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Empirical Knowledge Development

As already mentioned, the peoples of pre-Columbian America have reached a high level in various fields of knowledge. They cultivated potatoes, cucumber, tomatoes, beans, pumpkin, melons, cocoa, cotton, pineapples, tobacco, which before the discovery of Columbus were not known in the Eastern Hemisphere. At the same time, America did not know wheat, barley and rice - the main food products of the Old World. The exchange of food products between both hemispheres has doubled the agricultural potential of the world.

Maya - the oldest and highest civilization of pre-Columbian America, determined the cultural development of the entire continent. Maya created the only hieroglyphic writing on the continent and an unusually complex philosophy, reached great heights in mathematics, architecture, astronomy. The Mayan calendar, spanning millions of years, as well as their number I, was much more accurate than those used by all enlightened Europe until the era of space travel.

The Aztecs, whose state existed for less than a hundred years, perceived and generalized the achievements of many conquered peoples.
They used a decimal number system, a solar calendar, and knew pictographic (pictorial) writing. Their medicine was the most popular on the continent.

The Incas achieved high perfection in the construction industry and pottery, gold, copper and bronze works, kept score and writing through a system of knots and pictography. Their mummies are perfectly preserved to this day.

By the beginning of the conquest, the great civilizations of pre-Columbian America were at the stage of early slavery. They did not know the wheel, iron and gunpowder, which greatly accelerated the conquest of them by the Europeans, who had already entered the period of anti-feudal revolutions.
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Empirical Knowledge Development

  1. Formation of a military psychology system at the stage of empirical development
    The main periods of development of military psychology are considered: 1. Until 1917. 2. 1917 - 1941. 3. 1941 - 1945. 4. 1945 - our time, in which there are two sub-periods: - the first - 1945 - 1957 - the second - 1957 - our time. The grounds for periodization are: - changes in research problems depending on
  2. “An empirical study of the formation and development of multiethnic competence of subjects of education”
    The third chapter provides a general description of an empirical study of 2127 respondents. Elementary school students — 402 children, secondary school students from grades 5 to 11 — 250 students, parents of primary school students — 83 people, university students — 489 people, secondary school teachers — 184 people, psychologists, social workers, were involved in the empirical research process. ,
    A biographical analysis of a personality can have at least three main aspects: objective, subjective, and subjective. The first aspect involves the study, understanding of the personality based on the typical "life schedule" of representatives of a particular social or some conditional group to which the subject belongs. For this, individual biographical events are important.
  4. “Analysis of the results of an empirical study of the formation and development of multi-ethnic competence of students, future education specialists”
    The fifth chapter examined the multi-ethnic competence of students, future specialists in the education of multi-ethnic regions (Russia, Estonia, Latvia and the Republic of Belarus) with the aim of conducting a comparative analysis, identifying problem areas and determining the psychological and acmeological conditions and means of developing multi-ethnic competence, as well as further developing programs
  5. “Methods of empirical study of the characteristics of psychosocial development and the structure of the psychosocial identity of an individual”
    The fourth chapter analyzes the experience of developing and using standardized methods of empirical study of the characteristics of psychosocial development and the identity of an individual, formulates the basic requirements for such methods, presents materials on the development and validation of the differential of psychosocial development. The first paragraph provides an overview of the basic empirical techniques
  6. Medical knowledge development
    The medicine of the great civilizations of pre-Columbian America was at the level of the main achievements of the developed slave-owning societies of the ancient East. In a number of ways, it is comparable to the medicine of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, and in some respects even surpassed the medicine of feudal Europe that was modern to it. The most developed ideas about the structure of human bodies on the continent were among the Aztecs: they
    Like any system of scientific knowledge, psychology can give the maximum benefit to the fleet if it becomes the property of most officers and foremen and is adopted by them. The path from the problems solved by theory to their mass application in practice is a difficult path that needs special guidance. Nowadays, when science becomes a productive force, when the rapid development of life
  8. The history of the origin and development of psychological knowledge of military psychology
    Interest in the soldier’s soul has been shown by many prominent commanders since ancient times. About the need to temper the spirit of a warrior, Alexander the Great spoke. Great attention was paid to the psychological readiness of soldiers for battle by Russian commanders. Of particular importance were the progressive views of A.V. Suvorov (1730-1800). Suvorov substantiated and created in practice a psychological system
  9. Empirical base of research
    A sample of the study was composed of graduate students, students of the continuing education system, teachers of higher educational institutions in the city of Stavropol (North Caucasus State Technical University; Financial and Economic Institute; North Caucasus Social Institute, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute). In a pilot study took
  10. Stages of theoretical and empirical research
    The first stage (1998-2004) - the goal was a theoretical justification of the psychological-acmeological concept as a basis for ethno-acmeology of education, empirical identification of psychological-acmeological features of subjects of a multi-ethnic educational environment. A historical and critical analysis of the approaches of domestic and foreign researchers to understanding the phenomena of ethnic
  11. Empirical base of research
    In total, the study involved 341 people - government employees who acted as experts (2004 - 2007), including: in an empirical study - 315 government employees studying at the Russian Presidential Academy of Public Administration, in a pilot study –26 government employees Administration of the Samara region. Reliability and reliability
  12. Empirical base and sources of research
    In the work on the dissertation, the author relied on materials from state statistics, departmental reporting data, and the results of psychological studies of domestic and foreign psychologists. In the process of performing the dissertation work, the study of documents, materials of conferences, seminars and round tables was used. The basis of the empirical base of the study is the results
  13. Empirical base and stages of research
    The study involved employees of enterprises and organizations of various industries of the Sverdlovsk region (education, metallurgy, services, trade), owners and heads of organizations, managerial personnel, specialists of various profiles in Yekaterinburg and the Sverdlovsk region. The total number of respondents was 4001 people. An empirical study has been conducted for 10 years.
  14. An experiment as a normative method of empirical testing of psychological hypotheses
    The objectives of psychological research: theoretical, applied, practical. The development of experimental psychology and the differentiation of concepts of the method and research technique. Method as a way to collect data. An experiment as one of the ways of knowing reality and as a means of “limiting” theorizing, as a normative logic of reflection and as an art of verification
  15. Empirical study design
    Essential for developmental psychology is the organization (construction) of empirical research. The method of slicing is most specific in relation to the tasks of developmental psychology. The method of slices as a whole is a statement (measurement) of the state of the object at different stages of its development. A cross-sectional study can be organized in two ways: according to the principle
  16. Empirical base and stages of research
    The empirical basis of the study is a sample of 2282 specialists in various fields of activity: the administration of the Stupinsky district of the Moscow region - 13 people .; construction company "TODESiK" (Podolsk) - 38 people; A-Line Consulting Agency - 47 people; Personnel Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation - 23 people; employees of medical institutions - 114 people .; spheres
  17. "Empirical verification of psychosocial theory in the main subject areas of social psychology"
    The fifth chapter sequentially presents materials devoted to the description of the process and the results of an empirical test of heurism of the modified psychosocial concept of development in four main subject areas of social psychology: social age psychology, ethnopsychology, psychology of small groups, organizational psychology. Analyzed from the above theoretical positions
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