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Sensitivity and types of sensory impairment

Sensitivity is the body's ability to perceive irritations emanating from the environment or from its own tissues and organs.

The analyzer consists of three departments: the receptor, the conductor, and the cortical. Receptors are the terminal formations of sensitive nerve fibers that perceive changes in the body or outside it and transmit it in the form of impulses. Receptors are divided into three groups: extero-, proprio- and interoreceptors. Exteroreceptors are represented by tactile, pain and temperature, interoreceptors are located in the internal organs - chemo- and baroreceptors. Proprioreceptors are located in the muscles, ligaments, tendons and joints. Thanks to them, a person has an idea of ​​the position of his body in space. There are several types of sensitivity. Superficial combines pain, temperature and tactile sensitivity. Deep sensitivity includes vibrational, muscular-articular feeling, a sense of pressure and mass, two-dimensional spatial feeling.

There are four types of sensitivity violation: peripheral, segmental, conductor and cortical. The peripheral variant develops as a result of damage to the peripheral nerve and is located in the zone of its innervation.

The segmental variant develops as a result of damage to the posterior root or spinal ganglion in the case of deep sensitivity, in the case of superficial sensitivity - also with damage to the posterior horn or anterior gray commissure of the spinal cord.

The conduction variant of sensory disturbance occurs when the posterior or lateral cords of the brain, brain stem, thalamus, inner capsule or white subcortical substance are damaged.
This violation is characterized by a change in sensitivity below the level of damage to the pathway. The cortical variant occurs when a specific area of ​​the cerebral cortex is affected. In this case, a local loss of sensitivity is noted.

Hypesthesia - decreased sensitivity.

Hyperesthesia - increased sensitivity.

Analgesia - loss of pain sensitivity.

A single irritation can be perceived as multiple - polyesthesia.

The patient may not properly localize the irritation.

Usually he points to a symmetrical area from the opposite half of the body - alloheria. A perversion of perception may be noted - dysesthesia. Spontaneous sensations of tingling, crawling ants, constriction - paresthesia may occur. Damage to the posterior roots of the spinal cord, nerve plexuses and trunks causes the appearance of symptoms of tension. These include the symptoms of Laseg, Neri, Sikar, Mats-Kevich and Wasserman.

Laseg's symptom is the occurrence of pain along the sciatic nerve when bending the leg in the hip joint.

Neri's symptom is the occurrence of lower back pain when the head is bent forward.

Symptom Sikara - pain along the sciatic nerve with dorsiflexion of the foot. The symptom of Matskevich is pain on the front of the thigh when bending the leg in the knee joint while lying on the stomach. This symptom indicates the pathology of the femoral nerve.

Wasserman's symptom is pain on the front of the thigh when lifting an extended leg while lying on your stomach.
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Sensitivity and types of sensory impairment

  1. SENSITIVITY TYPES
    The nervous system developed in the process of the body’s interaction with the external environment. This process is dynamic, the nervous system changes and is constantly improved in phylogenesis and ontogenesis. When signals from the external and internal environment arrive, the nervous system provides supportive reactions and maintains homeostasis. A complex of afferent systems through which information is received at
  2. SENSITIVITY VIOLATION
    In the clinic, it is customary to distinguish between types and types of sensitive disorders. The following types of sensory impairment exist, which are distinguished depending on a qualitative or quantitative change in sensations. Anesthesia - the complete loss of any kind of sensitivity - is due to the fact that, due to some obstacles, the pulses do not reach the corresponding cortical paths
  3. SENSITIVITY VIOLATION
    Pain syndrome occurred in 87 patients (100%). Local soreness in the area of ​​trauma and pain symptoms accompanying spastic convulsive events were noted in 87 patients (100%); phantom pains - in 13 patients (14.9%); radicular pain - in 87 patients (100%); causalgia was observed in 17 patients (19.5%). In addition to pain, a violation of all types of sensitivity was observed below
  4. Sensitivity and its disorders
    Sensitivity is the body's ability to perceive irritations emanating from the environment or from its own tissues and organs. Teaching I.P. Pavlova on analyzers laid the foundation for a natural understanding of the nature and mechanisms of sensitivity. Each analyzer consists of a peripheral (receptor) department, a conductor part and a cortical department. Receptors - Special
  5. SENSITIVITY SYNDROMES AND SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS
    Three main types of sensitivity disorders are distinguished depending on the distribution borders: peripheral - in the area of ​​nerve innervation, segmental - in the area of ​​innervation of the segment of the spinal cord, posterior (sensitive) root or intervertebral ganglion, conductor - below the level of damage to the conductors of sensitivity in the spinal cord or brain. Depending on the level of lesions
  6. Syndromes of impaired sensory and sensory functions
    Three main types of sensitivity disorders are distinguished depending on the distribution borders: peripheral - in the area of ​​nerve innervation, segmental - in the area of ​​innervation of the segment of the spinal cord, posterior (sensitive) root or intervertebral ganglion, conductor - below the level of damage to the conductors of sensitivity in the spinal cord or brain. Depending on the level of lesions
  7. SENSITIVITY STUDY
    In the study of sensitivity, they are based on the testimony of patients in response to certain stimuli. However, the study of sensitivity in children presents great difficulties, since a child cannot always clearly differentiate irritation, correctly analyze his feelings and adequately describe them. In young children, often have to be limited to research only
  8. SENSITIVITY STUDY
    In the study of sensitivity, they are based on the testimony of patients in response to certain stimuli. However, the study of sensitivity in children presents great difficulties, since a child cannot always clearly differentiate irritation, correctly analyze his feelings and adequately describe them. In young children, often have to be limited to research only
  9. RESTORE SENSITIVITY
    When reading this section, one should take into account the fact that we are talking about the possibility of restoration of sensitivity, and not about its normalization. With anatomical damage to the spinal cord, restoration of sensitivity proceeds in a certain sequence. The first to restore surface skin sensitivity. The gradually appearing foci of skin sensitivity expand and
  10. Sensitivity
    The primary perception of all stimuli in the human body is carried out by receptors - specific cells that perceive the effects of the external and changes in the internal environment of the body. Receptors-Exteroreceptors Proprioreceptors Interoreceptors General features of the three-neuronal paths of surface and deep sensitivity • The first neuron is located in the intervertebral node.
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