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Epilepsy prescribed in a single line in the table of contents of any textbook on diseases of the nervous system is a diverse pathological state of clinical manifestations, manifested by sudden and unpredictable motor, sensory, autonomic and mental disorders, most often with partial or complete loss of consciousness. The clinical manifestations of the disease causes a spontaneous synchronized electrical discharge of neurons in the brain. The basis of the generalization of these impulses is based on diverse pathogenetic mechanisms - from structural to metabolic disorders in the substance of the brain. Like any seizure of cerebral origin, an epileptic seizure has a tremendous psychological effect on others, even medical personnel. Apparently, this can be explained by the phenomenological similarity of manifestations of epilepsy with convulsions during agony. Epileptic seizures can pose a significant threat to life. Death during a seizure may occur with accompanying autonomic disorders (3.2% of patients) or as a result of an accident, injury or drowning. Trauma is the most common consequence of an epileptic seizure and is observed in 30%, and drowning in 19% of cases.

It was morphologically established that during epilepsy in the hippocampus there is a proliferation of glial tissue (mesial sclerosis), pathological inclusions and atrophies are possible in other brain tissues. As a result of biochemical studies revealed the role of biologically active compounds of glutamate and aspartate, precursors of gamma-aminobutyric acid, and dysfunction of ion channels of cell membranes, when sodium ions are injected into the cell in excess amount, which leads to edema, swelling, and then to its death .

Treatment of epilepsy can be started only after an accurate diagnosis has been established. The terms “pre-epilepsy” and “prophylactic treatment of epilepsy” are absurd. According to most experts, the treatment of epilepsy should begin after a second attack.

A single paroxysm can be accidental, caused by fever, overheating, intoxication, metabolic disorders and does not apply to epilepsy. In this case, the immediate appointment of anticonvulsants is unjustified, since these drugs are potentially highly toxic and are not used for the purpose of “prevention”. The prescription of antiepileptic therapy after the first attack is possible if there are a combination of the following signs: focal neurological symptoms, decreased intelligence, epilepsy in relatives, clear epileptic patterns on EEG.

Geneticists are most interested in idiopathic generalized epilepsy. When they never reveal metabolic or structural disorders.
Apparently, idiopathic generalized epilepsy has a genetic basis. From a genetic point of view, epilepsy can be subdivided into monogenic diseases, hereditary diseases and diseases, in whose etiology a significant role is played, possibly, by hereditary factors, consequences of injuries, and brain ischemia (in these cases, hereditary factors cannot be excluded).

Formal genetic approaches reveal 5 monogenically inherited forms among idiopathic generalized epilepsy: benign familial convulsions of the newborn, generalized epilepsy with febrile convulsions, frontal epilepsy with nocturnal paroxysms, partial epilepsy with hearing impairment, benign familial infantile convulsions. Although each of these diseases is rare, their study is of great importance for understanding the nature of epilepsy. With monogenic forms, positional mapping technology is extremely effective. In most cases, you can set the genes, the mutation in which leads to the occurrence of the disease.

Also known metabolic diseases and systemic anomalies of histogenesis, inherited according to Mendelian law. The leading clinical syndrome is epileptic seizures.

However, most forms of epilepsy are not monogenic. In juvenile myoclonic, pediatric absans and rolandic epilepsy, inheritance is more complex. Generally, idiopathic generalized epilepsy is characterized by familial accumulation, which suggests a significant role for genetic factors. Genetic analysis allows making a choice in favor of the multifactorial nature of the disease (a combination of genetic and environmental factors). In this regard, in cases where the classical Mendelian inheritance is not observed, it is often considered that there is a complex inheritance, without describing the model of inheritance.

The pedigree of patients with epilepsy is often saturated with close, phenotypically similar, but not identical conditions. This indicates the instability of the functional state of the brain, which allows some authors to conclude that there is a genetic predisposition responsible for a particular state of the brain - “paroxysmal brain” (according to A. M. Wein).

Idiopathic forms of epilepsy generally relate to benign forms. However, in some cases, the attacks are resistant to basic anticonvulsants. The treatment is not effective enough in such forms as juvenile absans epilepsy, epilepsy with myoclonic absans, epilepsy with myoclonic-astatic seizures (the latter two forms are often referred to as cryptogenic generalized epilepsy).
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  1. Epilepsy classification
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    Epilepsy is a chronic disease that manifests itself with repeated, convulsive or other seizures, loss of consciousness and is accompanied by personality changes. Epilepsy is primary and secondary. There is also epileptic syndrome, which has similarities with
    Epilepsy is a chronic disease caused by a lesion of the brain, manifested by repeated convulsive or other (non-convulsive) seizures and accompanied by various personality changes and a decrease in cognitive functions. ICD-10: G40 Epilepsy; G41 Status epilepticus. Abbreviations: AEP - anti-epileptic drug. EPIDEMIOLOGY The prevalence of epilepsy in the general population
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    Epilepsy is a disease characterized by convulsive seizures with a disorder of consciousness and peculiar mental disorders. Epilepsy as a complex disease has been known for a long time. Back in the 5th c. BC. Hippocrates described the clinic of convulsive states. He noted that in some patients convulsions occurred on the background of an injury or other painful condition, in others
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    Physical blocking Epilepsy is a chronic disease of the brain, characterized by more or less frequent seizures of seizures, general or local, proceeding in a specific pattern. Seizures occur unexpectedly and, as a rule, do not last long. According to the characteristics of seizures and the course of epilepsy, its numerous forms are distinguished. Emotional blockage. Man suffering from
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  11. Principles of treatment of patients with epilepsy
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