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Extradural abscess

An extradural abscess usually has a contact mechanism of occurrence. The source of infection in most cases is osteoperiostitis, a carious process located in the wall of the paranasal sinus, which can occur with their chronic inflammation (frontitis, ethmoiditis, sphenoiditis). The onset of the disease is characterized by the appearance of a limited focus of inflammation in the dura mater, namely its outer leaf. Inflammation takes on the character of purulent or necrotic. The pathological process gradually progresses. Over time, a purulent lesion forms between the skull bone and the dura mater. It is usually delimited from surrounding tissues by granulation tissue and commissures. The location of the extradural abscess may be different. In the case of frontal sinusitis or ethmoiditis, a purulent lesion is located from the anterior cranial fossa. With sphenoiditis, it is located in the middle cranial fossa.

The main complaint with an extradural abscess is a headache. In some cases, it is mistaken for an exacerbation of chronic sinusitis. Often this disease proceeds without any symptoms, and its detection is random, which occurs during various operations on the paranasal sinuses.

The absence of symptoms in this case is due to the fact that the abscess is emptied into the paranasal sinus by means of a fistula. In some cases, the emptying of the abscess does not occur, and it gradually increases in volume. This increase leads to an increase in intracranial pressure and the appearance of the following symptoms: headache, nausea, vomiting, congestion in the optic disc, bradycardia.
As a result of an increase in intracranial pressure, a decrease in the olfactory tract and olfactory bulb may occur, with a violation of the olfactory function. The abducent, facial, trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, vagus nerves can also be affected. This leads to hypotension of the muscles of the face, a violation of the abduction of the eyes outside on the affected side, a decrease or complete loss of the corneal reflex, paresis of the muscles of the soft palate.

The causes of subdural abscess are various. It can develop with the passage of the extradural abscess through the dura mater, may have a hematogenous mechanism of occurrence, and may also be a complication of exacerbated chronic sinusitis.

In the subdural space, the abscess is limited by commissures of the arachnoid membrane, as well as connective tissue and glial elements. If untreated, the pathological process can spread to the entire surface of the meninges, which leads to the development of diffuse leptomengingitis. The occurrence of a subdural abscess leads to an increase in intracranial pressure.

The clinical picture is characterized by signs of involvement in the pathological process of the meninges and brain tissue. In blood tests, an increase in ESR and neutrophilic leukocytosis are noted. In the study of cerebrospinal fluid, an increase in protein and cellular elements is determined.

Treatment. Use surgical treatment of these abscesses.
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Extradural abscess

  1. Otogenic intracranial abscesses
    An extradural abscess is the accumulation of pus between the dura and the bone. It occurs as a result of the spread of the inflammatory process from the mastoid process and tympanic cavity into the cranial cavity and is localized in the middle or posterior cranial fossae. An extradural abscess is usually a complication of chronic suppurative otitis media; often observed
  2. Epidural Abscess
    Epidural abscess - an infectious process that develops between the bones of the skull and the outer leaf of the dura mater, may be accompanied by osteomyelitis. Due to the fact that the pathogen easily penetrates through the dura mater along the emissary veins, subdural empyema is often accompanied by an epidural abscess. Major causative agents The most common cause of
  3. Abscess
    Abscess (abscessus), abscess, abscess - a limited cavity filled with pus, resulting from focal purulent fusion of tissues. Etiology. The cause of abscesses is the penetration of microorganisms into tissues with damage to the skin and mucous membrane and when foreign bodies enter the tissue. They can be introduced during medical manipulations (injections, subcutaneous infusions) made
  4. Abscess
    Physical blockage An abscess is a collection of pus in one place. Distinguish between hot and cold abscesses. With a hot abscess (it occurs much more often), pus accumulates very quickly and all four signs of inflammation appear: swelling, redness, temperature and pain. A cold abscess is characterized by a slow accumulation of fluid in one place with no signs of inflammation. Emotional
    An abscess is a limited inflammation in tissues or organs, characterized by an accumulation of pus in a newly formed cavity under a dense membrane. An abscess most often occurs after any mechanical damage to the skin (for example, due to a splinter), through which pyogenic microbes (staphylococci, streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cryptococcus fungi, etc.) penetrate the skin, causing
  6. Pharyngeal abscess
    Clinical picture Pharyngeal abscess is a purulent fusion of the lymph nodes and loose tissue of the pharyngeal space. It is especially common in debilitated children under the age of 2-3 years, rarely in adults. In childhood, usually occurs after infectious diseases, acute respiratory viral infections, measles, scarlet fever. In adults, pharyngeal abscesses
  7. Abscess of the larynx
    An abscess of the larynx may be the final stage of phlegmonous laryngitis, but more often it is caused by a body injury (fish bone, etc.). An abscess occurs mainly on the lingual surface of the epiglottis or in the region of one of the arytenoid cartilages, and usually develops gradually against the background of a general inflammatory reaction of the body. Complaints boil down to pain when swallowing. 2-3 days after injury
  8. Brain Abscess
    Clinic. An abscess of the brain is a limited abscess in the brain tissue - intracerebral, or epidural, subdural. It is caused by streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, etc. Contact pathogens (otogenically determined), metastatic (pneumonia, lung abscess), bronchiectatic abscesses and abscesses arising from open craniocerebral injuries are distinguished pathogenetically.
  9. Paratonsillar abscess (paratonsillitis)
    This disease is also called phlegmonous tonsillitis. Between the capsule of the tonsil and the pharyngeal fascia, the distance between which is normally 0.5-1 cm, is located paratonsillar tissue, and behind the pharyngeal fascia, laterally, there is fiber of the parapharyngeal space. These spaces are made of fiber, the inflammation of which, and in the final stage, and abscess formation determines the clinic
  10. Pelvic abscesses
    Abscesses of the pelvic cavity are a delimited accumulation of pus in the cystic-uterine or rectal-uterine space. Such abscesses can form with purulent-inflammatory saccular masses in the appendages, as well as in the postoperative period. In this case, the resulting adhesions delimit the accumulation of pus from the free parts of the abdominal cavity. In the beginning, an inflammatory
    Lung abscess is a pathological process characterized by the formation of a limited cavity in the lung tissue as a result of its necrosis and purulent fusion. The main pathogens The development of lung abscess is primarily associated with the anaerobic flora - Bacteroides spp., F.nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus spp., P.niger - often in combination with enterobacteria (due to aspiration of the contents
  12. Brain Abscess
    A brain abscess is a capsule-limited accumulation of brain detritus, white blood cells, pus, and bacteria. The main causative agents The etiological cause of brain abscess can be bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths. Of the bacterial pathogens, the most common are vermin streptococci (S. anginosus, S. constellatus and S. intermedius), which occur in 70% of cases. AT
  13. Pharyngeal and paratonsillar abscesses
    A pharyngeal abscess develops as a result of a purulent lesion of deep pharyngeal lymph nodes and loose fiber located in the pharyngeal space. These lymph nodes are regional for the posterior sections of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, auditory tube, middle ear, nasal pharynx and palatine tonsils. A pharyngeal abscess may occur in newborns, but
  14. Paratonsillar abscess
    The clinical picture appears as a further development of paratonsillitis due to purulent fusion of paratonsillar infiltrate. It may be complicated by bleeding, the development of mediastinitis and tonsillogenic sepsis. Sore throat is worse when swallowing and opening the mouth. Eating is difficult. Body temperature rises sharply. Maxillary lymph nodes increase, become
  15. Causes of the development of brain abscess
    An abscess of the brain is a local accumulation of pus located in the tissue of the brain. Usually, an abscess of the brain occurs as a secondary disease, provided that there is an infectious focus located outside the central nervous system. Mandatory is the penetration of an infectious agent into the brain. At the same time, not one but several abscesses may exist.
  16. Abscesses and cellulitis
    Tim Hackett, DVM, MS 1. What is the difference between abscess and cellulite? An abscess is a limited accumulation of pus and decay products surrounded by dense granulation tissue. Cellulite is a diffuse inflammation of the soft tissues, while the infectious process spreads along the fascial surfaces in the subcutaneous tissue. 2. Why are subcutaneous abscesses more common in cats than in
  17. Brain abscesses. Surgery
    An abscess of the brain is a limited accumulation of pus in the substance of the brain. Most often, abscesses are intracerebral, less often epidural or subdural. Etiology and pathogenesis. The cause of brain abscess is the spread of infection caused by streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, meningococci. Often found Escherichia coli, Proteus, mixed flora. The way
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