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FUNCTIONAL DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM (NEUROSIS)
Neurosis means a group of functional neuropsychiatric disorders, including emotionally affective and somatovegetative disorders caused by psychogenic factors leading to pathology of the main nervous processes in the brain (without visible pathomorphological changes and changes in metabolic processes in the body).
According to I.P. Pavlov, the development of neurosis is based on a breakdown of higher nervous activity due to overstrain of an irritant or inhibitory process, as well as a violation of their mobility. Regarding the strength, balance and mobility of cortical processes, IP Pavlov identifies four main types of the nervous system: 1) strong, balanced, mobile;
2) strong, balanced, inert; 3) strong, unbalanced and 4) weak.
Neuroses more often develop in people with an unbalanced or weak type of nervous system. Of great importance in the predisposition to neurosis is the inertia of the nervous processes. In the development of a particular type of neurosis in humans, the predominance of the first or second signaling system is essential. Thus, persons of an artistic type, in whom the first signal system predominates, are prone to the development of hysterical neurosis, persons of a mental type, with a predominance of the second signal system, are prone to the development of a neurosis of obsessive states, and persons with a balance of both signal systems are prone to neurasthenia.
The leading etiological factor in neurosis is acute or chronic mental trauma. Overexertion of the irritating process is caused by various difficult experiences, grief as a result of microsocial conflicts, difficult life situations, dangers, and frightening moments. Along with acute conflicts, the reason for the development of neurosis is often long experiences associated with adverse personal conditions that traumatize the psyche of patients, which leads the nerve cells of the cortex to a state of beyond braking.
Neurosis does not always occur immediately after exposure to a traumatic stimulus; they can develop some time after its exposure.
Overstrain of the inhibitory process is caused by the need to restrain oneself for a long time, not to show one’s thoughts, feelings, desires.
Neurosis due to overstrain of the inhibitory process develops more often in representatives of an unbalanced type, in whom the inhibitory process is generally weakened. In many cases, only the motor component of the behavioral reaction is inhibited, and its vegetative component is preserved, as a result of which foci of stagnant excitation can form in the nervous system.
Overstrain of the mobility of nervous processes can occur with a quick and frequent change of irritant and inhibitory processes. Overstrain of the mobility of nervous processes is the cause of the development of neurosis most often in a representative inert type of the nervous system.
An important factor in the development of neurosis is the premorbid personality traits and educational conditions: according to OV Kerbinov, the neurasthenic-hypersthenic type is more often formed in conditions of neglect; neurasthenic-hyposthenic type - in conditions of oppression; suffering from hysteria - in conditions of excessive attention of loved ones, etc.
In addition to neurosises as independent functional diseases of the nervous system caused by psychic traumas, there are neurosis-like conditions in various somatic diseases: tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, hypertension, diseases of the endocrine glands, organic diseases of the nervous system, head injuries, etc.
Among the neuroses, the most common neurasthenia, hysteria, neurosis of obsessive states, motor neurosis.
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FUNCTIONAL DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM (NEUROSIS)
- Causes of nervous diseases and the main forms of disorders of the nervous system
The external environment interacts closely with the human body. Various adverse changes in external conditions, in particular climatic, the influence of various biological factors, for example pathological agents, can adversely affect the human body and its nervous system. The nature of food, housing conditions, etc. are also important. In some cases, as reasons
- FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY NERVOUS
- Functional disorders resulting from damage to the central nervous system
Functional disorders arising from a central nervous system lesion
- Demilienizing diseases of the nervous system. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinical forms of diseases
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- Diseases of the nervous system. Diseases accompanied by an increase in intracranial pressure. Cerebrovascular disease. Cerebral infarction. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. Infectious lesions of the central nervous system. Alzheimer's disease. Multiple sclerosis.
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- Phytotherapy of diseases of the nervous system
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- Diseases of the autonomic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system is represented in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamic region, brain stem, spinal cord; there are also peripheral parts of the autonomic system. The presence of a pathological process in any of these structures, as well as a functional violation of the connection between them, can lead to the appearance of vegetative
- Vascular diseases of the nervous system
Vascular diseases of the nervous system are one of the most common causes of mortality and disability. Features of the blood supply to the brain. The activity of the brain is associated with high energy consumption. However, nerve tissue has limited energy resources. In this regard, consistently high perfusion of the brain is an indispensable condition for its functional activity and
- Infectious diseases of the nervous system
Infectious diseases of the nervous system are quite common. They are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa. Neurological disorders can develop as a result of direct penetration of the pathogen into the nervous system (neuroinfection). Sometimes they develop against the background of other diseases. The selectivity of brain damage in neuroinfection is due to the so-called
- Hereditary diseases of the nervous system
Hereditary diseases of the nervous system is a large heterogeneous group of diseases, which are based on genetically caused damage to the peripheral nerves, spinal cord, and skeletal muscles. Classification I. Hereditary metabolic diseases occurring with damage to the nervous system. 1. Inherited disorders of amino acid metabolism:
- Metabolic diseases of the central nervous system
Many metabolic diseases are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, and some of them in an X-linked, recessive manner (see chapter 8). Hereditary metabolic defects disrupt the metabolism of many substances: lipids, carbohydrates, glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides), amino acids and trace elements. In some metabolic diseases, pathological changes begin with
- Damage to the nervous system in somatic diseases
Damage to the nervous system in somatic diseases (somatoneurology) An important area of neurology is integration with other clinical disciplines, which led to the isolation of a new section in medicine - somatoneurology. This section describes lesions of the nervous system in various somatic diseases. Knowledge of this pathology is important for doctors of any specialty. In XIX
- Infectious diseases of the nervous system
The group of students to be transferred to special schools in most cases includes children who have undergone meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and other forms of neuroinfection. In some cases, there are children with some form of damage to the nervous system as a result of syphilis, tuberculosis, as well as rheumatism. The causative agents of diseases are various types of microbes and
- DISEASES OF THE VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Diseases of the autonomic nervous system can be caused by damage to its various departments, ranging from peripheral autonomic nerve fibers to the cerebral cortex. For diseases of the autonomic nervous system, it is characteristic that most of them are caused not by loss of function, but by irritation and increased excitability of certain departments. Migraine. This disease
- Diseases of the nervous system
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- Degenerative diseases of the central nervous system.
Degenerative diseases of the central nervous system is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by a progressive loss of neurons with secondary changes in white matter and a concomitant glial-proliferative reaction. Most neurodegenerative diseases occur in the 5-6th decades of life and at a later age. Macroscopically determined atrophy of certain
- Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system.
Demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system are characterized by the predominant destruction of the myelin (Schwann) membrane with the relative preservation of the axon. Schwann cells form the Schwann membrane, or neurolemma, surrounding the axons and dendrites of the peripheral nervous system, cell bodies in the sensory ganglia and nerve fibers in the white matter of the central nervous system