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Depression is a mental disorder, the main features of which are: a decrease in mood (hypothymia), a negative, pessimistic assessment of oneself, one’s position in the surrounding reality, one’s future.
Along with this, depression is often accompanied by inhibition, a decrease in the motivations for activity, dysfunctions in the work of many organs and systems (cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, etc.).
Depression aggravates the manifestation, aggravates the course of any physical illness and complicates its treatment. Significant difficulties are associated with the problem of depression in psychiatry, narcology.
The concept of "depression" includes a wide range of psychopathological manifestations, differing in biological structure, in the severity and duration of disorders.
In the previous classification of depressions, they stood out within the framework of mental diseases (manic-depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, psychogenia, etc.).
In accordance with the clinical manifestations, the main types of depression were determined: simple (melancholic, anxious, apathetic) and complex (depression with delusions).
Among the classic signs of depression can be identified such as anxiety, guilt, suicidal manifestations, disturbances of the diurnal rhythm (mood swings during the day with the most bad state of health in the morning and a slight improvement in the afternoon and evening), anxiety, intellectual and motor inhibition, apathy , dysphoria (gloominess, bitterness, quarreliness, demonstrative behavior and claims to others), anhedonia (loss of the sense of pleasure, inability to experience joy, pleasure, accompanying ayuscheesya feeling of mental discomfort).
According to the modern classification (ICD - 10), the main options are the course of depression: the only depressive episode, recurrent (recurrent) depression, bipolar disorders (change of depressive and manic phases), cyclothymia, dysthymia. According to the severity of depression are divided into light, moderate and severe.
In addition to the above manifestations, depressions are accompanied by general somatic symptoms: weakness, arthralgia (pain in the joints), difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, weight loss, abdominal pain, insomnia, myalgia (muscle pain), chest pain, decreased appetite, constipation, rapid urination.
Depression is one of the ever-present states of mental patients. Depression is observed in patients with oncological pathology, coronary artery disease, endocrinological diseases (diabetes mellitus, thyroid lesions), in surgical practice (pre- and postoperative depression).
A group of seasonal depressions, depressions of late age, reactive (psychogenic) depressions occurring under the adverse effects of psychosocial stress, and psychological trauma are also highlighted.
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Depression is a condition characterized by a triad of symptoms: depressed, depressed, melancholy or anxious mood, decreased mental activity and decreased motor activity. The term depression comes from the Latin word deprimo, meaning "to oppress." This triad constitutes the core of the clinical picture. Accompanied by depression can be a variety of clinical
Physical blocking This description applies to those who have PSYCHOTICAL DEPRESSION. Those who suffer from temporary emotional depression caused by adverse life circumstances or some unpleasant event, it is better to refer to the articles AGORAHOBIA, ALARM or ANXIETY. The main symptoms of depression are: loss of interest in daily activities, feeling
Depression is a mood disorder characterized by sadness and pessimism. The causes of depression are unknown, but the basis of its pharmacotherapy is the hypothesis that the manifestations of the disease are due to a deficiency of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain or dysfunction of the receptors of these mediators. With major depression, the level of cortisol in the blood is increased by 50% and its circadian rhythm is disturbed.
The manifestations of depression are very diverse and vary depending on the form of the disease. The most typical symptoms of this disorder are listed below. The most typical manifestations of depression Emotional manifestations • Sadness, suffering, depressed, depressed mood, despair. • Anxiety, feeling of internal tension, waiting for trouble. • Irritability. • Guilt feelings, ideas of self-blame. •
Cause The most common cause of depression is mental stress. Also, depression is possible due to overwork, brain injury (possibly in the past), prolonged and severe disease of internal organs, surgery, prolonged pain, poor blood supply to the brain, congenital mental impairment of the integrity of the personality. Symptoms Depressed, joyless
- Depression Scale
The questionnaire was developed for the differential diagnosis of depressive states and conditions close to depression, for screening diagnostics in mass studies and for the purpose of preliminary, pre-medical diagnostics. Test adapted by T.I. Balashova. Full testing with processing takes 20-30 minutes. The subject marks the answers on the form. Depression level (UD) is calculated using the formula: UD
- 8.1. ALARM AND DEPRESSION
Among all psychopathological syndromes encountered in somatic practice, anxiety and depression are the most common. These disorders are usually considered in a single continuum. Anxiety and depression are often combined with somatic disorders (comorbid conditions), make them more severe, prognosis. Timely treatment of them significantly optimizes internal therapy.
Depressive syndrome - a combination of melancholy mood with a decrease in mental and physical activity. Assessment of the severity of depression is within the competence of the psychiatrist, since its external signs do not always reflect the severity of the condition and the risk of possible suicide. Suicidal attempts, refusal to eat, anxious motor excitation of the patient require urgent hospitalization in
- Treatment of depression
The leading treatment for depression today is psychopharmacotherapy. Along with medications, methods of physical, phyto, and psychotherapy with elements of psychocorrection and other socio-rehabilitation methods are widely used. Psychotherapy, conducted in conjunction with medicinal treatment, (mainly aimed at correcting depressive distortion of thinking, reducing aggression,
- Depression in patients with myocardial infarction
In recent decades, it has been established that depressive and anxiety disorders increase the risk of developing MI (Todaro JF et al., 2003). In a multicenter randomized study GISSI-2, it was found that 40% of patients in the preceding 3 months before the development of MI experienced a depressed mood. Other researchers report that depression develops as a result and complication of MI (Honig A. et.
- Depression of the ST segment as a manifestation of vegetative dystonia
Other changes in the ECG caused by impaired autonomic nervous system tone should include depression of the ST segment, which is noted in hypersympathicotonia. In the differential diagnosis takes into account the characteristic clinical picture; depression of the ST segment, revealed in young people, especially women, often with concomitant tachycardia, without typical angina pectoris manifestations. This
- Depression and mania alternately (cyclothymia)
Cause Cyclothymia or other mental illnesses and disorders in relatives. Symptoms Chronic instability of mood, frequent depression, alternating with elevation of mood. Instability usually develops at a young age and takes a chronic course. First aid. Needs psychological help, self-treatment.
- Postpartum depression
Most mothers go through a specific condition in the first or second week after giving birth. They feel sad, discouraged and anxious about their ability to care for a newborn baby. In part, hormones can be blamed, as well as lack of sleep. Your body is completely exhausted by pregnancy and childbirth, making you feel as if your life is completely