Licensed books on medicine
<< Previous || Next >> |
The esophagus sometimes has various disorders of nature, weakening it [the ability] to perform its action, that is, swallowing. All sorts of diseases of the instrument and diseases of complicity occur in it, in which tumors are formed hot, cold and hard, from diseases of the instrument blockages most often occur in it; [they occur] either due to external pressure, [outgoing] from a displaced vertebra or from a tumor in an adjacent organ, or due to swelling of the esophagus itself or the muscle that holds it [upright]. The complications that occur in the esophagus include bleeding and hemorrhage [due to rupture of the vessel].
Narrowing the throat and difficulty swallowing
The narrowing of the pharynx occurs either from a cause [embedded] in the esophagus itself, or from a cause embedded in a neighboring [organ]. As for the cause in the esophagus itself, it is either a tumor, or excessive dryness [of the esophagus], or the drying of fluids in it due to fever or other causes. Or [this happens] due to some kind of extreme disorder of nature and the decline and weakening of forces, especially at the end of acute, malignant, terrible diseases, as well as other diseases. And the reason in the neighboring organ is either the pressure of something pressing, for example, a tumor in the muscles of the larynx, as happens with angina and other diseases, sometimes it is also accompanied by shortness of breath, or [tumor] in the organs of the neck, or deviation of the vertebra inside, or the winds that surround the esophagus and put pressure on it, or cramps or cousins that are about to come or have already come; [narrowing of the pharynx] often precedes rigor mortis or cousinus. One of our friends felt the difficulty of swallowing, because something unknown was stuck in the throat. This caused a semblance of suffocation, and [the patient] was attacked by nausea. He spewed out many worms that looked like snakes, and after their eruption it became easy to swallow, asphyxiation, and the patient realized that the reason for all this was the worms stuck in the throat.
If the vertebrae are the cause, then this is indicated by an increase in the narrowing of the [pharynx], when the [patient] is lying on his back, and when swallowing, pain is felt near the shifted vertebra. And if the cause is a weakening disorder of nature, this is indicated by slowness and lethargy [swallowing] with low speed [of food passing all the way] and the absence of pain, unless, of course, [disorder of nature] occurred in any part of the esophagus that contributes to [swallowing]. Then the esophagus narrows in this place, and the [patient] feels that the swallowed [food] is stuck there.
If the cause is a tumor, then the esophagus narrows close to it, and it causes pain in this place; with a hot tumor, in most cases, the case is not complete without fever, although it is most often not very strong. If the tumor is hot, heat and thirst also indicate this, and when the tumor is not hot, there is no fever. Sometimes [the reason for the narrowing of the pharynx] is an abscess, and it is not so hot. Then a slight pain is felt and at times there is tremendous chills and fever. Often [a tumor] gains pus and erupts, and [the patient] vomits pus; [phenomena] caused by the tumor then go away and the disease turns into an ulcer. The difficulty in swallowing, preceding cousinus and rigor mortis, is indicated by all the mentioned signs.
If the cause is a tumor or displacement [of the vertebra], then the treatment is to cure these diseases. When the cause is a disorder of nature, that is, [feeling] flaming, burning and heat in the shell of the mouth, it should be imposed [on the area] between the shoulder blades of the cake from cold squeezed juices and medicines [or] give them slurp and drink acidic arches and the like. If the disease occurred from coldness [nature], and this happens most often, then it is necessary to treat with warming medicinal dressings used in the treatment of a cold stomach, oils and rubbing, mentioned [in the corresponding paragraph], as well as balsam oil, radish oil, oil with musk and the like [oils. Impose] dressings with a beaver stream, ushak, myrrh, chandra vulgaris and similar medicines; a single beaver stream dressing [also] helps. And if the reason is the moisture of nature, which greatly loosens the esophagus - this is recognized by complicity [in the disease] of the shell of the mouth and tongue - then they use fragrant medicines with an astringent and warming property, having previously cleaned and corrected the stomach, if necessary.
Such, for example, fried anise, both Bahman, sumbul, backgammon, Indian sadj, frankincense and its powder, and myrrh. If you need to add stronger warming and cold binders [substances] to these medicines in order to ease the coldness of cold and heavily drying astringent medicines, such as roses, pomegranate flowers, and the like, warming them, then they do so; in my opinion, smelly ferula is very useful in this disease. If the cause is dryness [of nature], then they do the opposite and apply moisturizing, balanced by nature medications for licking, soft-boiled eggs, fat, butter, bone marrow and treat [the whole] body and stomach; the fact is that the nature of the esophagus in most cases follows the nature of the mouth of the stomach.
Tumors of the esophagus
They are hot, phlegmonic and erysipelas, as well as mucous, cold or hard. In most cases, these tumors have difficulty ripening and are punctured.
The tumor is indicated by pain when swallowing and not when swallowing, extending to the back of the head, and narrowing of the pharynx. With a hot tumor, mild fever sometimes occurs; often it only attacks from time to time, like a one-day fever, sometimes accompanied by tremendous chills. With [such a tumor] there is intense thirst and fever; when the tumor matures, the chills intensify, and after opening the tumor, the patient vomits pus. If the tumor is not hot, then the pharynx [also] narrows, as with a hot tumor, but there is neither heat, nor fever, nor thirst. Treatment: The medicines for this disease include medicines for drinking and medicines that are applied outside; when using drugs from the outside, they should be placed between the shoulder blades. These medicines should be distracting and astringent, made from odorous herbs and fruits, by analogy with [medicines] used in the treatment of tumors of the stomach; to them are added, for example, Ushak, Bdellya, Melilotus officinalis and Nabatean resin, without canceling astringents, as well as fat. If this does not work and it is necessary to cause greater resorption, and the tumor is solid in the base, then strongly dissolving agents should be added, such as laurel berries, salivonogon, wild caraway seeds, aristolochia, "violet root", balm. Sometimes it is necessary to use drugs that help open the [tumor], in the form of dressings, for example, mustard, tapsia and other drugs mentioned in the paragraph on abscesses in the chest and lungs, up to pigeon feces and the like.
As for medicines for drinking, in the treatment of hot tumors, they should be prepared for licking drugs so that they pass through the sore spot constantly and little by little. In the beginning it should be medicines, for example, from lentils and bamboo nodules, as well as from mucilage of plantain, mucilage of garden purslane, pumpkin juice and the like. Then they move on to the same medicines with an admixture of distracting and dissolving substances, in which a little figs, fennel juice and chamomile are added, and then they add and put dates and fenugreek there. They also use distracting stews, for example, [stews] made from barley flour and lentils and acidified with substances known to you or not acidified. When the tumor begins to ripen, prescribe a stew of milk, bran with sweet almond oil and sugar; they also put, for example, flaxseed and the like, and then add flour from Wicky lentils and fig flour from chickpeas. Bringing the tumor to an autopsy, it is necessary to give the stews the strength of the blue rhizome, bitter almonds, chandra and a small amount of mustard, dates and figs.
Treatment of cold tumors in the esophagus.
What is said about cold tumors of the stomach is taken into account, and medications are used that soften and cause maturation. Of the internal remedies, these are, for example, medicines for licking and stew, which we mentioned as causing ripening, that is, [stews of] vetch flour and lentil flour and barley flour, [spiced with] honey and reinforced with licorice root, rhizome rhizome, and other [medicines] . And outside [we apply] the medicinal dressings referred to by us that cause ripening, which [composition] includes fenugreek, chamomile, medicinal sweet clover, bdellium, turpentine gum, ushak, "violet root" and the strength of incense [medicines]. If the tumor begins to suppurate and becomes hot, do as described in the previous paragraph, and take into account what is said in the paragraph about tumors of the stomach.
| << Previous || Next >> |
| = Skip to textbook content = |
- Esophageal diseases
1. What symptom is most often observed in diseases of the esophagus? Regurgitation. 2. What is the difference between regurgitation and reflux? Regurgitation is the passive, retrograde movement of swallowed food to the upper sphincter of the esophagus; as a rule, food does not have time to get into the stomach. Most often, regurgitation occurs as a result of a violation of the motility of the esophagus, esophageal obstruction or asynchronous
- Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma of the esophagus
There is no reliable data on the incidence of adenocarcinoma with Barrett's esophagus, but it is proved that the risk of the disease increases in this case by 20-40 times. Presumably, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are similar to those in colon cancer - chronic damage to the epithelium and cell proliferation lead to genetic rearrangements and, ultimately, to the neoplastic process.
- Esophageal stricture
- narrowing of the esophagus associated with congenital or acquired factors Classification of cicatricial narrowing of the esophagus (G. L. Ratner, VI Belokonev, 1982) By etiology: burns with acids, alkalis, other burns By the time of obstruction: early (3-4 weeks), late (later than 1 month) According to the mechanism of development and clinical manifestations: A. Functional obstruction of the esophagus 1.
- Esophagus DIVERTICULES
- blindly ending process or protrusion of the organ. LINKER DIVERTICULES - localized along the back wall of the pharynx and esophagus. Classification of diverticulums of the esophagus, diverticulitis (according to Yusbasic, 1961) By localization: 1. Pharyngo-esophagic (Tsenker), 2. Bifurcation. 3. Epiphrenal. Largest diverticulum: Stage I - protrusion of the mucous membrane of the esophagus
- Esophagus (problems)
The esophagus is the part of the digestive tract between the larynx and the stomach. The esophagus passes through the neck, chest and diaphragm. The following diseases are characteristic of it; DIVERTICULITIS, HERNIA, OR CONGENITAL DEFECTS. Pain in the esophagus can be caused by a foreign object in it or the sensation that a foreign object is in it. Since the esophagus is the beginning of the digestive tract,
The esophagus (esophagus) is a cylindrical tube 25-30 cm long that connects the pharynx to the stomach. It begins at the level of the VI cervical vertebra, passes through the chest cavity, diaphragm and flows into the stomach to the left of the X-XI thoracic vertebra. There are three parts of the esophagus: cervical, thoracic and abdominal. The cervical part is located between the trachea and the spine at the level of the VI cervical and up to the II thoracic
- Esophagus Features
The esophagus in young children has a fusiform shape, it is narrow and short. In a newborn, its length is only 10 cm, in children in 1 year of life - 12 cm, in 10 years - 18 cm. Its width, respectively, is 7 years old - 8 mm, at 12 years old - 15 mm. There are no glands on the mucous membrane of the esophagus. It has thin walls, poor development of muscle and elastic tissues, and is well supplied with blood.
- Benign Tumors of the Esophagus
Classification 1. Solitary myomyomas. - acquired neoplasia. 2. Nodose-multiple myomas. 3. Common leiomyomatosis 4. Polyps: adenomas, lipomas, etc. 5. Cysts. Diagnostic criteria Dysphagia, dyspepsia; pain along the esophagus. Examples of diagnosis: 1. Solitary myoma of the esophagus. 2. Knotty-multiple esophageal myomas. 3.
- Peptic ulcer of the esophagus
- A variety of esophagitis, often combined with cholelithiasis and gastroduodenal ulceration, accompanied by cardia insufficiency, due to the cup of the entire hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm. Diagnostic criteria 1) Pain behind the sternum, worse after eating, when swallowing, in a prone position; 2) dysphagia; 3) heartburn, belching, regurgitation of gastric contents; 4) complications:
The normal esophagus is a hollow, well-stretched muscle tube extending from level VI of the cervical vertebra to level XI or XII of the thoracic vertebrae. These levels correspond to the transition of the pharynx to the esophagus and esophageal-gastric connection. In newborns, the esophagus has a length of 10-12 cm, and in adults - 23-25 cm. There are three anatomical narrowing of the esophagus, which lasts for
- Esophageal injury
The most common cause of esophageal injury is foreign bodies, as well as damage caused by instruments during esophagoscopy for various purposes, including removal of a foreign body. Instrumental damage to the esophagus is also described with its bougieurage, cardiodilation, intubation and insertion of the probe. Other causes, such as compression and injury to the neck and chest
- Clinical anatomy and topography of the esophagus
The esophagus (oesophagus) is a continuation of the pharynx from the level of the lower edge of the cricoid cartilage (VI cervical vertebra). The esophagus passes into the stomach at the level of the 11th thoracic vertebra. The esophagus is a tube flattened in the anteroposterior direction 24-25 cm long. Three sections are distinguished in the esophagus: 1. Cervical. 2. Thoracic. 3. The abdominal. In the cervical and early thoracic
- Blockage of the esophagus
Most often found in kittens, which during the game can swallow plastic or rubber toys or their pieces. In adult cats, blockage of the esophagus is extremely rare, usually due to excessively greedy eating of food. Symptoms: the first signs of an esophageal blockage are restless behavior, the cat twists its head, twitches, scratches its mouth, coughs, can be observed
- Esophageal atresia
DEFINITION Atresia of the esophagus is a malformation in which the proximal and distal ends of the esophagus do not communicate with each other. CODE ICD-Q39.0 Atresia of the esophagus without fistula. Q39.1 Atresia of esophagus with tracheoesophageal fistula. Q39.2 Congenital tracheoesophageal fistula without atresia EPIDEMIOLOGY Among newborns with esophageal atresia, about 30% are premature. CLASSIFICATION Accepted
- Clinical anatomy of the esophagus
The esophagus - one of the most important organs of the digestive system, is a natural continuation of the pharynx, connecting it to the stomach. It is a smooth, stretching fibro-muscular mucous tube, oblate in the anteroposterior direction. The esophagus begins behind the cricoid cartilage at its lower edge, which corresponds to level VI-VII of the cervical vertebrae and ends at the cardia
- Esophagus research methods
Along with the well-known subjective methods of research (clarification of the circumstances of the development of a pathological condition, analysis of complaints, etc.), in the study of the esophagus, the most significant are two methods of objective research: radiation (radiological) and esophagoscopic. The main indication for the study of the esophagus is a violation of its function - i.e. certain violations
- Esophageal dysfunction
Major locomotor disorders affecting the esophagus include achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, and scleroderma. Achalasia is characterized by loss of inhibitory nervous regulation of the smooth muscles of the esophagus and NPS. Cholinergic regulation usually remains normal. Diagnosis is facilitated by data on the complete loss of peristalsis, combined with insufficient relaxation of the lower esophagus
Damage to the esophagus, complicated by perforation of its wall, is a severe form of trauma to the upper sections of the digestive canal. Isolated wounds of the esophagus are extremely rare. Pathogenesis. For any perforating wounds of the esophagus, there is a certain pattern: continuous flow through the wound opening from the organ into the fiber of the mediastinum of air, saliva, and in case of vomiting and gastric
- Esophageal carcinoma
The two main types of tumors of the esophagus - squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma - have different etiologies and their own course, therefore, should be considered separately. The unequal incidence of squamous cell carcinoma in different countries has long puzzled scientists. It is believed that differences in the frequency of its occurrence depend on the uneven action of one or more