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About types of exercise
Physical exercises include exercises that are performed during the occupation of some work, and purely physical exercises. Here we have in mind precisely these latter ones, for they are physical exercises, and they are engaged in them only for the benefit received from them.
Physical exercises are different, namely: small or large, very strong and weak, fast or slow, or nimble, consisting of sharp and fast [movements], and there are sluggish exercises. In addition, there are moderate [types of exercises] between each two extremes.
As for the types of physical exercises, these include: Tug of war, fisticuffs, archery, brisk walking, javelin throw, jumping [up] to any object to hang on it, bouncing on one leg, fencing with a sword and spear , horseback riding, swinging with both hands, and the person rises on toes and stretches both hands back and forth, making quick movements. This is one of the quick exercises.
Smooth and light exercises include rocking on a swing and in a cradle while standing, sitting and lying down; boating and sailing. Stronger [exercises] include horseback riding, camel riding, and [riding] in palanquins and carts.
Strengths include exercises in the area, consisting in the rapid movement of a person across the area to the edge [of it] and then returning back without changing position, while each time it reduces the distance until it stops in the middle.
[Strong exercises] include fighting with one’s own shadow, palms, jumping, spear points, playing a chougan with a big and small ball, playing ball, wrestling, raising stones, chasing and riding a horse.
Fighting also has various forms. One of the types is this: each of the two men grabs the other’s belt with his hands and pulls him to him, while each of them seeks to free himself from his opponent, and he does not let him go. Another view: one of the two [men] hugs the other with both hands, passing his right hand under the opponent’s right hand, and his left under the left. Then he presses it [to himself] and flips it, while it bends, then straightens. The [fight] also includes breast reflection or grabbing the other’s neck and pulling it down, or [the following techniques]: grabbing each other with the feet, tripping, spreading the legs of the other with their feet, and similar techniques used by wrestlers.
Quick exercises include the following: quick change of seats by two partners; continuous jumps back, then forward, and [the order may be] correct and erratic. This also includes an exercise with two large needles, which consists in the following: a person stands in a certain place and sticks two large needles on the ground on both sides at a distance of one fathom from each other. Then he turns to the needle on the right side and transfers it to the left side, and transfers the needle on the left side to the right, and tries to do it all as quickly as possible.
Sharp and quick exercises are done intermittently or together with lighter exercises. It is necessary that the exercises have a variety, not to linger on one.
There are special exercises for each member. As for the exercises of the arms and legs, they are known. And exercises of the chest and respiratory organs [are done as follows: the person] alternately gives either a very low voice, then a high and medium voice, while such organs as the mouth, tongue, tongue, and neck are also trained; in addition, the complexion [of the face] improves and the breast clears.
Exercise also includes blasting and breath holding, in which the whole body is trained and all channels expand.
Giving a strong voice for a very long time is very dangerous, because a large force of [voice] requires inhaling a large amount of air, which is dangerous, and a duration of [voice] requires exhaling a large amount of air, which is also very dangerous. First you need to start with a quiet reading aloud, then gradually you need to raise your voice, moreover, the duration of a loud and sharp voice should be moderate; There is a clear and great benefit to this. Increasing the duration of use of this [voice] is dangerous for people with moderate health.
Exercise should be appropriate for each person. This kind of light exercise, such as swinging on a swing, is suitable for people who are weakened by fever, and for those who find it difficult to move and sit; [they are also useful] for recovering and for those who have lost strength from consuming hellebore and the like, as well as for those suffering from a disease of the abdominal barrier. If you carefully [swing the person], then he will fall asleep and the winds dissolve in him. It is also useful from the effects of head diseases such as distracted attention and forgetfulness; it stimulates appetite and gives vigor to nature.
Rocking on the bed is more suitable for people suffering from a three-day fever, mixed fever and mucous membrane [fever]; Swing is also suitable for those suffering from dropsy, gout and kidney disease.
So, as a result of the swing, bad juices are prepared for removal. At the same time they pump strongly when [juices] are strong, and weakly when [juices] are weak. Riding in carts also has such an effect, but more powerful. Riding in a wagon, sitting with your back forward, is of great benefit with poor vision and blurred vision.
Boating in boats and vessels close to the shore is beneficial for leprosy, dropsy, sakta, cooling of the stomach and bloating. If [the patient] from swaying feels sick, and then he calms down, then this is good for the stomach.
Sailing on ships on the high seas has a stronger effect on the eradication of these diseases due to the fact that the soul [of the patient] experiences either joy or sorrow.
As for the digestive organs, their exercise is subordinate to the physical exercises of the whole body. Vision exercise is done by peering closely at small objects, and from time to time casting a cursory glance at the hills. Hearing should be practiced by listening to unsharp sounds, and less often - strong sounds.
There are special exercises for each organ, which we will mention [below], in connection with the preservation of the health of each organ separately in the Book on particular [diseases].
It is advisable that the practitioner protect his weak organs from strenuous movement.
[Exercises] should depend on [the state of the organs], for example, a person suffering from an expansion of veins in his legs should engage in such types of exercises in which there are not many, but few movements of the legs; he must transfer all movements to the upper part of the body, such as the neck, head and arms, so that the effect of the exercise on the legs comes from the upper part [of the body].
Exercise should be light for a weak body, and strong for a strong.
Know that each organ has its own special exercises, for example, the eye is practiced by gazing at small [objects], the throat - by gradually strengthening the voice; there are exercises also for teeth and ears, which [we will say] about in their place.
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