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Neurosis means a group of functional neuropsychiatric disorders, including emotionally affective and somatovegetative disorders caused by psychogenic factors leading to pathology of the main nervous processes in the brain (without visible pathomorphological changes and changes in metabolic processes in the body).

According to I.P. Pavlov, the development of neurosis is based on a breakdown of higher nervous activity due to overstrain of an irritant or inhibitory process, as well as a violation of their mobility. Regarding the strength, balance and mobility of cortical processes, IP Pavlov identifies four main types of the nervous system: 1) strong, balanced, mobile;

2) strong, balanced, inert; 3) strong, unbalanced and 4) weak.

Neuroses more often develop in individuals with an unbalanced or weak type of nervous system. Of great importance in the predisposition to neurosis is the inertia of the nervous processes. In the development of a particular type of neurosis in humans, the predominance of the first or second signaling system is essential. Thus, persons of an artistic type, in whom the first signal system predominates, are prone to the development of hysterical neurosis, people of a mental type, with a predominance of the second signal system, are prone to the development of a neurosis of obsessive states, and persons with a balance of both signal systems are prone to neurasthenia.

The leading etiological factor in neurosis is acute or chronic mental trauma. Overexertion of the irritating process is caused by various difficult experiences, grief as a result of microsocial conflicts, difficult life situations, dangers, and frightening moments. Along with acute conflicts, the reason for the development of neurosis is often long experiences associated with adverse personal life conditions that traumatize the psyche of patients, which leads the cortical nerve cells to a state of beyond braking.

Neurosis does not always occur immediately after exposure to a traumatic stimulus, they can develop some time after its exposure.

Overstrain of the inhibitory process is caused by the need for a long time to restrain oneself, not to show one’s thoughts, feelings, desires.
Neurosis due to overstrain of the inhibitory process develops more often in representatives of an unbalanced type, in whom the inhibitory process is generally weakened. In many cases, only the motor component of the behavioral reaction is inhibited, and its vegetative component is preserved, as a result of which foci of stagnant excitation can form in the nervous system.

An overstrain of the mobility of nervous processes can occur with a quick and frequent change of irritant and inhibitory processes. Overstrain of the mobility of nervous processes is the cause of the development of neurosis most often in a representative inert type of the nervous system.

An important factor in the development of neurosis is the premorbid personality traits and educational conditions: according to O. V. Kerbinov, the neurasthenic-hypersthenic type is more often formed in conditions of neglect; neurasthenic-hyposthenic type - in conditions of oppression; suffering from hysteria - in conditions of excessive attention of loved ones, etc.

In addition to neurosises as independent functional diseases of the nervous system caused by psychic traumas, there are neurosis-like states in various somatic diseases: tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, hypertension, diseases of the endocrine glands, organic diseases of the nervous system, head injuries, etc.

Among the neuroses, the most common neurasthenia, hysteria, neurosis of obsessive states, motor neurosis.
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