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Infectious diseases of the nervous system

The group of students to be transferred to special schools in most cases includes children who have undergone meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and other forms of neuroinfection. In some cases, there are children with some form of damage to the nervous system as a result of syphilis, tuberculosis, and rheumatism.

The causative agents of the disease are various types of microbes and viruses, mainly affecting the nervous system and combined in a clinic under the general name of neuroinfections. In some cases, the nervous system may also suffer secondarily as a result of exposure to a number of common infections.

The transfer of these diseases by a child is often accompanied by the defeat of various neuropsychic functions - vision, hearing, speech, intelligence, which sometimes acquire a persistent character, which impedes the education of such children in ordinary schools.

Features of the pathological symptoms that developed as a result of the disease depend on a number of conditions: the intensity of the pathogen, the nature of the localization of the disease process, the severity of the protective properties of the body, etc. It is very important in this sense

the age of the child in which he suffered a brain disease. Thus, observations show that for the early forms a more severe picture of residual phenomena is characteristic, especially the underdevelopment of mental functions. In later forms, the disease can sometimes be relatively easy; in this case, positive shifts occur faster due to the compensatory capabilities of the brain.

We turn to the description of individual forms of diseases.

Meningitis

Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges. The disease is caused by various bacterial forms, but most often by a group of cocci (meningococci, streptococci, pneumococci). One of the most common forms of meningitis is cerebrospinal meningitis, caused by a special group of meningococci. This disease often spreads in the form of epidemic outbreaks in winter and spring.

The reservoir and source of meningococcal infection is an infected person. In the environment under the influence of sunlight and temperature, pathogens (meningococci) quickly die. On the mucous membrane of the nose of healthy children, they can be quite a long time, and this determines the so-called bacillus carriage.

Infection can spread if the carrier’s nasal mucus gets on the skin or mucous membranes of other children in contact (during the game, with kisses, through a common towel, handkerchief and other objects used by the carrier).

The acute picture of the disease is quite characteristic. Usually, the disease begins with a high fever, accompanied by vomiting, a rash on the skin, severe bouts of headache, and sometimes an unconscious state. Characteristic signs of the disease are the patient’s postures: a head tilted back due to pathological tension of the occipital muscles (neck stiffness), legs bent to the stomach, legs bent at the knee joints (Kernig symptom), increased skin sensitivity (hyperesthesia), photophobia (Fig. 70).

The duration of the acute period, with the exception of fulminant and protracted forms, usually 1 to 2 weeks, after which

Fig. 70.

A child with meningitis



recovery or death may occur. In the past, mortality from meningitis ranged from 25 to 50%. In connection with the use of antibiotics and sulfa drugs, the duration of the course of the disease was reduced and mortality was sharply reduced. The picture of residual (residual) phenomena is now expressed to a lighter degree.

Meningitis is characterized by the development of various complications that can occur during the acute course of the disease or come to light after the disease as residual effects. So, against the background of the disease itself, convulsive attacks may occur in children, indicating an interest in the process of the substance of the brain itself. The inflammatory process can go from the membranes of the brain to the peripheral nerves - auditory and visual, less often abducent and trigeminal, creating a certain clinical picture. Very early, at the height of acute symptoms, a hydrocephalic syndrome develops, which subsequently persists to varying degrees, depending on the age of the patient and the severity of the disease.

After cerebrospinal meningitis in recent years, a decrease in intelligence has been relatively less frequent; more often, disorders of the emotional-volitional sphere and character occur. In cases of early-stage meningitis, intellectual failure still occurs due to the fact that the inflammatory process delays brain development. Severe changes observed also from the side of the emotional sphere and character are expressed by increased excitability, impulsiveness (tendency to affect), sometimes acquiring the nature of psychopathic behavior. These features are especially severely manifested in cases of development of dropsy of the brain (hydrocephalus) as one of the severe outcomes of early meningitis.

A disorder of higher nervous activity after meningitis, transferred at a later age, can also be characterized by a number of pathological features. However, in these cases they are less pronounced. This applies to intellectual disorders that are temporary in nature and often pass as a kind of asthenia: children become very distracted, complain of headaches, quickly become exhausted, and memory is often weakened.

Meningitis can also occur as a result of a purulent process in the ear (otogenic meningitis). There are also such forms as tuberculosis and syphilitic meningitis. In some cases, with meningitis, the inflammatory process is not limited to the meninges, but spreads to the brain substance, which also undergoes various pathological disorders (meningoencephalitis).

A significant part of children with the consequences of meningitis in the form of hearing and visual impairment is subject to training in special schools (for deaf, hard of hearing, blind, visually impaired). An insignificant part of them falls into the auxiliary school, and, finally, a number of children with temporary and slight intellectual impairments are held at relevant events in the mass school.

One of the causative agents of meningitis can be the virus of mumps (mumps). The disease can occur against a background of severe inflammation of the parotid glands, but it can also occur with a slight local inflammation. The age of the sick is 5-10 years, boys are more often sick. The disease is acute, with all meningeal symptoms. Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid reveals its significant watering (a decrease in the number of shaped elements), the fluid is clear, flows under high pressure. After 2-3 weeks, the symptoms are smoothed out, but hypertension syndrome and asthenic condition that require treatment are maintained.

Various infectious diseases leave a mark in the state of the nervous system. Various complications are possible, the severity of which depends on the time of exposure to a growing organism (intrauterine disease or illness after birth) of the etiological factor

(causative agent of the disease), timeliness of diagnosis and compliance of therapeutic measures.

In the clinic of neurological diseases, microcephaly and hydrocephalus, intellectual deficiency (oligophrenia), visual, hearing, speech, motor, and other psychopathological disorders are described as consequences of the diseases.

Microcephaly. Usually, severe forms of oligophrenia are observed with microcephaly. A characteristic feature is the small size of the skull (Fig. 71) and the brain, especially the large hemispheres. The brain weight is very small - 200 - 400 g. A simplified drawing of furrows and convolutions is noted. A histological examination revealed an incorrect arrangement of cells in the layers of the cortex, insufficiency of their number, and poverty of fibers. On the part of physical development, dysplastic physique, growth lag behind average age norms are observed. A gait is characteristic - patients walk bent forward. Microcephalic children are mobile, but this mobility is defective, there are many unnecessary inappropriate movements, and there is no stability. General hypotension, loose joints. On the part of the psyche, severe dementia is noted, more often in the form of imbecility or profound debility. By nature, these children are cheerful and good-natured. Speech is usually underdeveloped. In recent years, secondary schools have been trying to educate some microcephals (with a less pronounced form of mental underdevelopment) in special classes for imbeciles.

Oligophrenia of an infectious origin. These forms of oligophrenia are most common. The reason in this case is the transfer by the child in utero or after the birth of neuroinfections. This form of oligophrenia is often accompanied by impaired motor skills and sharp negative changes from the side.

Fig. 71.

Oligofren-microcephalus



emotional sphere, which, apparently, is associated with the defeat of the subcortical nodes. Moreover, in some cases, characteristic is the presence of syndromes of increased excitability, motor disinhibition, pronounced lower drives, a tendency to affects. In others - there is a general inhibition, lethargy (torpid forms). In milder cases, especially when there is no pronounced picture of the inflammatory process, and the adverse effect of the infection is reduced mainly to mild intoxication, this symptomatology manifests itself to a more moderate degree.

The nature of the causative agents of infectious diseases that cause inflammatory and toxic lesions of the nervous system such as encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, encephalomyelitis, on the basis of which the failure of higher nervous activity develops, can be very different.

Cases of oligophrenia as a result of a child’s disease with toxoplasmosis are described. This protozoal infection causes damage to the nervous system such as encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, which is accompanied by a subsequent delay in mental development, damage to the retina, leading to blindness.

Hydrocephalus. The essence of this disease is a pathological increase in the volume of cerebral fluid in the cerebral ventricles or in the subshell spaces of the brain.

Dropsy of the brain often occurs after inflammatory or toxic processes affecting the brain and its membranes during fetal development or in early childhood. The most common causes are meningitis, syphilis. Recently, the role of natural injuries has been emphasized. These hazards cause irritation of the vascular plexuses in the ventricles of the brain producing cerebral fluid, resulting in an increase in its amount. However, outflow of fluid is difficult due to the closure of interventricular communications or cerebrospinal fluid devices as a result of inflammation. Thus, the fluid accumulates in a confined space and, having no outlet, begins to exert pressure on the brain, which in turn transfers this pressure to the bones of the skull. In a small child, cranial sutures have not yet completely ossified, and pressure from the side of the brain mass causes them to diverge, and therefore the volume of the skull increases sharply (Fig. 72). Liquid accumulation

Fig. 72.

Hydrocephalus



ty, violation of its normal circulation have a pathological effect on the activity of brain cells.

Signs of hydrocephalus are expressed in progressive enlargement of the skull and peculiar neuropsychic changes.

In the nervous system, a number of pathological symptoms are usually observed from the cranial nerves. So, a decrease in visual acuity and hearing can be noted in connection with damage to the auditory and optic nerves, paresis and paralysis may develop. Peculiar changes in the psyche. Such children imitate adults well and give the impression of being very developed. Some selectively develop musical or artistic abilities. Peculiar features are observed from the side of speech - a special way of talking, accompanying your speech with rhyming, witticisms, jokes.

In some cases, hydrocephalus is not clearly expressed, then they talk about hydrocephalic syndrome, which can be observed not only after a neuroinfection, but also due to the traumatic process (birth traumatic brain injury). In these cases, when examining children, there is a slight increase in the size of the skull, a developed vasculature under the scalp, indicating stagnation in the vessels of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid system. In neurological status, diffuse neurological symptoms in general and articulatory motility are detected. Children complain of headaches during the training period, dizziness, increased fatigue and exhaustion. Some Children with hydrocephalic syndrome become restless, restless.
The instability of active attention is noted, its exhaustion, memory takes on a mechanical character. Logical thinking is not enough, which makes learning in the school curriculum difficult. Some children after mental stress become lethargic, inactive, which also makes learning difficult. All children need treatment and special training, depending on the difficulties identified.

Impaired mental function. Along with oligophrenic children who have some degree of underdevelopment of the cerebral cortex after organic lesions of the central nervous system, in school practice there are children who are lagging behind in development and have low academic performance. Sometimes they are mixed with genuine oligophrenics and sent to auxiliary schools. This, of course, is a gross medical and pedagogical mistake. The observations of teachers and doctors showed that sometimes, being accepted into an auxiliary school, such children at different times equalize the pace of their development and are in no way suitable for the main contingent of students in auxiliary schools. Clinical and pedagogical study of such children, mistakenly accepted in auxiliary schools, revealed that they suffer only from a temporary delay in mental development for various reasons. These children more often did not suffer brain diseases or suffered them to a very mild degree (for example, mild traumatic brain injuries, intoxications, etc.). A survey of the composition of students in secondary schools allowed us to identify the following various forms of temporary developmental delay.

1. Asthenic children with the consequences of traumatic or toxic lesions of the central nervous system, proceeding in a mild form. Usually this group includes children who have a brain disease (trauma, intoxication of the central nervous system), due to the weak severity of the effect did not cause significant disturbances in the structural elements of the cortex (which is typical for severe forms of encephalitis and craniocerebral trauma, giving a typical oligophrenic syndrome). However, neuro-dynamics, i.e. physiological processes in the cerebral cortex, to some extent, was disturbed. Studies have shown that there is an imbalance between the nervous processes, a change in mobility (lability and inertness) in their course. Hence the formation of conditioned reflex activity differs in some specific features (for example, the rapid fading of the developed stereotypes). These changes in neurodynamics, of course, are reflected in the psyche. Typically, these children are characterized by rapid fatigue in the classroom, weak, dwindling attention, decreased memory, and slow thinking. There are also shifts in character and in the emotional-volitional sphere in the form of unstable behavior, motor disinhibition, or, conversely, some motor lethargy, unbalanced mood, a tendency to whims, tearfulness, etc. All these features undoubtedly affect the performance of children in the first years of schooling, and children usually fall into the number of chronically poor students, and with insufficiently deep medical examination they can fall into the number of oligophrenics and be transferred to auxiliary schools.

The indicated forms of temporary delays in mental development were studied at the Research Institute of Defectology of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the RSFSR (A.R. Luria, S.S. Lyapidevsky, E.D. Khomskaya, L.A. Novikova, V.I. Lubovsky, N.F. Kuzmina-Syromyatnikova). Clinical and physiological studies have made it possible to distinguish two groups among the mass of such children, often mistakenly transferred to an auxiliary school.

Some students are attracted by the great instability of emotional tone, inconsistency of interests, inability to concentrate on work, memory lapses, rapid depletion of intellectual tone. They have an irritable weakness of the excitation process with obvious insufficiency of cortical active inhibition. They are edgy, restless, and in the classroom they are extremely quickly distracted by sometimes the most insignificant stimuli. Long-term intellectual stress for them is inaccessible. They are quickly depleted and require new, additional stimuli; stereotypes are extremely difficult for them to develop. Often they completely turn off work or try to slide on the surface, not giving themselves the trouble to delve into the essence of the assignment and take seriously the assigned work. At the same time, some of them have a large stock of information that they draw from books that have been read (also read superficially), from films watched, from adult conversations, etc.

Pupils of the second group are characterized by slightly different characteristics. In the past, these were very inhibited, lethargic, lethargic children with very low academic performance. Positive changes in their development are expressed in the fact that they are gradually freed from their inhibition caused by the inertness of nervous processes, are active in work, and begin to show a lively interest in classes.

However, they still have a number of shortcomings, which they also carefully overcome, although this requires the active participation of the teacher. Эти недостатки в основном сводятся к тому, что темп мышления таких детей все же еще замедлен, они способны правильно решать трудные задания, но делают это не сразу, а иногда при помощи небольшого намека, подсказки учителя. Речевые возможности у детей этой группы иногда также несколько ограничены. Некоторые ученики из группы с тенденцией к исправлению страдали расстройствами речи различного характера, чаще косноязычием. Они еще не преодолели некоторого смущения, неуверенности, особенно в условиях новой ситуации. Своеобразная астенизация личности как результат когда-то перенесенной болезни и ряд пережитых трудностей в процессе адаптации к школьной среде еще оставляют некоторый след в их поведении. Несомненно, эти дети находятся в состоянии активного преодоления тех недостатков в их нейропсихическом статусе, которые хотя и развились в результате тех или иных вредных воздействий на центральную нервную систему, однако дали качественно иную структуру нарушений, нехарактерных для стойких форм слабоумия.

Особенности высшей нервной деятельности этих детей, изучаемые Е.Д. Хомской, заметно отличаются от тех данных, которые были получены при исследовании олигофренов. Речевые отчеты этих детей совершенно адекватны. Испытуемые знают, что надо делать на тот или иной сигнал, но не следуют ими самими сформулированному правилу в усложненных условиях эксперимента. Как правило, у них имеет место ослабление основных нервных процессов, особенно внутреннего торможения, широкая иррадиация возбудительного, реже тормозного процесса, нарушение механизмов концентрации нервных процессов, явление застойности, инертности. Простые дифференцировки, реакции на порядковое место раздражителей, а также на последовательные комплексы раздражителей вырабатываются у них довольно быстро, после 2—3 подкреплений.

Исключение составляют тонкие дифференцировки на интенсивность и длительность сигнала, которые требуют большого числа подкреплений. При этом у одних испытуемых вследствие широкой иррадиации и слабости процессов внутреннего активного торможения преимущественно растормаживаются дифференцировки, у других в тех же экспериментальных условиях имеет место преимущественное торможение двигатель-

ных реакции на положительные сигналы, что является результатом слабости возбудительного процесса и нарушения подвижности нервных процессов.

Исследования электрической активности мозга, проведенные у детей с различными формами интеллектуальной неполноценности, в аспекте дифференциальной диагностики (Л.А. Новикова и Н.Н. Зислина) выявили интересные факты. В большинстве случаев данные электроэнцефалограммы соответствовали клиническим наблюдениям при изучении различных форм интеллектуальной отсталости у учащихся вспомогательных школ. Так, были установлены некоторые корреляции при оценке тяжести поражения мозга (диффузные и очаговые формы), характера локализации и пр. Большинство из исследуемых детей-олигофренов давали своеобразный тип альфа-ритма, наличие патологических волн. Ученики с легкими формами интеллектуальной недостаточности, чаще трактуемыми как задержка развития, в основном не давали резко заметных отклонений от нормы.

В других случаях у детей этой группы энцефалограммы показывали наличие в различных областях коры медленных патологических волн большой амплитуды.

Эти потенциалы близки к альфа-ритму, но отражают значительно более низкий уровень функциональной подвижности нейрона и обычно указывают на наличие в коре ярко выраженного торможения.

Клинические и педагогические наблюдения за такими детьми устанавливали вялость психических реакций, быструю утомляемость, моторную недостаточность, что сказывалось и на снижении активности их познавательной деятельности. Все вышесказанное заставляет предполагать, что у ряда таких детей мы имеем дело с общим астеническим состоянием коры головного мозга, приводящим к тому, что при каждом сколько-нибудь заметном напряжении кора легко приходит в состояние запредельного торможения. Это обстоятельство определяет дальнейшую работоспособность таких учеников и накладывает соответствующий отпечаток на все их поведение. В поведении таких детей проявляется то повышенная возбудимость, плаксивость, раздражительность, моторное беспокойство, то пассивность, заторможенность. Во время школьных занятий особенно четко выявляются плохая работоспособность и низкая продуктивность. Они плохо запоминают школьный материал, с трудом заучивают наизусть, затрудняются в устном счете и с трудом решают арифметические задачи. Главным отличием таких детей от олигофренов является то, что их малая психическая активность, выражающаяся прежде всего в сниженной успеваемости, чаще носит временный характер, и постепенно такие дети выравниваются, некоторые из них нормально продолжают обучаться в массовой школе.

2. К детям с астеническими реакциями в результате перенесенных истощающих болезней могут быть отнесены физически ослабленные в результате, например, перенесенных инфекций, которые могли вызвать анемичность, а иногда интоксикации (например, туберкулезной). Клинико-педагогическая характеристика учеников, обычно младших классов, также указывает, что ведущим синдромом в их поведении является быстро наступающее истощение нервных процессов, снижение активности, внимания, ослабление памяти. Такие учащиеся могут систематически не успевать и ошибочно приниматься за умственно отсталых.

3. Своеобразные формы астенических реакций можно наблюдать у детей с аномалиями уха, горла, носа. Здесь особенно следует указать на больных, имеющих резко выраженные аденоиды, полипы в носу, а также различные формы тугоухости. Первые два нарушения отражаются на функции дыхания, что может вызывать головные боли, общую вялость, раздражительность, плохую память. Иногда типична и внешность таких детей — открытый рот, бледная окраска кожи лица, иногда речь с носовым оттенком, растерянное выражение лица. Своеобразные особенности невротических реакций у тугоухих детей были описаны выше. Обычно эти дети плохо успевали. Неправильное понимание причин этой неуспеваемости приводило к тому, что они смешивались с умственно отсталыми и, вместо того чтобы учиться в школе для слабослышащих, направлялись во вспомогательные школы.

4. Дети с речевой недостаточностью — некоторые группы алаликов, детей с фонетико-фонематическим недоразвитием (дизартрией), заикающиеся — на ранних этапах школьного обучения обычно отличаются неуспеваемостью. Поскольку между мышлением и речью существует тесная связь, дети, страдающие речевой недостаточностью, иногда могут задерживаться в своем психическом развитии. Следствием этого является неуспеваемость в школе. Некоторые

яз них тяжело переживают трудности обучения, иногда неправильное отношение к ним педагога и детского коллектива (насмешки, недовольства педагога и родителей). Все это является травматизирующими факторами, вызывает астенизацию личности.

После соответствующих занятий с логопедом такие дети могут заметно выправиться и догнать своих сверстников в условиях массовой школы.

Учебный процесс во вспомогательных школах проводится по специальной программе. Большое значение имеет ряд специальных приемов и методов, которые применяют педагоги-дефектологи, помогающие ребенку со сниженным интеллектом освоить необходимый учебный материал. Исключительно важное значение приобретают специальные занятия по развитию речи, осуществляемые специалистом-логопедом.

В настоящее время придается большое значение выявлению и лечению последствий перенесенных инфекций, интоксикаций, травм черепа с целью профилактики астено-невротических состояний и интеллектуальной недостаточности. В связи с этим организованы диспансерные обследования детей всеми специалистами и, по мере необходимости, медико-педагогическая коррекция в стационарных условиях или дошкольных учреждениях специализированного профиля. Знание последствий перенесенных в раннем возрасте различных заболеваний или травм черепа предполагает проведение обязательных профилактических мероприятий, предлагаемых невропатологией, специальной педагогикой и психологией.
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Infectious diseases of the nervous system

  1. Infectious diseases of the nervous system
    Infectious diseases of the nervous system are quite common. They are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa. Neurological disorders can develop as a result of direct penetration of the pathogen into the nervous system (neuroinfection). Sometimes they develop against the background of other diseases. The selectivity of brain damage in neuroinfections is due to the so-called
  2. Infectious diseases of the nervous system
    Leading syndromes for infectious diseases of the nervous system The leading syndromes for infectious diseases of the nervous system are hyperthermic syndrome, neurotoxicosis syndrome. Neurotoxicosis Syndrome Emergency care Emergency measures for neurotoxicosis should be aimed at: 1) the elimination of disorders of cellular metabolism; 2) elimination of the phenomena of cerebral edema;
  3. INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    The group of students to be transferred to special schools in most cases includes children who have undergone meningitis, encephalitis, meningoencephalitis and other forms of neuroinfection. In some cases, there are children with some form of damage to the nervous system as a result of syphilis, tuberculosis, and rheumatism. The causative agents of diseases are various types of microbes and
  4. Infectious diseases of the central nervous system.
    The classification of infectious diseases of the central nervous system takes into account the etiology, localization, nature of morphological changes, especially the clinical course of the lesion. By etiology, bacterial, viral, fungal, prion, and parasitic diseases are distinguished; according to the localization of inflammatory changes, meningitis (arachnoiditis, leptomeningitis, pachymeningitis); encephalitis; myelitis; encephalomyelitis; meningomyelitis;
  5. Infectious diseases of the nervous system
    Infectious Nervous Disease
  6. Infectious diseases of the central nervous system
    Infectious diseases of the central nervous system
  7. Diseases of the nervous system. Diseases accompanied by an increase in intracranial pressure. Cerebrovascular disease. Cerebral infarction. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. Infectious lesions of the central nervous system. Alzheimer's disease. Multiple sclerosis.
    1. The earliest changes in neurons during blood flow arrest 1. cytolysis 4. microvacuolization 2. tigrolysis 5. wrinkling of neurons 3. hyperchromatosis 2. The most common causes of cerebral infarction 1. stenotic atherosclerosis 2. thromboembolism 3. true polycythemia 4. thrombosis 5. embolism fatty with a fracture of the tubular bones 3. Cerebral edema of the cytotoxic type occurs at 1.
  8. INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    Infectious diseases of the nervous system are quite common. They are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa. Neurological disorders can develop as a result of direct penetration of the pathogen into the nervous system (neuroinfection). Sometimes they develop against the background of other diseases. The selectivity of brain damage in neuroinfections is due to the so-called
  9. Abstract. "Infectious diseases of the nervous system", 2012
    Introduction Infectious diseases of the central nervous system Meningitis Encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, encephalomyelitis, chorea Poliomyelitis Neuritis, polyneuritis Syphilis of the nervous system Tuberculous lesions of the nervous system Neuro AIDS
  10. Causes of nervous diseases and the main forms of disorders of the nervous system
    The external environment interacts closely with the human body. Various adverse changes in external conditions, in particular climatic, the influence of various biological factors, such as pathological agents, can adversely affect the human body and its nervous system. The nature of food, housing conditions, etc. are also important. In some cases, as reasons
  11. Intrauterine infectious lesions of the nervous system
    Regardless of the etiology, infectious fetopathies have a number of characteristic pathomorphological features (H. Essbach [1961 - cited from T.E. Ivanovskaya, 1989]; G.I. Kravtsova, 1996). These include: 1 delay in tissue maturation in combination with or without tissue dysplasia; 2 the special nature of the immune response, manifested by massive extramedullary proliferation of myeloid germ with the presence of
  12. Demilienizing diseases of the nervous system. Etiology, pathogenesis, clinical forms of diseases
    DEMIELINIZING DISEASES. The main pathological manifestation is the selective destruction of the myelin sheath. Myelin: - in the central nervous system - oligodendrocyte - in the PNS - lemmocyte (Schwann cells) The thicker the myelin sheath, the faster the anterior nerve impulse. Demyelinating diseases: - multiple sclerosis - acute multiple disseminated encephalomyelitis - retrobulbar neuritis -
  13. Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system
    The group of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system is the most common and studied among the nephropathies that occur in newborns and young children. The share of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system accounts for most of the nosological forms of nephropathy in childhood. Difficulties in determining the localization of the pathological process, especially in newborns
  14. Hereditary diseases of the nervous system
    Hereditary diseases of the nervous system is a large heterogeneous group of diseases, which are based on genetically determined damage to peripheral nerves, spinal cord, and skeletal muscles. Classification I. Hereditary metabolic diseases occurring with damage to the nervous system. 1. Inherited disorders of amino acid metabolism:
  15. Classification of demyelinating diseases of the nervous system
    I Demyelinating diseases with a primary lesion of the central nervous system. 1. Acute forms. • Primary (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; clinical forms - encephalomyelopoliradiculoneuritis, opticoencephalomyelitis, opticomyelitis, polioencephalitis, disseminated myelitis); • Secondary (parainfection - encephalomyelitis with measles, whooping cough, chickenpox,
  16. DISEASES OF THE VEGETATIVE NERVOUS SYSTEM
    Diseases of the autonomic nervous system can be caused by damage to its various departments, ranging from peripheral autonomic nerve fibers to the cerebral cortex. For diseases of the autonomic nervous system, it is characteristic that most of them are caused not by loss of function, but by irritation and increased excitability of certain departments. Migraine. This disease
  17. Diseases of the autonomic nervous system
    The autonomic nervous system is represented in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamic region, brain stem, spinal cord; there are also peripheral parts of the autonomic system. The presence of a pathological process in any of these structures, as well as a functional violation of the connection between them, can lead to the appearance of vegetative
  18. Diseases of the nervous system
    Epilepsy. This disease is often manifested for the first time during pregnancy, the course of which during epilepsy is often complicated by the development of toxicosis and gestosis. Epilepsy worsens the course of the disease, and therefore treatment should be carried out in a hospital. With the correct, individually selected and regular treatment of epilepsy during pregnancy and childbirth, satisfactory
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