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Extradural abscess

Extradural abscess usually has a contact mechanism of occurrence. The source of infection in most cases is osteoperiostitis, a carious process located in the wall of the paranasal sinus, which can occur during their chronic inflammation (frontal, ethmoiditis, sphenoiditis). The onset of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a limited focus of inflammation in the region of the dura mater, namely its outer leaflet. Inflammation takes on the character of purulent or necrotic. The pathological process is gradually progressing. Over time, a purulent focus forms between the skull bone and the dura mater. It is usually delimited from surrounding tissues by granulation tissue and adhesions. Localization of extradural abscess may be different. In the case of frontitis or ethmoiditis, the purulent focus is located in the anterior cranial fossa. With sphenoiditis, it is located in the middle cranial fossa.

The main complaint with extradural abscess is headache. In some cases, it is mistaken for exacerbation of chronic sinusitis. Often the disease proceeds without any symptoms, and its detection is accidental, as is the case with various operations on the paranasal sinuses.

The absence of symptoms in this case is due to the fact that the abscess is emptied into the paranasal sinus by means of a fistula. In some cases, abscess emptying does not occur, and it gradually increases in volume. This increase leads to an increase in intracranial pressure and the appearance of the following symptoms: headache, nausea, vomiting, stagnation in the optic nerve head, bradycardia.
As a result of an increase in intracranial pressure, the delivery of the olfactory tract and olfactory bulb can occur, and the olfactory function is disturbed. The abductor, facial, trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, vagus nerves can also be affected. This leads to hypotension of the facial muscles, impaired eye abstraction on the affected side, decrease or complete loss of the corneal reflex, paresis of the muscles of the soft palate.

The causes of subdural abscess are different. It can develop when an extradural abscess passes through the dura mater, it can have a hematogenous mechanism of occurrence, it can also be a complication of exacerbated chronic sinusitis.

In the subdural space, an abscess is limited to the adhesions of the arachnoid membrane, as well as connective tissue and glial elements. If untreated, the pathological process can spread to the entire surface of the meninges, which leads to the development of diffuse leptome ningitis. The occurrence of subdural abscess leads to increased intracranial pressure.

The clinical picture is characterized by signs of involvement in the pathological process of the meninges and brain tissue. Blood tests show an increase in ESR and neutrophilic leukocytosis. In the study of cerebrospinal fluid is determined by an increase in protein and cellular elements.

Treatment. Surgical treatment of these abscesses is used.
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Extradural abscess

  1. Otogenic intracranial abscesses
    Extradural abscess is called the accumulation of pus between the dura mater and bone. It occurs as a result of the spread of the inflammatory process from the mastoid process and the tympanic cavity into the cranial cavity and is localized in the middle or in the posterior cranial fossa. Extradural abscess is usually a complication of chronic suppurative otitis media; often observed in this case
    Epidural abscess - an infectious process that develops between the bones of the skull and the outer sheet of the dura mater, may be accompanied by osteomyelitis. Due to the fact that the pathogen easily penetrates through the dura mater along the emissary veins, the epidural abscess is often accompanied by a subdural empyema. The main pathogens most common cause of
  3. Abscess
    Abscess (abscessus), abscess, abscess - a limited cavity filled with pus, formed as a result of focal purulent fusion of tissues. Etiology. The cause of abscesses is the penetration of microorganisms into the tissue when the skin and mucous membrane is damaged and when foreign bodies get into the tissues. They can also be made with therapeutic manipulations (injections, subcutaneous infusions) produced
  4. Abscess
    Physical blockage An abscess is a collection of pus in one place. There are hot and cold abscesses. With a hot abscess (it is much more common), the pus accumulates very quickly and all four signs of inflammation appear: swelling, redness, fever and pain. A cold abscess is characterized by a slow accumulation of fluid in one place without signs of inflammation. Emotional
    An abscess is a limited inflammation in the tissues or organs, characterized by the accumulation of pus in the newly formed cavity under the dense membrane. An abscess occurs most often after any mechanical damage to the skin (for example, due to a splinter), through which pyogenic microbes penetrate under the skin (staphylococci, streptococci, blue pus, fungus cryptococci, etc.), causing
  6. Zagothy abscess
    Clinical picture. The pharyngeal abscess is a purulent fusion of the lymph nodes and loose tissue of the swallowed space. Particularly common in debilitated children under the age of 2-3 years, rarely in adults. In childhood, it usually occurs after infectious diseases, acute respiratory viral infections, measles, scarlet fever. In adults, pharyngeal abscesses.
  7. Laryngeal abscess
    Laryngeal abscess may be the final stage of phlegmonous laryngitis, but more often it is caused by trauma to the body (fish bone, etc.). An abscess occurs predominantly on the lingual surface of the epiglottis or in the region of one of the cuspid cartilages, usually developing gradually against the background of the general inflammatory response of the body. Complaints come down to pain when swallowing. 2-3 days after injury
    Clinic. Brain abscess - a limited abscess in the brain tissue - intracerebral, or epidural, subdural. It is called streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, etc. Pathogenetically, contact (otogenic), metastatic (pneumonia, lung abscess), bronchiectasis abscesses and abscesses that occur during open cranial brain injuries,
  9. Paratonsillary abscess (paratonsillitis)
    This disease is also called phlegmonous sore throat. Paratonsillar fiber is located between the tonsil capsule and pharyngeal fascia, the distance between which is normally 0.5–1 cm, and parapharyngeal cellulose behind the pharyngeal fascia, lateral. These spaces are made of fiber, the inflammation of which, and in the final stage, and abscess formation determines the clinic.
  10. Pelvic abscess
    Pelvic abscess is a congested accumulation of pus in the vesicular-uterine or rectus-uterine space. Such abscesses can form during inflammatory saccular masses in the appendages, as well as in the postoperative period. At the same time, the resulting adhesions delimit the accumulation of pus from the free sections of the abdominal cavity. Initially formed inflammatory
    Lung abscess is a pathological process characterized by the formation of a limited cavity in the lung tissue as a result of its necrosis and purulent fusion. Main pathogens The development of lung abscess is associated primarily with anaerobic flora - Bacteroides spp., F. nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus spp., P. niger - often in combination with enterobacteria (due to aspiration of the contents
    Brain abscess - a cluster of brain debris, leukocytes, pus and bacteria, limited by the capsule. The main pathogens Etiological cause of brain abscess can be bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths. Of the bacterial pathogens, the most common are green streptococci (S.anginosus, S.constellatus and S.intermedius), which are found in 70% of cases. AT
  13. Zakoplotny and paratonzillary abscesses
    The zakletochny abscess develops as a result of purulent lesions of the deep pharyngeal lymph nodes and loose tissue located in the zaklepharyngeal space. These lymph nodes are regional for the posterior nasal cavity, the paranasal sinuses, the auditory tube, the middle ear, the nasal pharynx, and the tonsils. A zaplottic abscess may be observed in newborns, but
  14. Paratonsillar abscess
    The clinical picture Arises as a further development of paratonzillitis due to the purulent melting of paratonsillar infiltrate. May be complicated by bleeding, the development of mediasthenitis and tonsillogenic sepsis. Sore throat worse when swallowing and opening the mouth. Eating is difficult. Body temperature rises sharply. Maxillary lymph nodes increase, become
  15. Causes of brain abscess
    Brain abscess is a local pus accumulation located in the brain tissue. Typically, brain abscess occurs as a secondary disease, subject to the presence of an infectious focus located outside the central nervous system. The penetration of the infectious agent into the brain is mandatory. At the same time there can be not one, but several abscesses.
  16. Abscesses and cellulitis
    Tim Hackett, DVM, MS 1. What is the difference between an abscess and a cellulite? Abscess is a limited collection of pus and decay products, surrounded by dense granulation tissue. Cellulite is a diffuse inflammation of soft tissues, while the infection process spreads over fascial surfaces in the subcutaneous tissue. 2. Why do cats more often have subcutaneous abscesses than
  17. Abscesses of the brain. Surgery
    Abscess of the brain - a limited accumulation of pus in the substance of the brain. Most often abscesses are intracerebral, less often - epidural or subdural. Etiology and pathogenesis. The cause of brain abscess is the spread of infection caused by streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, meningococci. Often found E. coli, Proteus, mixed flora. Paths
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