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Accentuations of character. Classification according to Leonard, Licko. Typological characteristic. Medical and pedagogical correction
Character accentuations are extreme versions of the norm, in which certain character traits are excessively strengthened, as a result of which selective vulnerability is revealed with respect to a certain kind of psychogenic effects with good and even increased resistance to others ...
Depending on the degree of manifestation, we identified two degrees of character accentuation: explicit and hidden (Personally, Alexandrov, 1973).
Explicit accentuation. This degree of accentuation refers to extreme variations of the norm. It is characterized by the presence of fairly permanent features of a certain type of character ...
In adolescence, character traits are often sharpened, and under the action of psychogenic factors that address the “place of least resistance,” temporary adaptation disorders and behavioral deviations can occur. When raised, the characteristics of the character remain quite pronounced, but are compensated and usually do not interfere with adaptation.
Hidden accentuation. This degree, apparently, should be attributed not to the extreme, but to the usual variants of the norm. Under ordinary, customary conditions, features of a certain type of character are poorly expressed or do not appear at all. Even with prolonged observation, many-sided contacts and detailed acquaintance with the biography, it is difficult to get a clear idea about a certain type of character. However, features of this type can clearly, sometimes unexpectedly, be revealed under the influence of those situations and mental traumas that place increased demands on "the place of least resistance." Psychogenic factors of another kind, even severe ones, not only do not cause mental disorders, but may not even reveal the type of character. If such features are revealed, this, as a rule, does not lead to a noticeable social maladjustment.
Types of accentuation
The concept of "accentuation" was introduced into psychology by K. Leonhard. His concept of "accentuated personalities" was based on the assumption of the presence of basic and additional personality traits. The main features are much smaller, but they are the core of the personality, determine its development, adaptation and mental health. With significant severity of the main features, they leave an imprint on the person as a whole, and under adverse circumstances, they can destroy the entire structure of the personality.
According to Leonhard, personality accentuation is primarily manifested in communication with other people. Therefore, evaluating the styles of communication, we can distinguish certain types of accentuation. The classification proposed by Leonhard includes the following types:
1. Hyperthymic type. He is characterized by extreme contact, talkativeness, expressive gestures, facial expressions, pantomimics. Such a person often spontaneously deviates from the original topic of conversation. He has occasional conflicts with other people due to the lack of a serious attitude towards his official and family responsibilities. People of this type are often themselves the initiators of conflicts, but are upset if others make comments to them about this.
Of the positive features that are attractive for communication partners, people of this type are characterized by energy, thirst for activity, optimism, initiative.
At the same time, they also have some repulsive features: levity, a tendency to immoral acts, heightened irritability, projecting, and not a serious enough attitude to their duties. They are difficult to tolerate the conditions of tough discipline, monotonous activity, forced loneliness.
2. Distinct type. He is characterized by low contact, laconicism, the dominant pessimistic mood. Such people are usually homebody, a noisy society, rarely come into conflict with others, lead a secluded lifestyle. They highly value those who are friends with them, and are ready to obey them.
+: seriousness, good faith, a heightened sense of justice.
-: passivity, slow thinking, slowness, individualism.
3. Cycloid (affective-labile) type. It is characterized by fairly frequent periodic mood swings, as a result of which the manner of communicating with other people also changes.
In the period of high spirits such people are sociable, and in the period of the depressed - closed.
During the elation, they behave like people with hyperthymic accentuation of character, and during a recession they behave like people with distyme accentuation.
4. Excitable type. This type is characterized by low contact in communication, slowness of verbal and non-verbal reactions. Often such people are boring and sullen, prone to rudeness and abuse, to conflicts in which they themselves are an active, provocative side. They are difficult in a team, powerful in a family.
+: In an emotionally calm state, people of this type are often conscientious, tidy, like animals and small children.
-: However, in a state of emotional arousal, they are irritable, hot-tempered, poorly control their behavior.
5. Stuck type. He is characterized by moderate sociability, tediousness, propensity for moralizing, taciturnity. In conflicts, such a person usually acts as an initiator, an active party. He seeks to achieve high performance in any business for which he undertakes, places increased demands on himself;
particularly sensitive to social justice, at the same time touchy, vulnerable, suspicious, vindictive;
sometimes overly arrogant, ambitious, jealous, makes unreasonable demands on relatives and subordinates at work.
6. Pedantic (rigid) type. A person with an accentuation of this type rarely comes into conflict, speaking in them rather passive than active side. At the service, he behaves like a bureaucrat, making many formal demands to those around him. However, he willingly gives way to other people. Sometimes he harasses his household with excessive claims for accuracy.
+: good faith, accuracy, seriousness, reliability in business,
-: formalism, boring, grumbling.
7. Anxious (timid) type. People with accentuation of this type are characterized by: low contact, timidity, self-doubt, a minor mood. They rarely come into conflict with others, playing a mostly passive role in them, seeking support and support in conflict situations.
+: friendliness, self-criticism, diligence.
-: Owing to their helplessness, they also often serve as scapegoats, targets for jokes.
8. Emotive type. These people prefer to communicate in a narrow circle of the elect, with whom good contacts are established, which they understand “from half a word”. Rarely they themselves come into conflict, playing a passive role in them. Insults are carried in themselves, not "splashing" out.
+: kindness, compassion, heightened sense of duty, diligence.
-: excessive sensitivity, tearfulness.
9. Demonstrative (accentuation of crowding out) type. This type of accentuation is characterized by the ease of making contacts, the desire for leadership, the thirst for power and praise. Such a person demonstrates a high adaptability to people and at the same time a tendency to intrigue (with an external softness of the manner of communication). They annoy others with self-confidence and high claims, systematically provoke conflicts themselves, but at the same time actively defend themselves.
+: courtesy, artistry, the ability to captivate others, unusual thinking and actions.
-: selfishness, hypocrisy, boasting, shirking work.
10. Exalted type. He is characterized by high contact, talkativeness, amorousness. Such people often argue, but do not bring matters to open conflicts. In conflict situations, they are both active and passive side. Tied and attentive to friends and family.
+: altruistic, have a feeling of compassion, good taste, are bright and sincere feelings.
-: alarmism, susceptibility to momentary moods.
11. Extraverted type. Such people are distinguished by high contact, they have a lot of friends, acquaintances, they are talkative to talkative, open to any information, rarely enter into conflicts with others and usually play a passive role in them. In communicating with friends, at work and in the family, they often yield leadership to others, prefer to obey and stay in the background.
+: willingness to listen carefully to the other, to do what is asked for, diligence.
-: susceptibility to influence, levity, thoughtlessness of actions, passion for entertainment, to participate in the dissemination of gossip and rumors.
12. Introverted type. He is characterized by a very low contact, isolation, isolation from reality, a tendency to philosophizing.
Such people love loneliness; only enter into conflicts with others when attempting to unceremoniously interfere in their personal lives. They are often emotionally cool idealists who are relatively weakly attached to people.
+: restraint, the presence of strong beliefs, principles.
-: stubbornness, rigidity of thinking, stubborn upholding of their ideas. Such people all have their own point of view, which may be erroneous, differ sharply from the opinions of other people, and yet they continue to defend it, in spite of everything.
K. Leonhard singles out pedantic, or ananastic; demonstrative, or hysterical; stuck and excitable accented personality due to the predominance of certain properties of character. The second group (hyperthymic, dysthymic, anxious, emotive, affective-labile and affective-exalted personalities) is singled out according to the peculiarities of temperament. In practice, accentuated traits of character and temperament and various types of personality accentuation are often combined.
Classification of characters on the basis of accentuations by A.E. Lichko
Later, the classification of characters based on descriptions of accentuations was proposed by A. E. Licko. This classification is based on observations of adolescents. Accentuation of character, according to Licko, is an excessive strengthening of individual character traits, in which deviations in behavior of a person bordering on pathology are not exceeding the limits of the norm. Such accentuations, such as temporary states of the psyche, are most often observed in adolescence and early adolescence. Licko explains this fact as follows: “Under the action of psychogenic factors that address the“ place of least resistance, ”temporary adaptation disorders and deviations in behavior can occur” (A. Lichko, 1983). When a child grows up, the features of his character that manifested themselves in childhood, while remaining quite pronounced, lose their acuteness, but over time, they can clearly appear again (especially if a disease occurs).
The classification of character accentuations in adolescents, which Licko proposed, is as follows:
1. Hyperthymic type. Adolescents of this type are distinguished by mobility, sociability, a tendency to mischief. They always make a lot of noise in the events around them, like troubled peer companies. With good general abilities, they show restlessness, lack of discipline, learn unevenly. Their mood is always good, upbeat. With adults - parents and teachers - they often have conflicts. Such adolescents have many different hobbies, but these hobbies are usually superficial and pass quickly. Adolescents of the hypertypical type often overestimate their abilities, are too self-confident, tend to show themselves, boast, make an impression on others.
2. Cycloid type. It is characterized by increased irritability and a tendency to apathy. They prefer to be at home alone, instead of somewhere to be with their peers. They are experiencing hard even minor troubles, react to comments extremely irritatingly. Their mood periodically changes from elevated to depressed (hence the name of this type). Periods of mood swings are about two to three weeks.
3. Labile type. This type is characterized by extreme variability of mood, and often it is unpredictable. Reasons for an unexpected change in mood may turn out to be the most insignificant, for example, someone accidentally dropped a word, someone's inhospitable gaze. All of them are able to plunge into gloom and gloomy mood in the absence of any serious troubles and failures. The behavior of these teenagers depends on the momentary mood. The present and the future, according to mood, can be perceived either in light or in gloomy tones. Such adolescents, being in a depressed mood, are in dire need of help and support from those who can correct their mood, are able to distract, encourage. They understand and feel the attitude of the people around them.
4. Astheno-neurotic type. This type is characterized by increased suspiciousness and capriciousness, fatigue and irritability. Fatigue is especially common in intellectual activity.
5. Sensitive (sensitive) type. He is characterized by heightened sensitivity to everything: to that which pleases, and to that which distresses or frightens. These teenagers do not like big companies, outdoor games. They are usually shy and timid with strangers and therefore often perceived by others as closed.
They are open and sociable only with those who are familiar to them, prefer to communicate with their peers to communicate with kids and adults. They are distinguished by obedience and find great affection for their parents. In adolescence, these adolescents may have difficulty adapting to a circle of peers, as well as an “inferiority complex”. At the same time, a sense of duty is formed quite early in these same adolescents, revealing high moral requirements for themselves and the people around them. They often compensate for their weaknesses in their abilities with a choice of complex activities and heightened zeal. These teenagers are picky in finding friends and friends for themselves, find great affection in friendship, adore friends who are older than them in age.
6. Psychasthenic (anxious and suspicious) type. Such adolescents are characterized by accelerated and early intellectual development, a tendency to thinking and reasoning, to self-analysis and to assess the behavior of other people. However, they are often more strong in words than in deeds. Their self-confidence is combined with indecisiveness, and the categorical nature of judgments - with the haste of actions taken at precisely those moments when caution and prudence is required.
7. Schizoid (introverted) type. The most significant feature of this type is isolation. These teenagers are not very drawn to their peers, prefer to be alone, be in the company of adults. They often demonstrate external indifference to the people around them, lack of interest in them, poorly understand the condition of other people, their experiences, they do not know how to sympathize. Their inner world is often filled with various fantasies, any special hobbies. In the external manifestations of their feelings, they are quite restrained, not always understandable to others, especially for their peers who do not like them very much.
8. Epileptoid (inert-impulsive) type. These adolescents often cry, torment others, especially in early childhood. Such children love to torture animals, to tease the younger, to mock the helpless. In children's companies, they behave like dictators. Their typical features are cruelty, imperiousness, and selfishness. Under the conditions of a tough disciplinary regime, they often feel up to par, trying to please their superiors, to achieve certain advantages over their peers, to gain power, to establish their dictatorship over those around them.
9. Hysteroid (demonstrative) type. The main feature of this type is egocentrism, the thirst for constant attention to one’s own person. In adolescents of this type, the tendency to theatricality, posturing, and drawing is often expressed. Such children with great difficulty endure when in their presence someone praises their own comrade, when they pay more attention to others than to themselves. For them, the urgent need is the desire to attract the attention of others, to listen to his admiration and praise. These adolescents are characterized by claims to an exceptional position among peers, and in order to influence others, to attract their attention, they often act in groups as instigators and instigators. However, being unable to become real leaders and organizers of the cause, to gain informal authority, they often and quickly suffer a fiasco.
10. Unstable type. It is sometimes incorrectly described as a type of weak-willed, drifting person. Adolescents of this type exhibit increased inclination and craving for entertainment, indiscriminately, as well as to idleness and idleness. They have no serious, including professional, interests, they almost do not think at all about their future.
11. Конформный тип. Подростки данного типа демонстрируют конъюнктурное, а часто просто бездумное подчинение любым авторитетам, большинству в группе. Они обычно склонны к морализаторству и консерватизму, а их главное жизненное кредо — «быть как все». Это тип приспособленца, который ради своих собственных интересов готов предать товарища, покинуть его в трудную минуту, но, что бы он ни совершил, он всегда найдет «моральное» оправдание своему поступку, причем нередко даже не одно.
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