tumor or blockage, but if [cravings] are accompanied by tingling, then the matter [has accumulated] near the lining of the liver.

As for the conclusions on the actions performed by the liver, these actions are: digesting [chylus], attracting [nutrients], rushing blood in the body, watery moisture - in the kidneys, yellow bile - in the gall bladder and black bile - in the spleen, here the state of thirst also applies. When any of these [actions] is violated, and there is no reason depending on the organ participating in the liver, then the [violation] comes from the liver. The conclusions drawn from the [manifestations] of complicity are, for example, thirst — if it [depends] on the stomach, it often indicates the condition of the liver, as well as hiccups or, for example, appetite and digestion. Respiratory distress, although it [usually] occurs due to a reason [associated with] the lungs and the abdominal obstruction, sometimes also depends on the liver. Various qualities of feces and varieties of urine indicate a liver condition. Different types of headaches, head diseases, various diseases of the spleen also indicate the state of the liver, or, for example, the condition of the tongue in terms of smoothness, roughness and color, as well as the color of the lips, allow us to judge the state of the liver. Between the liver and the heart, sometimes there is a mismatch, opposite and a struggle of qualities [their nature], which we will mention in the paragraph on the natures of the liver.

As for the conclusion on the general condition of the body, the complexion, for example, indicates what the liver is like: when it is rosy and white, it means the liver is healthy, and [if] it is yellow, this indicates the liver is hot. Lead [complexion] is a sign of coldness [of the liver], and if it is pale gray, this indicates its coldness and dryness; the same indication given by jaundice. Or else: signs of fleshy fullness indicate overheating and humidity of the liver, while fullness from fat indicates that the liver is cold and wet; leanness is a sign of dry liver. General overheating of the body, if its cause is not a strong overheating of the heart, indicates overheating of the liver; at the same time, the signs of overheating of the liver mentioned above are also recognized. As for the conclusions on the shape of other organs, such are, for example, conclusions on the large size of the veins and their width from the vast size of the liver and the width of its ducts; the shortness or [significant] length of the fingers indicates a small or large liver. The conclusion on the hair growing on the [body] in the region of the liver is the same as the conclusion on the hair on other organs, and we already mentioned About them. The conclusions on what grows from the liver, that is, through the veins, are as follows: if the veins are thick, large and very [distinct] palpable, then the main nature of the [liver] is hot; if they are subtle, inconspicuous, then the main nature is cold. And the warmth, coldness, softness and hardness of the veins sometimes depend on the basic nature [of the liver], and sometimes on the side.

As for the conclusion on what is born in the liver, the [too abundant] nucleation of yellow bile [indicates] its overheating, or dry coldness, as you know in your place. The birth of good blood indicates a healthy liver. The liver, from which extolling blood extends, which is very similar to the body, is healthy; [if] the blood is yellowish or blackish, or liquid, and this can be seen by [blood] diverging in the body, or [if] the blood is watery, unable to connect to the body, as with "dropsy of meat", then the liver is sick in accordance with by what the [state] of the [substance] propagating from it indicates. As for conformity and inconsistency, it is recognized from the fact that the corresponding [organs] are similar in natural nature and opposite in incidental nature. Regarding age, habits, and the like [circumstances], you already learned about the conclusion from them from the Book about general [medical issues].

The mismatch between the heart and the liver regarding the [core] qualities. Know that the warmth of the heart greatly suppresses the warmth of the liver, its moisture does not suppress its dryness, and its dryness sometimes somewhat suppresses its moisture. The warmth of the liver weakly suppresses the coldness of the heart, its moisture weakly suppresses its dryness, and its coldness [even] lessens the warmth of the heart. Dry liver always suppresses the moisture of the heart, and coldness of the heart suppresses the warmth of the liver more than dryness suppresses its moisture. The warmth of the heart suppresses the moisture of the liver more than dryness suppresses its moisture and it also completely suppresses the coldness of the liver.

General discussion of liver treatment

While maintaining liver health [something] similar and eliminating the opposite, in the treatment of tumors, ulcers and size disorders, as well as in the opening of blockages and other [diseases], what is necessary [in the treatment of] other organs is necessary. The best time to drink medicine for liver diseases, especially due to blockages in the liver and the like [damage], is the time when, as it is supposed, [substances] that have penetrated from the stomach into the liver and are there, have already been digested and that should have stood out; between this [state] and eating [pass] a decent time. Usually in humans this is the time between waking up from a night's sleep and a bathhouse.
When [treating] the liver, astringent and firming agents should also not be ruled out, unless, of course, it is assumed that the [liver] is excessively dry, as well as dissolving and revealing medicines that are used for liver diseases originating from matter, like [ for example], from blockages or from tumors. If possible, one should not cool the liver very much so that this does not lead to dropsy, or [strongly] warm it, because it leads to drying [of the liver]. Therefore, you need to know the degree of [warmth] of the natural nature of the liver that you are treating in order to return it to this degree [on time] to stop.

Know that if you make a mistake in the [treatment] of the liver, your mistake will go to the vessels and then to the [whole] body. One of the mistakes is to use a diuretic when you should give a laxative, this happens when the matter is in the concave part of the [liver], or to give a laxative when you should give a diuretic, this happens when the substance is in the convex part. Hepatic drugs should be finely crushed, and their substance must be rare so that they reach the liver, whether the drugs are hot, cold or astringent. Cutting drugs should make the blood sharp; if such drugs are discovered, then this [property] should be kept in mind.

Juices of [various] roots are among the medicines that open [blockages] in the liver, but they sometimes give rise to various inappropriate juices in the liver; if they are watered for two or three days in a row, then after them something softening nature is given. As for enhancing urine output, root juices themselves act in this way; all types of chicory and especially bitter chicory, which is somewhat hot, help with pain in the liver. [Patient] with hot nature [give it] with sikanjubin, and with cold nature - with water sweetened with honey. The liver of a wolf is useful [for liver diseases] in its property; snail meat also [benefits].

Things harmful to the liver

Know that eating one meal [now] after another meal and the wrong sequence [of its kinds] is one of the worst things for the liver; drinking cold water on an empty stomach with one spirit, after a bath, after copulation or after exercise often leads to a strong cooling of the liver, because a heated liver quickly and abundantly assimilates it; sometimes this leads to dropsy. Under such circumstances, you should mix [water] with wine, do not cool it strongly and do not drink it in one gulp, but rather pull it little by little. All viscous substances harm the liver in that they cause blockages. Wheat is one of the substances that is viscous in comparison with the liver, while it does not have this property in comparison with the organs into which [it enters] after the liver, after being digested in the liver. Such is not all wheat, but only sticky.

Sweet wine causes blockages in the liver, while the same [wine] removes [juices] located in the chest. The reason for this is that sweet wine is not gradually drawn into the liver, [but immediately], because [such wine] is kind to the liver, because it is sweet, and [quickly] penetrates [the body], because it is wine. It does not linger [in the stomach] so much that the sediment separates from it, like other thick things [linger], but enters the liver, [preserving] its density, and finds the passage into it prepared [for itself], for the paths between the stomach and the liver is wide in comparison with the [blood] vessels traveling to the liver and scattered in it. Once in the liver, [wine] does not linger there enough to decompose [into constituent substances] and digest; on the contrary, its liquid part rushes along the narrow [liver] vessels, since it quickly penetrates into them, and the sediment remains [in the liver] due to the narrow passage. But in the lungs, the opposite happens. Sweet wine arrives there after it has already been cleaned, either through the passages of the esophagus, seeping from narrow passages into wide passages, or through the hollow [vein], leaving a residue in the adjoining [space], and it is clean; pouring through narrow passages into [wider] wide ones, it is cleansed once more. The same applies to other qualities [of the liver], which it does not have in comparison with the lungs.

What is suitable for the liver

Of the medicines [it] is useful all those in which there is bitterness that opens [blockages], or another force that opens them in combination with an astringent and strengthening [liver] property, as well as incense, the corresponding substances of pneuma and preventing decay, such as [ incense] of Chinese cinnamon, inflorescences of the chythorn fragrant, myrrh and the like. [Suitable for the liver] is also everything that washes, cleanses and removes malignant pus, unless the degree of relaxation [of the liver substance] reaches a degree of purification, as well as [substances] that cause maturation and soften, especially [if they] when they bind and strengthen like saffron, are sweet like raisins, and quickly penetrate [into the body] like fragrant wine. [All of this is suitable] for the liver of [most] people if it does not have intense heat. When a medicine combines sweetness with the aforementioned properties, it should all the more be a friend of the liver, kind to it, such as raisins, figs, nuts, and be of great benefit. If it is not subject to corruption and decay, it acts even stronger. Dandelion and chicory, garden and wild, are very suitable [for the liver] and are beneficial for a hot disease in the liver at the same time because of their special property and the opposite [warmth] quality. However, some people believe that very bitter chicory [acts] better: it helps by opening up blockages with its bitterness and strengthening with its astringent. And from a cold illness it helps with its special property and ability to open [blockage] and strengthen. When the cold in the liver becomes excessive, either of these] two drugs is mixed with honey or honey-sweetened water:] honey resists some cooling property, if it can be] feared, and contributes to their other actions. It is often dried and allowed to drink with honey, or with water sweetened with honey, or boiled with honey; then it helps a lot and removes cold juice with urine.

From the dishes they open the blockages and are suitable for the liver, those that give a good chyme. The sweets are suitable for the liver, which becomes fatter, bigger and stronger from them, but they quickly create blockages, as the liver pulls them together with other juices with force. Therefore, sweets should be avoided by people who have a tumor in the liver, because they quickly turn into bile and also cause blockages. More damaging than all sweets are thick, as they cause blockages, and sharp, as they turn into bile. Pistachios are useful because they smell good, bind, open [blockages] and clear the paths for nutrients, but they warm very much; nuts are suitable for any liver: they are not very hot and [also] open [blockages] and give a good chyme. Wolf liver and snail meat are suitable for the liver because of their special properties.
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Methods to help judge the condition of the liver

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