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Session 3 Theme: DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICINE IN RUSSIA IN THE EPOCH OF DEVELOPED THEODALISM (XVIII CENTURY)

Targets and goals:

1. To characterize the changes that have taken place in the socio-economic situation of Russia and the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries as conditions for the accelerated development of medicine.

2. To consider the formation of medicine as a system within its sections.

3. To determine the emergence of objective prerequisites for the formation of professional assistance to the population. The organization of medical care in Russia in the XVIII century.

4. To show the achievements of advanced scientific materialistic thought in the works of M.V. Lomonosov and its influence on medical theory and practice.

5. To reveal the progressive, progressive nature of the development of the most important areas of medical science in Russia in the 18th century

The logical structure and main elements of the lesson:

Socio-economic changes in the country. The reforms of Peter I. The role of medical education in the development of medicine in Russia. Establishment of permanent military hospitals and the opening of the first hospital school in Moscow (1707). The role of N. Bidloo in the training of Russian doctors. Scientific and practical nature of teaching. Education at the bedside (hospital wards). "General Regulations on Hospitals" (1735). The opening of the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg (1725) and Moscow University (1755) with the Faculty of Medicine (1764). The transformation of the central health authorities: Medical Office (1716), Medical Board (1763). The emergence of factory hospitals. Introduction of posts of city doctors and provincial doctors. The creation of medical boards.

Baheraht: measures to combat scurvy in the fleet.

The influence of M. V. Lomonosov on the development of natural science and medicine. Letter "On the propagation and preservation of the Russian people" (1761). The struggle of Russian scientists for the independent development of domestic medicine.

The main achievements of the national medicine of the XVIII century. S. G. Zybelin - the first national professor of the Medical Faculty of Moscow University. His work "The word about the causes of the internal union of the parts among themselves" (1768). N. M. Maksimovich-Ambodik - the author of the first Russian original textbook on obstetrics "The Art of Survival or the Science of the Babis Case" (1768), the author of terminological dictionaries.

D.S. Samoilovich - the founder of Russian epidemiology. His work "A brief description of the microscopic studies of the essence of the ulcer poison" (1784, 1792). A.M. Shumlyansky, his dissertation "On the structure of the kidneys" (1782). M.M. Terekhovsky, his dissertation "On Linney's filling chaos" (1775).

Measures to combat epidemics in Russia: smallpox, plague, anthrax. Introduction of variolation, "smallpox houses" in Moscow and St. Petersburg. The main features of the development of medicine in Russia in the XVIII century.

test questions

1. Definition of the concept "medicine", "system of medicine".

2. Sections of the "system of medicine".

3. Characteristics of the political, social, economic and cultural development of Russia in the XVIII century.

4. The reforms of Peter I and the formation of professional medicine in Russia.

5. The organization of medical care in Russia in the XVIII century.

6. Management of medical affairs in Russia in the XVIII century (PZ Kondoidi). General Regulations

7. Hospital schools and their role in the training of medical personnel. Nikolai Bidloo.

8. The contribution of domestic scientists to the development of medical science and practice (D.Samoilovich, AMShumlyansky, NMMaksimovich-Ambodik, SGZybelin, K.I. Shchepin, etc.).

Literature for the lesson:

1. Sorokina TS History of Medicine. - M.: Academy, 2004.

2. Zabludovsky E.P. History of Medicine. - M., 1981.

3. Zheleznikova L.I., Kolyado E.V., Rumor E.U. Study guide on the history of medicine / ed. V.B. Kolado. - Barnaul: GOU VPO AGMU Roszdrava. - 2010.

Topics for reports:

1. S.G. Zybelin - the value of his scientific and practical activities for the development of domestic medicine.

REPORT PLAN:

1. Information from the biography of the scientist.

2. The development of scientific general theoretical foundations of medical science.

3. The contribution of SG Zybelin in the development of therapy, pediatrics and hygiene in Russia.

Semen Gerasimovich Zybelin (1735-1802) - an outstanding Russian doctor of the XVIII century. After graduating from the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, S.G. Zybelin among the best students of the Academy in 1755 was recommended for admission to the students of Moscow University.

For 3 years, he has studied general education subjects: philosophy, literature, history, physics, logic, metaphysics. In 1758 he was sent to Petersburg, to the University of the Academy of Sciences, where he worked under the direct supervision of M.V. Lomonosov, whose materialistic views had a great influence on S.G. Zybelina.

In 1759 S.G. Zybelin went abroad to continue his education. In Leiden (Holland), he defended his thesis for the degree of doctor of medicine on the topic "On the natural healing soaps extracted from the three kingdoms of nature."

Returning in 1765 to his homeland, S.G. Zybelin was approved as a professor at Moscow University at the Faculty of Medicine, where he worked for 36 years, reading theoretical and practical medicine, anatomy, surgery and chemistry. Since 1768 S.G. Zybelin was one of the first to give lectures in Russian.

The scientist devoted his works to the most important problems of medicine: the causes of the disease, the "addition" of the human body and its role in the prevention, course and treatment of diseases, the requirements for educating and preserving people's health. In the views of S.G. Zybelina reflected his materialistic, natural science approach to understanding health and disease. In them, the materialistic ideas of M.V. Lomonosov, his philosophical and scientific views on the essence of natural phenomena. Like MV Lomonosov, S.G. Zybelin believed that the basis of knowledge should be based on observation and experience.

S.G. Zybelin pointed to the materialistic nature of the processes occurring in the body, the unity of man with the world, his subordination to the laws of nature. In the prevention of diseases, he attached great importance to the education of man, instilling from childhood the rational habits of a healthy lifestyle, the basics of rational behavior. Much attention S.G. Zybelin devoted to the issues of home hygiene, feeding and caring for children, and developing their mental abilities. As a general practitioner, S.G. Zybelin proclaimed the principle of individualized treatment, which was based on the statement: "... each person has his own peculiar, inherent addition." The main cause of diseases is S.G. Zybelin considered the influence of adverse conditions of external and internal environment.

LITERATURE:

1. B.M.E. - M., 1978. - T. 8. - p. 528.

2. Belov S.I. The outstanding figure of domestic medicine S.G. Zybelin. Soviet medicine, 1986. - №5. - pp. 119-121.

3. Zakharov V.P. The first professor of Moscow University S.G. Zybelin. // Paramedic and midwife, 1986. - №12. C35-38.

4. Multanovsky MP History of Medicine. - M.: Medgiz. 1961. - p. 158-160.

2. D.S. Samoilovich - the founder of the national epidemiology.

REPORT PLAN:

1. Information from the biography of the scientist.

2. The worldview of the scientist.

3. His view on the causes of epidemics.

4. D.S. Samoilovich in the fight against plague epidemics in Russia.

5. Teaching D.S. Samoilovich about the causative agent of the plague, ways of transmission of the infectious principle, anti-epidemic measures, description of the clinical form of the plague, treatment methods and prevention through variolation.

6. D.S. Samoylovich about the ethics of the doctor.

7. Scientific value of D.S. Samoylovich for approval in domestic and world medicine views on the essence of the epidemic process.

Danilo Samoylovich Samoylovich (1744-1805) is a military doctor, an eminent scientist, founder of the national epidemiology, one of the first representatives of the natural science approach to the study of the patient and the disease. In 1761 he entered the St. Petersburg Admiralty Hospital as a student, after which he worked as a doctor in a regiment and hospitals. In 1780, in Leiden he defended his thesis for the degree of Doctor of Medicine "Comparison of symphysiotomy with cesarean section". In 1784 he worked in the south of the country to fight epidemics. In 1769-1774 D.S. Samoilovich participated in campaigns and battles of the Russian-Turkish war. In 1788-1790 put forward and implemented the idea of ​​a gradual, phased treatment of seriously ill patients. In recent years, he served as chief of quarantines and hospitals.

The main scientific works of D.S. Samoilovich devoted to the plague, the fight with which he took the most active part. In the study of the plague D.S. Samoylovich introduced a lot of new things, proving its contagiousness, established a hidden period (up to 16 days) and indicated signs of recognition of the disease.
He developed methods for the treatment and prevention of this disease.

D.S.'s life Samoilovich - a vivid example of the fight against conservatives and bureaucrats, the dominance of foreigners in medicine. Love for the motherland helped him overcome all obstacles. At the end of the life of D.S. Samoilovich wrote: “For all my life, there is nothing more desirable for me than to contribute to the public good, and this my zeal is a duty obligating me to pay back to my fatherland.”

He was a member of many foreign academies.

LITERATURE:

1. B.M.E. - M., 1976. - T.4.

2. Blinkin S.A. In the fight against infections M., 1971.

3. Vayndrakh G.M. The feats of Russian doctors. From the history of the fight against infectious diseases. - M., 1959.

4. Glazer G. Dramatic medicine: Experiences of doctors on themselves. - M .: Young Guard, 1962. - 208 pp., Ill.

5. Samoilovich DS: To the 180th anniversary of the death / A.F. Kiselev, A.V. Stadnichenko, A.I. Malikov. Soviet health care. 1984, No. 9. - pp. 52-53.

6. Fedorovsky G. Sherenga great physicians. - Warsaw, 1972.

3. N.M. Maksimovich-Ambodik - an outstanding domestic obstetrician-gynecologist.

REPORT PLAN:

1. Brief biographical note.

2. The contribution of the scientist to the development of obstetrics in Russia.

3. The value of his works for the subsequent development of this science in our country.

> NESTOR MAKSIMOVICH MAKSIMOVICH-AMBODIK (1744-1812) - received a medical education at a hospital school in St. Petersburg, then at the University of Strasbourg, where in 1775 he defended his doctoral dissertation. In 1776-1779 conducted practical and teaching work in obstetrics at the St. Petersburg Admiralty Hospital, then for 2 years - at the Kronstadt Hospital taught physiology, surgery and pharmacology. From 1781 to 1800 in the midwife, where midwives were trained, he taught obstetrics in Russian. In 1784-1786 In Russian, he published the first scientific guide, “The Art of Povivania or the Science of the Babi Case,” which, by its completeness, science, modernity, and originality, was considered the best tool for doctors and midwives until the mid-19th century. N.M. Maksimovich-Ambodik used obstetric forceps, and when teaching practical obstetrics he introduced a phantom.

In his book, N.M. Maksimovich-Ambodik paid great attention to the care of young children, their upbringing, and gave rational advice about the benefits of feeding with breast milk, freshly made cereals, about airing the rooms, about children's clothing, and child dentistry. Much space in the manual is given to the description of diseases such as thrush, cleft lip, defects of the frenulum of the tongue. The author considered in detail the issues of eruption and tooth loss. In the treatment of hare lips N.M. Maksimovich-Ambodik suggested surgery. Enough, the author outlined the issues of nutrition of women during pregnancy, oral disease in this period. He described dental diseases such as pulpitis and gum disease. Referring to the etiology and pathogenesis of pulpitis, the scientist viewed them as irritation of sensitive nerve endings located in dental tissues.

Treatment of a toothache, according to the author, can be local and general, depending on the reasons causing it. As a general treatment, he proposed laxative salts, diverting agents; with local treatment, in the presence of a cavity, recommended the use of cinnamon, camphor and clove oils, etc.

An important role belongs to N.M. Maksimovich-Ambodika in the development of medical terminology.

LITERATURE:

1. BME. M., 1974 - T.1. Pp. 327-328.

2. Borodin N.K. To the biography of N.M. Maksimovich-Ambodik. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1982, №8. - p. 60-61.

3. Danilishina E.I., Obysova E.S. N.M. Maksimovich-Ambodik. - M .: Medicine, 1976.

4. Dmitriev V.G. The Science of the Babish Work and its author. Paramedic and midwife, 1984, №2. - p. 50-51.

5. Multanovsky MP History of Medicine. - M.: Medgiz, 1961. - S. 160-162.



4. M.V. Lomonosov is an outstanding representative of natural science materialism of the 18th century.

REPORT PLAN:

1. Information from the biography of the scientist.

2. The philosophical views of the scientist and his criticism of idealistic and metaphysical explanations of nature.

3. The role of chemistry in the understanding of M.V. Lomonosov, for medicine.

4. Significance for the history of medicine of the letter M.V. Lomonosov to Count I.I. Shuvalov "On the reproduction and preservation of the Russian people."

LITERATURE:

1. B.M.E. M., 1980. - T.13.

2. Grombach S.M. Questions of medicine in the writings of MV Lomonosov. - M., 1961.

3. Zabludovsky MD The reasoning of the preservation and reproduction of the Russian people M.V. Lomonosov / Pediatrics, 1962. - №3. - p. 74-81.

4. Multanovsky MP History of Medicine. - M.: Medgiz, 1961. - p. 148-1151.

5. Chikin S.Ya. Problems of medicine in the writings of M.V. Lomonosov / Soviet Health, 1991. - №4. - pp. 73-77.

5. A.M. Shumlyansky and his contribution to experimental medicine.

REPORT PLAN:

1. Brief biographical data.

2. The contribution of A.M. Shumlyansky in the development of anatomical research.

3. A.M. Shumlyansky and experimental medicine in Russia in the XVIII century.

4. The value of scientific research A.M. Shumlyansky for medical science.

ALEXANDER MIKHAYLOVICH SHUMLYANSKY (1748-1795) - famous Russian doctor. In 1776 he graduated from hospital school at the St. Petersburg Admiralty Hospital, and in 1782 - the Medical Faculty of the University of Strasbourg, after which he defended his thesis "On the structure of the kidneys." In 1785-1786 A.M. Shumlyansky studied abroad the organization of the medical education system, and on his return home he was engaged in teaching therapy, obstetrics and pathological anatomy at a medical-surgical school in Moscow.

Along with K. Wolf and M. Terekhovsky, A.M. Shumlyansky was the founder of national histology. In his dissertation, he was 60 years before V. Bowman described the features of the histological structure of the kidney: convoluted tubules, vascular glomeruli, a capsule surrounding the glomerulus (Shumlyansky-Bowman capsule).

Scientists have proposed an original method of injection of the urinary tubules and blood vessels of the kidneys.

A.M. Shumlyansky was actively involved in the development of a project to transform hospital schools into medical-surgical schools.

LITERATURE:

1. BME. - ed. 2.-T. -34. - pp. 1086-1087.

2. Multanovsky MP History of Medicine. - M.: Medgiz, 1961. - p. 162-163; M.: 1967. - P. 114-115.

6. F.P. Haaz is a doctor, humanist and organizer of medical care.

REPORT PLAN:

1. Information from the biography of the scientist.

2. The contribution of F.P. Gas Research in the study of therapeutic mineral sources of the Caucasus.

3. F.P. Haaz - the organizer of medical care in Moscow.

4. The value of the activities of Haas F.P. in the development of domestic medicine.

LITERATURE:

1. Arkhangelsk G.V. Moscow doctor-humanist, Fedor Petrovich Haaz (1780-1853) and its importance in the development of domestic medicine. Clinical medicine, 1981, V. 59, No. 2. - p. 118-120.

2. N.N. Blokhin Fedor Petrovich Haaz - the organizer of medical care in Moscow (1780-1853) // Soviet health care. - 1989. - №7. - p. 66-69.

3. Kireev PM. Fedor Petrovich Gaaz: (On the 200th anniversary of his birth). - Owls. Medicine, 1981. - №2. - pp. 116-119.

4. Kotelnikov V.P. F.P. Haaz: To the 200th anniversary of his birth. Clinical medicine, 1982., Vol. 60, No. 7, p. 115-117.

5. Mirsky MB, N. Glokhin The scientific contribution of Dr. Haas / / Problems of social gig. health and medical history. - 2004, №1. - p. 49.

6. Okudzhava B. “The Haas has no refusal”: (about the humanist physician FP Gaase. 1780-1853). Science and life. 1980, No. 2, p. 130-137.

7. Fokina E.N. F.P.Gaaz and his research on the study of therapeutic mineral sources of the Caucasus.

7. Hospital schools in Russia in the XVIII century.

1. Kolyvano-Resurrection Hospital School. Encyclopedia of the Altai Territory. - Barnaul. 1992.- T.2. - P.180-181.

2. Mirsky M.B. Moscow Hospital School / Soviet Healthcare. - 1990. - №1. - P.71-74.

3. Palkin B.N. Russian hospital schools of the XVIII century. - M., 1954.

ADDITIONAL TOPICS OF REPORTS TO THE SESSION:

Nikolai Bidloo - a contribution to the organization of the first hospital school in Russia.

1. P.Z. Kondoidi - the organizer of the medical business in Russia.

2. K.I. Shchepin and his contribution to the development of domestic medicine.

3. Andrei Gavrilovich Baheraht and his monograph “Practical reasoning about scurvy disease”.

4. G. Burgav - an outstanding clinician.

5. The reforms of Peter I.
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Session 3 Theme: DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICINE IN RUSSIA IN THE EPOCH OF DEVELOPED THEODALISM (XVIII CENTURY)

  1. Session 2 Theme: MEDICINE IN RUSSIA IN THE EPOCH OF FEODALISM. DOCTORS IN KIEV RUSSIA (IX-XIII cc.) AND IN MOSCOW STATE (XV-XVII cc.)
    Aims and objectives: 1. To show the main sources of culture and medicine of Kievan Rus (IX-XIII): the culture of ancient tribes, Eastern Slavs and Byzantium. Reveal the nature of medical practice. Familiarize yourself with the preparation of healers. The organization of medical care, an arsenal of tools for its implementation. 2. To identify the most important directions of development of medicine in the Moscow State (XV - XVII centuries), the system
  2. Session 8 Theme: DEVELOPMENT OF OBSTETRICS AND PEDIATRICS IN RUSSIA IN THE XVIII AND XIX CENTURIES
    Aims and objectives: 1. To acquaint students with the state of obstetrics and pediatrics in Russia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. 2. To achieve clarification by students of the objective need for the development of obstetrics and pediatrics in Russia. The logical structure and the main elements of the lesson: The problem of combating child morbidity and mortality in Russia in the 18th century. The role in solving this problem of works M.V.
  3. SECTION I The development of medicine in the era of feudalism
    SECTION I The development of medicine in the era
  4. Session 4 Subject: MEDICINE IN RUSSIA OF THE FIRST HALF OF THE XIX TH CENTURY. DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSIOLOGY IN RUSSIA IN THE XIX CENTURY. THEORY OF PATHOGENESIS
    Aims and objectives: 1. To show the most important socio-economic events in the history of Russia in the first half of the nineteenth century. (Patriotic war of 1812. The uprising of the Decembrists in 1825, peasant unrest, defeat in the Crimean war, etc.). And against their background, reveal the further development of revolutionary-democratic thought in the works of A.N. Radishchev, VG Belinsky, A. Herzen, and others, and its influence and affirmation in
  5. The development of medicine in Russia in the XVIII century
    What was the name of the first public medical institution in Russia? Petersburg Admiralty Hospital -Barnaul Central Hospital + Moscow Military Land Hospital In which year the first hospital school was opened in Russia? -1725 +1707 -1710 -1741 The main method of teaching in hospital schools: -cholastic + clinical Where was opened
  6. Session 6 THE GOLDEN AGE OF CLINICAL MEDICINE IN RUSSIA
    Questions for discussion: 1. Formation of clinical medicine. The approval of the clinical method. The activities of G. Burhaave (1668 - 1738). The introduction of physical examination methods. Formation of domestic deontology. Domestic therapists: M.Ya. Mudrov, S.P. Botkin, G.A. Zakharyin. 2. Formation of surgery on a scientific basis. The doctrine of blood transfusion. Opening K. Landsteynera. Discovery and
  7. Session 6 Theme: DEVELOPMENT OF ANATOMY IN RUSSIA IN THE XIX CENTURY
    Aims and objectives: 1. To show students the problems that faced domestic scientists in this field and their contribution to the solution of anatomy problems. The logical structure and main elements of the lesson: The introduction of anatomical dissections in the teaching of medicine in Western Europe. Leiden anatomical school. F. Ruysch (1638 - 1731, Holland). Textbooks of anatomy (G. Bidloo, S. Blancard). Approaches to
  8. Session 7 DEVELOPMENT OF HYGIENE. PUBLIC AND ZEMSK MEDICINE IN RUSSIA
    Questions for discussion: 1. Development of scientific hygiene in Europe. M. Pettenkofer. The formation of professional hygiene. J. Simon., Y.P. Franc. Hygienic studies in Russia: A.P. Dobroslavin, F.F. Erisman 2. Zemstvo reform and the formation of Zemstvo medicine. Zemsky reform. Medical site. Exit and stationary systems. Achievements and results of rural medicine. Hospital case development:
  9. Session 5 Theme: DEVELOPMENT OF THERAPY IN RUSSIA IN THE XIX CENTURY
    Aims and objectives: 1. Consider the state of therapeutic discipline in the nineteenth century. Main problems: methods of examination of the patient, questions of etiology and pathogenesis. 2. To follow the development and introduction into medical practice of new methods for examining a patient and making a diagnosis. 3. To acquaint students with the functional direction of domestic therapy. Logical structure and
  10. Session 7 Theme: DEVELOPMENT OF SURGERY IN RUSSIA IN THE XIX CENTURY
    Aims and objectives: 1. Consider the main problems faced by surgeons around the world. 2. To show students the contribution of domestic scientists in solving the most important problems of surgery. 3. To trace the continuity of the works of scientists of the 19th century and modern times. The logical structure and main elements of the lesson: Four problems of surgery at the dawn of a new time: no anesthesia, wound infection
  11. Session 12 Theme: DEVELOPMENT OF HYGIENE, SOCIAL HYGIENE AND HEALTH ORGANIZATION IN THE ALTAI KRAI. FORMATION OF DOMESTIC MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH DURING THE SOVIET PERIOD. DEVELOPMENT OF THEORETICAL AND CLINICAL DISCIPLINES
    Aims and objectives: 1. To acquaint students with the development and development of health care during the Soviet period. 2. Find out the main directions of preventive medicine. 3. To acquaint students of the medical-preventive faculty with the creation of sanitary bodies of the republic. 4. Acquaintance of students with the history of the development of hygienic trends in the region. The development of social hygiene in Altai
  12. Veterinary medicine of noble Russia (XVIII century)
    For Russia, the eighteenth century was the heyday of Peter the Great's reforms. It was characterized by the strengthening of feudal-serf relations, the development of trade and industry, the organization of educational and scientific institutions. In 1725 the Academy of Sciences was opened. A university and a gymnasium were created for the training of new scientific personnel. In 1755 Moscow University was opened. AT
  13. Session 9 Theme: SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND THEORETICAL PRECONDITIONS OF FORMATION OF MEDICAL AFFAIRS IN RUSSIA IN THE XIX CENTURY. ZEMSKAYA MEDICINE
    Aims and objectives: 1. To acquaint students with the socio-political and socio-economic situation in the country. The impact on the internal situation in Russia of political events. 2. To acquaint with the state of the medical case in Russia in the second half of the 19th century. Logical structure and main elements of the lesson: Describe the socio-economic changes that occurred in Russia during
  14. Topic 8. Clinical medicine of the New Age (XVIII - early XX century)
    (4 hours) Lesson 1. Plan: 1. The study of internal diseases: the formation of a clinical method 2. Social medicine in the New History Lesson 2. Plan: 1. Medical business and medical education in Russia of the XVIII century 2. Development of medicine and medical education in Russia in the nineteenth century. Anatomy became the finally established science, the efforts of researchers were directed
  15. Theme 7. Medicine of the Modern Times: the biomedical direction (XVIII - beginning of the XX century)
    (4 hours) Lesson 1. Plan: 1. Formation of scientific anatomy 2. Development of the theory of general pathology 3. Stages of histology evolution Lesson 2. Plan: 1. Empirical and experimental microbiology 2. Advances in physiology and experimental medicine 3. Domestic medicine of the New Age In anatomy and physiology both centuries have left an indelible mark. One of the most important
  16. Physical development of socially differing populations of children and adolescents living in different territories of Russia in the first decade of the 21st century
    In the previous paragraph, the hygienic characteristics of the studied populations of children and adolescents were given and their social differences were shown. Поскольку физическое развитие рассматривается как показатель санитарно-эпидемиологического благополучия населения, можно предположить, что оно будет иметь различия в данных популяциях. Для описания и анализа показателей физического развития были выбраны
  17. Session 11 Theme: DEVELOPMENT OF HYGIENE IN THE XIX TH CENTURY
    The objectives and tasks of the lesson: 1. To acquaint students with the development possibilities of preventive medicine (hygiene); with the birth of demographic statistics. 2. Teaching hygiene. 3. Differentiation of hygienic sciences. The logical structure and the main elements of the lesson: The birth of demographic statistics: J. Grant (1620-1674. England), W. Petty (1623-1687. England). The beginnings of demography and
  18. The development of medicine and pharmacy in Russia (IX-XIX centuries.).
    The development of medicine and pharmacy in Russia (IX-XIX
  19. Тема 9. Основные аспекты развития медицины Новейшего времени (XX в.)
    (2 часа) План: 1. Успехи естествознания и медицины в XX столетии 2. Международное сотрудничество в области здравоохранения 3. Отечественная медицина и здравоохранение в Новейшее время а) 1917 – 1945 гг. б) 1945 – 1991
  20. Lesson 10 Theme: DEVELOPMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY IN THE XIX CENTURY
    Aims and objectives: 1. To achieve an understanding of the importance of the discovery of microbiology by students in terms of addressing the etiology of epidemics. 2. Continuity of discoveries of microbiology and the solution of the problem of asepsis and antisepsis. The logical structure and main elements of the lesson: The empirical period of development of microbiology (up to L. Pasteur). The history of the microscope. The first microscopic observations.
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