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Sensitivity and types of sensitivity disorders

Sensitivity - the body's ability to perceive irritation emanating from the environment or from its own tissues and organs.

The analyzer consists of three sections: the receptor, the conductor part and the cortical department. Receptors are the terminal formations of sensory nerve fibers that perceive changes in the body or outside of it and transmit it in the form of impulses. Receptors are divided into three groups: extero-, proprio– and interoreceptors. Exteroreceptors are represented by tactile, pain and temperature, interoreceptors are located in the internal organs - chemo– and baroreceptors. Proprioceptors are located in the muscles, ligaments, tendons and joints. Thanks to them, a person has an idea of ​​the position of his body in space. There are several types of sensitivity. Surface combines pain, temperature and tactile sensitivity. Deep sensitivity includes a vibratory, muscular-articular feeling, a feeling of pressure and mass, a two-dimensional spatial feeling.

There are four options for sensitivity disorders: peripheral, segmental, conductive and cortical. The peripheral variant develops as a result of damage to the peripheral nerve and is located in the zone of its innervation.

The segmental variant develops as a result of a lesion of the posterior root or spinal ganglion in the case of deep sensitivity, in the case of surface sensitivity, also in the lesion of the horn or the anterior gray commissure of the spinal cord.

The conductive variant of the sensitivity disorder occurs when the posterior or lateral cords of the brain, brain stem, thalamus, internal capsule or white subcortical substance are damaged.
This violation is characterized by a change in sensitivity below the level of the pathway lesion. Cortical variant occurs when a lesion of a certain part of the cerebral cortex. At the same time local loss of sensitivity is noted.

Hypesthesia - reduced sensitivity.

Hyperesthesia - increased sensitivity.

Analgesia - loss of pain sensitivity.

Single irritation can be perceived as multiple - polyesthesia.

The patient may incorrectly localize the irritation.

He usually points to a symmetrical area from the opposite half of the body - allocheria. Perceptual perception may occur - dysesthesia. There may be spontaneous tingling sensations, crawling, chills - paresthesias. Affection of the posterior roots of the spinal cord, nerve plexuses and trunks causes the appearance of tension symptoms. These include the symptoms of Lasegue, Neri, Sikar, Mac-kevich and Wasserman.

The symptom of Lasegue is the occurrence of pain along the sciatic nerve when bending the leg at the hip joint.

Neri's symptom is pain in the lower back when the head is bent forward.

Sikar's symptom is pain along the sciatic nerve during dorsal flexion of the foot. Mackiewicz's symptom is pain on the front surface of the thigh when bending the leg at the knee joint while lying on the stomach. This symptom speaks of the pathology of the femoral nerve.

The symptom of Wasserman - pain on the front of the thigh when raising the extended leg in the prone position.
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Sensitivity and types of sensitivity disorders

  1. TYPES OF SENSITIVITY
    The nervous system developed in the process of interaction of the organism with the external environment. This process is dynamic, the nervous system changes and is constantly being improved in phylogenesis and ontogenesis. When signals come from the external and internal environment, the nervous system ensures the implementation of beneficial reactions and maintenance of homeostasis. at
  2. SENSITIVITY DISORDER
    In the clinic, it is customary to distinguish between types and types of sensitive disorders. There are the following types of sensitivity disorders, which are allocated depending on the qualitative or quantitative changes in sensations. Anesthesia - the complete loss of any kind of sensitivity - is due to the fact that, due to some obstacles, the impulses do not reach the corresponding cortical
  3. SENSITIVITY DISORDER
    Pain syndrome occurred in 87 patients (100%). Local morbidity in the field of injury and pain symptoms accompanying spastic convulsions was observed in 87 patients (100%); phantom pains - in 13 patients (14.9%); radicular pain - in 87 patients (100%); causalgias were observed in 17 patients (19.5%). In addition to pain, violation of all types of sensitivity was observed below
  4. Sensitivity and its violations
    Sensitivity - the body's ability to perceive irritation emanating from the environment or from its own tissues and organs. Teaching I.P. Pavlov on analyzers laid the foundation for a natural science understanding of the nature and mechanisms of sensitivity. Each analyzer consists of a peripheral (receptor) department, a conductor part, and a cortical department. Receptors - special
  5. SYNDROMES OF SENSITIVITY DISORDERS AND FUNCTIONS OF SENSITIVES
    Depending on the boundaries of distribution, there are three main types of sensitivity disorders: peripheral - in the nerve innervation zone, segmental - in the innervation zone of the spinal cord segment, posterior (sensitive) root or intervertebral ganglion, conductive - below the level of damage to the sensory conductors in the spinal cord or brain. Depending on the level of lesions
  6. Syndromes of sensitivity disorders and sensory functions
    Depending on the boundaries of distribution, there are three main types of sensitivity disorders: peripheral - in the nerve innervation zone, segmental - in the innervation zone of the spinal cord segment, posterior (sensitive) root or intervertebral ganglion, conductive - below the level of damage to the sensory conductors in the spinal cord or brain. Depending on the level of lesions
  7. RESEARCH SENSITIVITY
    In the study of sensitivity based on the testimony of patients in response to certain stimuli. However, the study of sensitivity in children presents great difficulties, since the child cannot always clearly differentiate the stimulation, correctly analyze his feelings and adequately describe them. In young children, it is often necessary to confine ourselves to researching only
  8. RESEARCH SENSITIVITY
    In the study of sensitivity based on the testimony of patients in response to certain stimuli. However, the study of sensitivity in children presents great difficulties, since the child cannot always clearly differentiate the stimulation, correctly analyze his feelings and adequately describe them. In young children, it is often necessary to confine ourselves to researching only
  9. SENSITIVITY RESTORATION
    When reading this section, one should take into account the fact that we are talking about the possibility of restoring sensitivity, and not its normalization. With anatomical damage to the spinal cord, recovery of sensitivity proceeds in a certain sequence. The surface skin sensitivity is restored first. Gradually emerging foci of skin sensitivity expand and
  10. Sensitivity
    The primary perception of all the stimuli in the human body is carried out by receptors - specific cells that perceive the effects of external and changes in the internal environment of the body. Exteroreceptor Receptors Proprioceptors Interoreceptors General features of three-neural pathways of superficial and deep sensitivity • The first neuron is located in the intervertebral node.
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